The effects of environmental factors (water conditions) on water bird’s distribution and abundance was determined using distance sampling point count method, direct visual observation and principal component analysis (PCA) at Tiffech lake Wetland, North East of Algeria. A total of 26 bird species were recorded in the present study; of these, 12 were passage visitor, 7 winter visitors, 5 winter migrant and 2 species are resident breeder. The R i386 (version 4.0.3) software were used for data analyzing. Principal component analysis indicated strong correlation ship between water bird abundance and environmental factors (water conditions) (86.35%) in Tiffech lake wetland. The most important environmental factors associated with abundance of water bird’s species composition in Tiffech lake communities were water pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, nitrites and chloride. While among the environmental factors water Temperature and phosphore showed a negative correlation. This study gives important insights on ecological relationships between water bird’s biodiversity and environmental factors in a primary wetland ecosystem in North East of Algeria.