Based on fractional differential equations, this paper focuses on the internal mechanism of college ideological and political learning. We also elaborate on its microstructure, channel characteristics, and competitive field. We put forward Gauss’s theorem and the loop theorem of the related field of ideological and political learning in colleges and universities. At the same time, the convexity theorem of the information entropy of the competitive field and the principle of maximum entropy are proved. Research shows that college students can change the relationship between student learning and society by adapting, functioning, and coordinating. We need to help students develop more effective political learning strategies.