1. bookVolumen 27 (2021): Edición 2 (August 2021)
Detalles de la revista
Primera edición
24 Dec 2009
Calendario de la edición
3 veces al año
Acceso abierto

Field evidence suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic Gowganda Formation in Canada is non-glacial in origin

Publicado en línea: 17 Sep 2021
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 27 (2021) - Edición 2 (August 2021)
Páginas: 73 - 91
Recibido: 21 Apr 2021
Aceptado: 14 Jul 2021
Detalles de la revista
Primera edición
24 Dec 2009
Calendario de la edición
3 veces al año

Al-Hashim, M.H. & Corcoran, P.L., 2021. Geochemistry of the Paleoproterozoic Espanola Formation, Bruce Mines-Elliot Lake area, Ontario, Canada: implications for provenance, paleo-weathering, and tectonic setting. Geosciences Journal 25, 125–144.10.1007/s12303-020-0010-2 Search in Google Scholar

Arnaud, E., 2004. Giant cross-beds in the Neoproterozoic Port Askaig Formation, Scotland: Implications for snowball Earth. Sedimentary Geology 165, 155–174.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2003.11.015 Search in Google Scholar

Arnaud, E. & Eyles, C.H., 2004. Glacial influence on Neoproterozoic sedimentation: the Smalfjord Formation, northern Norway – reply. Sedimentology 51, 1423–1430.10.1111/j.1365-3091.2004.00675.x Search in Google Scholar

Aspler, L.B., Chiarenzelli, R.F., Cousens, B.L., McNicoll, V.J. & Davis, W.J., 2002. Erratum to “Paleoproterozoic intracratonic basin processes, from breakup of Kenorland to assembly of Laurentia: Hurwitz Basin, Nunavut, Canada” [Sediment. Geol. 141–142 (2001) 287–318]. Sedimentary Geology 151, 335–336. Search in Google Scholar

Atkins, C.B., 2003. Characteristics of striae and clast shape in glacial and non-glacial environments (Ph.D. thesis). Victoria University of Wellington. Search in Google Scholar

Atkins, C.B., 2004. Photographic atlas of striations from selected glacial and non-glacial environments. Antarctic Data Series 28, Victoria University of Wellington. Search in Google Scholar

Bahlburg, H. & Dobrzinski, N., 2011. A review of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and its application to the study of Neoproterozoic glacial deposits and climate transitions. [In:] Arnaud, E., Halverson, G.P. & Shields-Zhou, G. (Eds): The geological record of Neoproterozoic glaciations. Geological Society London, Memoirs 36, 39–50.10.1144/M36.6 Search in Google Scholar

Beh, B. & Fralick, P., 2013. Depositional processes operating on the Paleoproterozoic Gowganda ice margin. [In:] Blaske, A.R. & Bornhorst, T.J. (Eds): 59th Annual Meeting Institute on Lake Superior Geology, Houghton, Michigan: Proceedings, program and abstracts, pp. 5–6. Search in Google Scholar

Bennett, G., 2006. The Huronian Supergroup between Sault Ste Marie and Elliot Lake. Field Trip Guidebook. vol. 52, part 4. Institute on Lake Superior Geology, Sault Ste Marie, Ontario, 74 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Best, J.L., 1992. Sedimentology and event timing of a catastrophic volcaniclastic mass flow, Volcan Hudson, Southern Chile. Bulletin of Volcanology 54, 299–318.10.1007/BF00301484 Search in Google Scholar

Bielenstein, H.U. & Eisbacher, G.H., 1969. Tectonic interpretation of elastic-strain-recovery measurements at Elliot Lake, Ontario. Department of Energy, Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Report R210.10.4095/306786 Search in Google Scholar

Bose, P.K., Mukhopadhyay, G. & Bhattacharyya, H.N., 1992. Glaciogenic coarse clastics in a Permo-Carboniferous bedrock through in India: A sedimentary model. Sedimentary Geology 76, 79–97.10.1016/0037-0738(92)90140-M Search in Google Scholar

Bristow, T.F., Bonifacie, M., Derkowski, A., Eiler, J.M. & Grotzinger, J.P., 2011. A hydrothermal origin for isotopically anomalous cap dolostone cements from south China. Nature 474, 68–72.10.1038/nature10096 Search in Google Scholar

Capra, L. & Macias, J.L., 2002. The cohesive Naranjo debris-flow deposit (10 km3): A dam breakout flow derived from the Pleistocene debris-avalanche deposit of Nevado de Colima Volcano (México). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 117, 213–235.10.1016/S0377-0273(02)00245-7 Search in Google Scholar

Card, K.D., 1978. Geology of the Sudbury-Manitoulin area. Districts of Sudbury and Manitoulin. Ontario Geological Survey, Report 166. Search in Google Scholar

Cardona, S., Wood, L.J., Dugan, B., Jobe, Z. & Strachan, L.J., 2020. Characterization of the Rapanui mass-transport deposit and the basal shear zone: Mount Messenger Formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. Sedimentology 67, 2111–2148.10.1111/sed.12697 Search in Google Scholar

Carter, R.M., 1975. A discussion and classification of subaqueous mass-transport with particular application to grain-flow, slurry-flow, and fluxoturbidities. Earth-Science Reviews 11, 145–177.10.1016/0012-8252(75)90098-7 Search in Google Scholar

Carto, S.L. & Eyles, N., 2012. Sedimentology of the Neoproterozoic (c. 580 Ma) Squantum ‘Tillite’, Boston Basin, USA: Mass flow deposition in a deep-water arc basin lacking direct glacial influence. Sedimentary Geology 269, 1–14.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2012.03.011 Search in Google Scholar

Coleman, A.P., 1908. The Lower Huronian ice age. Journal of Geology 16, 149–158.10.1086/621504 Search in Google Scholar

Costa, J.E., 1984. Physical geomorphology of debris flows. [In:] Costa, J.E. & Fleisher, P.J. (Eds): Developments and applications of geomorphology. Springer, Berlin, pp. 268–317.10.1007/978-3-642-69759-3_9 Search in Google Scholar

Crowell, J.C., 1964. Climatic significance of sedimentary deposits containing dispersed megaclasts. [In:] Nairn, A.E.M. (Ed.): Problems in palaeoclimatology. Wiley, London, pp. 86–99. Search in Google Scholar

Dakin, N., Pickering, K.T., Mohrig D. & Bayliss, N.J., 2013. Channel-like features created by erosive submarine debris flows: field evidence from the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees. Marine and Petroleum Geology 41, 62–71.10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.07.007 Search in Google Scholar

Dill, R.F., 1964. Sedimentation and erosion in Scripps Submarine Canyon head. [In:] Miller, R.L. (Ed.): Papers in marine geology. Macmillan, New York, pp. 23–41. Search in Google Scholar

Dill, R.F., 1966. Sand flows and sand falls. [In:] Fairbridge, R.W. (Ed.): The Encyclopedia of oceanography. Reinhold Publ., New York, pp. 763–765. Search in Google Scholar

Domack, E.W., 1990. Laminated terrigenous sediments from the Antarctic Peninsula: the role of subglacial and marine processes. [In:] Dowdeswell, J.A. & Scource, J.D. (Eds): Glacimarine environments: processes and sediments. Geological Society Special Publication 53, pp. 91–103.10.1144/GSL.SP.1990.053.01.05 Search in Google Scholar

Dowdeswell, J.A., Canals, M., Jakobsson, M., Todd, B.J., Dowdeswell, E.K. & Hogan, K.A., (Eds), 2016. Atlas of Submarine Glacial landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient. Geological Society Memoirs 46, 618 pp.10.1144/M46.171 Search in Google Scholar

Dreimanis, A., 1993. Small to medium-sized glacitectonic structures in till and in its substratum and their comparison with mass movement structures. Quaternary International 18, 69–79.10.1016/1040-6182(93)90055-K Search in Google Scholar

Eguchi, J., Seales, J. & Dasgupta, R., 2020. Great Oxidation and Lomagundi events linked by deep cycling and enhanced degassing of carbon. Nature Geoscience 13, 71–76.10.1038/s41561-019-0492-6 Search in Google Scholar

Eriksson, P.G., 1991. A note on coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits within Proterozoic lacustrine sedimentary rocks, Transvaal sequence. South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences 12, 549–553.10.1016/0899-5362(91)90015-Q Search in Google Scholar

Eyles, C.H. & Eyles, N., 2000. Subaqueous mass flow origin for Lower Permian diamictites and associated facies of the Grant Group, Barbwire Terrace, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Sedimentology 47, 343–356.10.1046/j.1365-3091.2000.00295.x Search in Google Scholar

Eyles, C.H., Eyles, N. & Miall A.D., 1985. Models of glaciomarine sediment and their application to the interpretation of ancient glacial sequences. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 51, 15–84.10.1016/0031-0182(85)90080-X Search in Google Scholar

Eyles, N., 1993. Earth’s glacial record and its tectonic setting. Earth-Science Reviews 35, 1–248.10.1016/0012-8252(93)90002-O Search in Google Scholar

Eyles, N. & Januszczak, N., 2007. Syntectonic subaqueous mass flows of the Neoproterozoic Otavi Group, Namibia: where is the evidence of global glaciation? Basin Research 19, 179–198.10.1111/j.1365-2117.2007.00319.x Search in Google Scholar

Eyles, N., Eyles, C.H. & Miall, A.D., 1983. Lithofacies types and vertical profile models; an alternative approach to the description and environmental interpretation of glacial diamict and diamictite sequences. Sedimentology 30, 393–410.10.1111/j.1365-3091.1983.tb00679.x Search in Google Scholar

Fairchild, I.J., Fleming, E.J., Bao, H., Benn, D.I., Boomer, I., Dublyansky, Y.V., Halverson, G.P., Hambrey, M.J., Hendy, C., McMillan, E.A., Spötl, C., Stevenson, C.T.E. & Wynn, P.M., 2016. Continental carbonate facies of a Neoproterozoic panglaciation, north-east Svalbard. Sedimentology 63, 443–497.10.1111/sed.12252 Search in Google Scholar

Feng, L.R., Donaldson, J.A. & Holland, H.D., 2000. Alteration rinds on glacial diamictite clasts in the Gowganda Formation: Possible indicators of low atmospheric oxygen ca. 2.3 Ga. International Geology Review 42, 684–690.10.1080/00206810009465106 Search in Google Scholar

Fralick, P.W. & Miall, A.D., 1989. Sedimentology of the Lower Huronian Supergroup (Early Proterozoic), Elliot Lake area, Ontario, Canada. Sedimentary Geology 63, 127–153.10.1016/0037-0738(89)90075-4 Search in Google Scholar

Frarey, M.J., 1977. Geology of the Huronian Belt between Sault Ste. Marie and Blind River, Ontario. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 383, 38–49.10.4095/104548 Search in Google Scholar

Grotzinger, J.P., Fike, D.A. & Fischer, W.W., 2011. Enigmatic origin of the largest-known carbon isotope excursion in Earth’s history. Nature Geoscience 4, 285–292.10.1038/ngeo1138 Search in Google Scholar

Harker, R.I., 1993. Fracture patterns in clasts of diamictitets (?tillites). Journal of the Geological Society 150, 251–254.10.1144/gsjgs.150.2.0251 Search in Google Scholar

Harker, R.I. & Giegengack, R., 1989. Brecciation of clasts in diamictites of the Gowganda Formation, Ontario, Canada. Geology 17, 123–126.10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0123:BOCIDO>2.3.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Hicock, S.R. & Dreimanis, A., 1985. Glaciotectonic structures as useful ice-movement indicators in glacial deposits: four Canadian case studies. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 22, 339–346.10.1139/e85-034 Search in Google Scholar

Hicock, S.R. & Dreimanis, A., 1992. Deformation till in the Great Lakes region: implications for rapid flow along the south-central margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 29, 1565–1579.10.1139/e92-123 Search in Google Scholar

Hoffman, P.F., 2013. The Great Oxidation and a Siderian snowball Earth: MIF-S based correlation of Paleoproterozoic glacial epochs. Chemical Geology 362, 143–156.10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.04.018 Search in Google Scholar

Howe, T.S., 2015. Investigating potential climatic cycles in glacially-influenced rhythmites of the upper Gowganda Formation using geochemical, rhythmites of the upper Gowganda Formation using geochemical, sedimentological and spectral analyses sedimentological and spectral analyses. Western University, 3264, 159 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Howe, T.S., Corcoran, P.L, Longstaffe, F.J.M, Webb, E.A & Pratt, R.G., 2016. Climatic cycles recorded in glacially influenced rhythmites of the Gowganda Formation, Huronian Supergroup. Precambrian Research 286, 269–280.10.1016/j.precamres.2016.10.002 Search in Google Scholar

Hughes, G.B., Giegengack, R. & Kritikos, H.N., 2003. Modern spectral climate patterns in rhythmically deposited argillites of the Gowganda Formation (Early Proterozoic), southern Ontario, Canada. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 207, 13–2210.1016/S0012-821X(02)01155-X Search in Google Scholar

Isbell, J.L., Cole, D.I. & Catuneanu, O., 2008. Carboniferous-Permian glaciation in the main Karoo Basin, South Africa: Stratigraphy, depositional controls, and glacial dynamic. [In:] Fielding, C.R., Frank, T.D. & Is-bell, J.L. (Eds): Resolving the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in time and space. Geological Society of America Special Paper 441, pp. 71–82.10.1130/2008.2441(05) Search in Google Scholar

Jackson, T.A., 1965. Power-spectrum analysis of two ´varved´ argillites in the Huronian Cobalt Series (Precambrian) of Canada. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 35, 877–886.10.1306/74D71393-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Jansa, L.F. & Carozzi, A.V., 1970. Exotic pebbles in La Salle Limestone (Upper Pennsylvanian), La Salle, Illinois. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 40, 688–694.10.1306/74D72013-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, P.A. & Wulff-Pedersen, E., 1997. Discussion of glacial or non-glacial origin for the Bigganjargga tillite, Finnmark, northern Norway. Geological Magazine 134, 874–876.10.1017/S0016756897007607 Search in Google Scholar

Kennedy, K., 2020. The Gowganda Formation. Accessed 09/17/2020. https://planetrocks.utsc.utoronto.ca/trips/oia_vf1.html Search in Google Scholar

Kennedy, K. & Eyles, N., 2021. Syn-rift mass flow generated ‘tectonofacies’ and ‘tectonosequences’ of the Kingston Peak Formation, Death Valley, California, and their bearing on supposed Neoproterozoic panglacial climates. Sedimentology 68, 352–381.10.1111/sed.12781 Search in Google Scholar

Kennedy, K., Eyles, N. & Broughton, D., 2019. Basinal setting and origin of thick (1.8 km) mass-flow dominated Grand Conglomérat diamictites, Kamoa, Democratic Republic of Congo: Resolving climate and tectonic controls during Neoproterozoic glaciations. Sedimentology 66, 556–589.10.1111/sed.12494 Search in Google Scholar

Kump, L.R., Melezhik, V.A., Altermann, W., Eriksson, P.G., Lepland, A. & Young, G.M., 2013. Palaeoproterozoic snowball Earth? [In:] Melezhik, V.A., Kump, L.R., Fallick, A.E., Strauss, H., Hanski, E.J., Prave, A.R. & Lepland, A. (Eds): Reading the Archive of Earth’s Oxygenation, vol. 3: Global Events and the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia – Drilling Early Earth Project. Springer, Berlin, pp. 1097–1099.10.1007/978-3-642-29670-3 Search in Google Scholar

Legun, A., 1984. Huronian Stratigraphy and sedimentation in the Cobalt area. Ontario Geological Survey, Open File Report 5508, 60 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Le Heron, D.P, Eyles, N. & Busfield, M.E., 2020. The Laurentian Neoproterozoic Glacial Interval: reappraising the extent and timing of glaciation. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences 113, 59–70.10.17738/ajes.2020.0004 Search in Google Scholar

Lindsay, J.F., 1968. The development of clast fabric in mudflows. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 38, 1242–1253.10.1306/74D71B40-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Lindsay, J.F., 1970. Depositional environment of Paleozoic glacial rocks in the Central Transantarctic Mountains. Geological Society of America Bulletin 81, 1149–1171.10.1130/0016-7606(1970)81[1149:DEOPGR]2.0.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Lindsey, D.A., 1969. Glacial sedimentology of the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, Ontario, Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 80, 1685–1701.10.1130/0016-7606(1969)80[1685:GSOTPG]2.0.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Lowe, D.R., 1988. Suspended-load fallout rate as an independent variable in the analysis of current structures. Sedimentology 35, 765–776.10.1111/j.1365-3091.1988.tb01250.x Search in Google Scholar

Martin, H., 1981. The Late Paleozoic Dwyka Group of the South Kalahari Basin in Namibia and Botswana, and the subglacial valleys of the Kaokoveld in Namibia. [In:] Hambrey, M.J. & Harland, W.B. (Eds): Earth´s pre-Pleistocene glacial record. Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–66. Search in Google Scholar

Martinsen, O., 1994. Mass movements. [In:] Maltman, A. (Ed.): The Geological Deformation of Sediments. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 127–165.10.1007/978-94-011-0731-0_5 Search in Google Scholar

Melezhik, V.A., Young, G.M., Eriksson, P.G., Altermann, W., Kump, L.R. & Lepland, A., 2013. Huronian-age glaciation. [In:] Melezhik, V.A., Kump, L.R., Fallick, A.E., Strauss, H., Hanski, E.J., Prave, A.R. & Lepland, A. (Eds): Reading the Archive of Earth’s Oxygenation, vol. 3: Global Events and the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia – Drilling Early Earth Project. Springer, Berlin, pp. 1059–1109.10.1007/978-3-642-29670-3_2 Search in Google Scholar

Menzies, J., 2000. Microstructures in diamictites of the Lower Gowganda Formation (Huronian), near Elliot Lake, Ontario: Evidence for deforming-bed conditions at the grounding line? Journal of Sedimentary Research 70, 210–216.10.1306/2DC4090B-0E47-11D7-8643000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Miall, A.D., 1983. Glaciomarine sedimentation in the Gowganda Formation (Huronian), Northern Ontario. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 53, 477–491.10.1306/212F8210-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Miall, A.D.,1985. Sedimentation on an early Proterozoic continental margin under glacial influence: The Gowganda Formation (Huronian), Elliot Lake area, Ontario, Canada. Sedimentology 32, 763–788.10.1111/j.1365-3091.1985.tb00733.x Search in Google Scholar

Middleton, G.V. & Hampton, M.A., 1976. Subaqueous sediment transport and deposition by sediment gravity flows. [In:] Stanley, D.J. & Swift, D.J.P. (Eds): Marine sediment transport and environmental management. Wiley, New York, pp. 197–218. Search in Google Scholar

Molén, M.O., 2017. The origin of upper Precambrian diamictites; Northern Norway: A case study applicable to diamictites in general. Geologos 23, 163–181.10.1515/logos-2017-0019 Search in Google Scholar

Molén, M.O., 2021. Glaciation or not? An analytic review of features of glaciation and sediment gravity flows and a methodology for field research. (Submitted).10.1002/essoar.10510880.1 Search in Google Scholar

Mustard, P.S., 1985. Sedimentology of the Lower Gowganda Formation Coleman Member (Early Proterozoic) at Cobalt, Ontario. Carleton University. Search in Google Scholar

Mustard, P.S. & Donaldson, J.A., 1987a. Early Proterozoic ice-proximal glaciomarine deposition: The Lower Gowganda Formation at Cobalt, Ontario, Canada. Geological Society of America Bulletin 98, 373–387.10.1130/0016-7606(1987)98<373:EPIGDT>2.0.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Mustard, P.S. & Donaldson, J.A., 1987b. Substrate quarrying and subglacial till deposition by Early Proterozoic ice sheet: Evidence from the Gowganda Formation at Cobalt, Ontario, Canada. Precambrian Research 34, 347–368.10.1016/0301-9268(87)90007-6 Search in Google Scholar

Neuendorf, K.K.E., Mehl, J.P.Jr. & Jackson, J.A. (Eds), 2005. Glossary of Geology. American Geological Institute, Alexandria, 779 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Peakall, J., Best, J., Baas, J.H., Hodgson, D.M., Clare, M.A., Talling, P.T., Dorrell, R.M. & Lee, D.R., 2020. An integrated process-based model of flutes and tool marks in deep-water environments: Implications for palaeohydraulics, the Bouma sequence and hybrid event beds. Sedimentology 67, 1601–1666.10.1111/sed.12727 Search in Google Scholar

Popov, L.E., Álvaro, J.J., Holmer, L.E., Bauert, H., Pour, M.G., Dronov, A.V., Lehnert, O., Hints, O., Männik, P., Zhang, Z. & Zhang, Z., 2019. Glendonite occur-rences in the Tremadocian of Baltica: first Early Palaeozoic evidence of massive ikaite precipitation at temperate latitudes. Scientific Reports 9, 7205.10.1038/s41598-019-43707-4 Search in Google Scholar

Postma, G., Nemec, W. & Kleinspehn, K.L., 1988. Large floating clasts in turbidities: a mechanism for their emplacement. Sedimentary Geology 58, 47–61.10.1016/0037-0738(88)90005-X Search in Google Scholar

Schermerhorn, L.J.G., 1974. Late Precambrian mixtites: Glacial and/or nonglacial? American Journal of Science 274, 673–824.10.2475/ajs.274.7.673 Search in Google Scholar

Schermerhorn, L.J.G., 1975. Tectonic framework of Late Precambrian supposed glacials. [In:] Wright, A.E. & Moseley, F. (Eds): Ice ages: Ancient and modern. Seal House Press, Liverpool, pp. 241–274. Search in Google Scholar

Schwab, F.L., 1981. Late Precambrian tillites of the Appalachians. [In:] Hambrey, M.J. & Harland, W.B. (Eds): Earth’s Pre-Pleistocene glacial record. Cambridge University Press, pp. 751–755. Search in Google Scholar

Scott, K.M., 1988a. Origin, behavior and sedimentology of prehistoric catastrophic lahars at Mount St. Helens, Washington. [In:] Clifton, H.E. (Ed.): Sedimentologic consequences of convulsive geologic events. Geological Society of America Special Paper 229, pp. 23–36.10.1130/SPE229-p23 Search in Google Scholar

Scott, K.M., 1988b. Origins, behavior and sedimentology of lahars and lahar-runout flows in the Toutle-Cowlitz River system. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1447-A.10.3133/pp1447B Search in Google Scholar

Shanmugam, G., 2016. Submarine fans: a critical retrospective (1950–2015). Journal of Palaeogeography 5, 110–184.10.1016/j.jop.2015.08.011 Search in Google Scholar

Shanmugam, G., 2017. The contourite problem. [In:] Mazumder, R. (Ed.): Sediment Provenance Influences on Compositional Change from Source to Sink. Elsevier, pp. 183–254.10.1016/B978-0-12-803386-9.00009-5 Search in Google Scholar

Shanmugam, G., 2019. Reply to discussions by Zavala (2019) and by Van Loon, Hüeneke, and Mulder (2019) on Shanmugam, G. (2018, Journal of Palaeogeography: ‘the hyperpycnite problem’. Journal of Palaeogeography 8, 31.10.1186/s42501-019-0047-1 Search in Google Scholar

Shepard, F.P. & Dill, R.F., 1966. Submarine canyons and other sea valleys. Rand McNally, Chicago, 381 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Smith, D.G. & Bailey, R.J., 2018. Discussion: Howe, T.S., Corcoran, P.L., Longstaffe, F.J., Webb, E.A, Pratt, R.G., 2016. Climatic cycles recorded in glacially influenced rhythmites of the Gowganda Formation, Huronian Supergroup, Precambrian Research. Precambrian Research 315, 324–326.10.1016/j.precamres.2017.04.022 Search in Google Scholar

Stock, J.D. & Dietrich, W.E., 2006. Erosion of steepland valleys by debris flows. Geological Society of America Bulletin 118, 1125–1148.10.1130/B25902.1 Search in Google Scholar

Stoopes, G.R. & Sheridan, M.F., 1992. Giant debris avalanches from the Colima Volcanic Complex, Mexico: Implications for long-runout landslides (>100 km) and hazard assessment. Geology 20, 299–302.10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0299:GDAFTC>2.3.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Tachibana, T., 2013. Lonestones as indicators of tsunami deposits in deep-sea sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Morozaki Group, central Japan. Sedimentary Geology 289, 62–73.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2013.02.008 Search in Google Scholar

Talling, P.T., Masson, D.G., Sumner, E.J. & Malgesini, G., 2012. Subaqueous sediment density flows: Depositional processes and deposit types. Sedimentology 59, 1937–2003.10.1111/j.1365-3091.2012.01353.x Search in Google Scholar

Talling, P.J., Wynn, R.B., Masson, D.G., Frenz, M., Cronin, B.T., Schiebel, R, Akhmetzhanov, A.M., Dallmeier-Tiessen, S., Benetti, S., Weaver, P.P.E., Georgiopoulou, A., Zühlsdorff, C. & Amy, L.A., 2007. Onset of submarine debris flow deposition far from original giant landslide. Nature 450, 541–544.10.1038/nature06313 Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, G.S.P. & Connell, R.J., 1985. Iceberg drop, dump and grounding structures from pleistocene glacio-lacustrine sediments, Scotland. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 55, 243–249.10.1306/212F8689-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, N.D., 2009. Distinct element numerical modelling of volcanic debris avalanche emplacement geomechanics. Bournemouth University, 282 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Ui, T., 1989. Discrimination between debris avalanche and other volcaniclastic deposits. [In:] Latter, J.H. (Ed.): Volcanic hazards. Springer, Berlin, pp. 201–209.10.1007/978-3-642-73759-6_13 Search in Google Scholar

Walton, A.W. & Palmer, B.A., 1988. Lahar facies of the Mount Dutton Formation (Oligocene-Miocene) in the Marysvale Volcanic Field, Southwestern Utah. Geological Society of America Bulletin 100, 1078–1091.10.1130/0016-7606(1988)100<1078:LFOTMD>2.3.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Williams, G.E., Schmidt, P.W. & Young, G.M., 2016. Strongly seasonal Proterozoic glacial climate in low palaeolatitudes: Radically different climate system on the pre-Ediacaran Earth. Geoscience Frontiers 7, 555–571.10.1016/j.gsf.2016.01.005 Search in Google Scholar

Yawar, Z. & Schieber, J., 2017. On the origin of silt laminae in laminated shales. Sedimentary Geology 360, 22–34.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2017.09.001 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 1981. The Early Proterozoic Gowganda Formation, Ontario, Canada. [In:] Hambrey, M.J. & Har-land, W.B (Eds): Earth´s pre-Pleistocene glacial record. Cambridge University Press, pp. 807–812. Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 2013. Precambrian supercontinents, glaciations, atmospheric oxygenation, metazoan evolution and an impact that may have changed the second half of Earth history. Geoscience Frontiers 4, 247–261.10.1016/j.gsf.2012.07.003 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 2014. Contradictory correlations of Paleoproterozoic glacial deposits: Local, regional or global controls? Precambrian Research 247, 33–44.10.1016/j.precamres.2014.03.023 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 2017. Ice ages in Earth history: Puzzling paleolatitudes and regional provenance of ice sheets on an evolving planet. [In:] Mazumder, R. (Ed.): Sediment provenance: influences on compositional change from source to sink. Elsevier, pp. 533–562.10.1016/B978-0-12-803386-9.00019-8 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 2018. Precambrian glacial deposits: their origin, tectonic setting, and key role in earth evolution. [In:] Menzies, J. & van der Meer, J.J.M. (Eds): Past glacial environments, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp.17–45.10.1016/B978-0-08-100524-8.00001-4 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., 2019. Aspects of the Archean-Proterozoic transition: How the great Huronian Glacial Event was initiated by rift-related uplift and terminated at the riftdrift transition during break-up of Lauroscandia. Earth-Science Reviews 190, 171–189.10.1016/j.earscirev.2018.12.013 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M. & Nesbitt, H.W., 1985. The Gowganda Formation in the southern part of the Huronian Outcrop Belt, Ontario, Canada: Stratigraphy, depositional environments and regional tectonic significance. Precambrian Research 29, 265–301.10.1016/0301-9268(85)90071-3 Search in Google Scholar

Young, G.M., Shaw, C.S.J. & Fedo, C.M., 2004. New evidence favouring an endogenic origin for supposed impact breccias in Huronian (Paleoproterozoic) sedimentary rocks. Precambrian Research 133, 63–74.10.1016/j.precamres.2004.03.013 Search in Google Scholar

Zavala, C., 2019. The new knowledge is written on sedimentary rocks – a comment on Shanmugam’s paper “The hyperpycnite problem”. Journal of Palaeogeography 8, 23.10.1186/s42501-019-0037-3 Search in Google Scholar

Zavala, C., 2020. Hyperpycnal (over density) flows and deposits. Journal of Palaeogeography 9, 17.10.1186/s42501-020-00065-x Search in Google Scholar

Zavala, C. & Arcuri, M., 2016. Intrabasinal and extrabasinal turbidites: origin and distinctive characteristics. Sedimentary Geology 337, 36–54.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.03.008 Search in Google Scholar

Zimmermann, U., Tait, J., Crowley, Q.G., Pashley, V. & Straathof, G., 2011. The Witputs diamictite in southern Namibia and associated rocks: constraints for a global glaciation? International Journal of Earth Sciences 100, 511–526.10.1007/s00531-010-0621-3 Search in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo