In recent years, drone aerial photography technology has been increasingly used in forestry. UAV oblique photography technology is an emerging and effective means to obtain 3D models of survey areas in recent years quickly. It breaks through the limitation of traditional aerial survey cameras that only shoot from a vertical angle [1]. It collects aerial images with spatial information from multiple vertical and oblique angles simultaneously. It truly reflects objects’ appearance, position, and height and makes up for the low simulation degree of traditional artificial modeling. It is gradually applied in the field of rapid 3D modeling. This study proposes a 3D modeling method for indoor environmental artistic landscape combining UAV oblique photography and 3D laser scanning technology. This method realizes the complementary advantages of the two technologies.

We use a micro drone tilt photography system with an electrically powered six-rotor drone equipped with a miniature five-lens AP5600 tilt camera [2]. The system can capture oblique photography work within 5km^{2}. The data resolution can be up to 2cm. It meets the requirements of 1:500 surveying and mapping accuracy. The technical parameters are shown in Table 1.

Related technical parameters of tilt camera

Technical indicators | Parameter |
---|---|

Number of sensors | 5pcs |

Sensor size | 23.2mm×15.4mm |

Pixel Physical Size | 4.25μm |

Lens focal length | 20mm |

Side view lens tilt angle | 45° |

Image resolution | 5472×3648 |

HERON backpack scanner is a high-precision laser SLAM synchronous positioning measurement system composed of a laser scanner, IMU, high-performance computer, lithium battery, and backpack rigid frame [3]. The scanning accuracy can reach the centimeter level. It can simultaneously build a two-dimensional and three-dimensional map measured at the centimeter level. The machine can realize large-scale scene modeling, measurement, mapping, spatial analysis, and other functions. It is a high-precision, high-efficiency, low-cost indoor and outdoor integrated 3D scanning and measurement equipment. Its technical parameters are shown in Table 2.

Related technical parameters of Heron backpack 3D laser scanning system

Technical indicators | Parameter |
---|---|

Scan distance | 100m |

Scan angle | −10; +30 |

Absolute accuracy | 5cm |

Relative accuracy | 1cm |

Absolute resolution | 2cm |

Initialization and battery life | The 30s, 3~4h |

The data collection and processing process includes initial positioning estimation, pose optimization, segmentation map and trajectory update, fusion solution, and other parts (Figure 1). The IMU provides acceleration and angular rates and obtains a preliminary estimate of the system's position and attitude [4]. During the operation, the equipment optimizes the newly acquired pose results and the existing results to obtain accurate trajectory data. The system then performs closed-loop detection and adjustment on the generated trajectory and laser scanning data to obtain 3D point cloud data. Figure 2 is a tree point cloud collected by a backpack-type 3D laser scanner.

The UAV oblique camera system captures oblique images from multiple angles. It extracts more feature points from multi-view images to form a dense point cloud through space three encryption and matching algorithm. The backpack-type 3D laser scanning system scans the ground at a certain angle to directly obtain the surface 3D coordinates of surface objects. This procedure creates a 3D point cloud. Both methods generate a large amount of point cloud data [5]. This makes it possible to fuse point clouds obtained by oblique photography with 3D laser point clouds. The UAV oblique photography technology can quickly obtain the three-dimensional information and texture information of the ground objects in a large area. Still, the accuracy of the obtained ground objects is low. The laser point cloud obtained by the backpack-type 3D laser scanning system can make up for the insufficiency of UAV oblique photography, which can accurately obtain the information of ground objects and the occluded area under the forest canopy. This study adopts a 3D modeling method that combines UAV oblique photography and backpack-type 3D laser scanning technology. This method improves the model's accuracy and solves the problems of loopholes in the canopy of the oblique photography 3D modeling. The ground objects under the canopy are occluded, and the model near the ground is partially drawn. This solution realizes high-precision 3D modeling. The modeling process is shown in Figure 3.

We linearize the image point coordinates in the image plane to obtain an approximate solution. We use a photo as the basic unit of adjustment calculation [6]. After measuring the pixel coordinates of the control points on the photo, we estimate the area network. This determines the approximation of the outer orientation elements and encrypted point coordinates for each photo in the area. According to the collinearity condition, we then list the error equations separately for control points and encryption points. We unified the adjustment calculation in the area and solved the outer orientation elements of each photo and the ground coordinates of the encrypted points.

Suppose S is the center of photography. The coordinates in the world coordinate system are (_{S}, Y_{S}, Z_{S}_{m}, Y_{m}, Z_{m}

According to the relationship between the image plane coordinates and the image space auxiliary coordinate system, the collinear equation can be solved.

_{0}, _{0},

In formula (4) and formula (5), _{X}_{0}, _{y}_{0}, is the approximate value of the collinear equation function. _{XS}_{YS}_{ZS}_{φ}_{ω}_{κ}_{X}_{Y}_{Z}

We introduce weights and list the error equation for encrypted points. At this point, we assign a weight of 1 to the error equation. List the error equations for the control points and list the dummy error equations. We give it the authority

According to formula (7), we can solve the correction value of the external orientation element and the coordinate correction value of the point. Aerial triangulation is a key step in 3D modeling after acquiring oblique images. At the same time, it is correcting and orienting the image. The empty triangulation operation can accurately match the points with the same name on multiple images [8]. Any point on the image has spatial geometric information. It has localization properties and scalability. The oblique photography technology adds 4 oblique viewing angles to the traditional vertical lens. This allows for more overlapping combinations between images from different viewing angles. In this study, the heading and side overlap was set to 75%. This enables more same-name constraints between oblique images. This method improves the precision and reliability of the null-three operation. We use Smart3D automatic modeling software after obtaining oblique images. We automatically match the same name points of all images through a high-precision image matching algorithm. At the same time, we extract more feature points from the image to form a dense point cloud (Figure 4).

We extract many dense point clouds from aerial imagery through automatic image matching. These point clouds need to be registered and fused with the 3D laser point clouds acquired by the 3D scanner. We register the point cloud before data fusion. The goal is to keep the two-point cloud data formats consistent [9]. The ICP algorithm is a high-level registration method based on free-form surfaces. The main purpose of this method is to find the rotation and translation parameters [10]. The algorithm uses one of the point cloud coordinate systems as the global coordinate system. The other point cloud is rotated and translated, and the overlapping parts of the two sets of point clouds completely overlap. The algorithm finds the closest corresponding point between two clouds and iteratively calculates the optimal coordinate transformation through least multiplication. We rotate the matrix R and translate the vector t to minimize the error function. The basic process follows 1) We match each point in the oblique camera point cloud to the closest point in the scan point cloud. 2) We solve the above rigid body transformation with the smallest average distance to the corresponding closest point. We apply this method to solve the rotation matrix and translation vector. 3) We use the transformation matrix to transform the target point cloud. 4) Iterative calculation until the number of iterations or the error is less than the threshold, the iteration is terminated.

We registered and fused many point clouds obtained by UAV oblique photography with the point cloud of backpack-style 3D laser scanning. The purpose is to ensure that the format of the two-point cloud data is consistent. Since the accuracy of the point cloud scanned by the HERON backpack-type 3D laser scanning system is much higher than that obtained by oblique photography, the 3D laser scanning point cloud is used as the benchmark in the registration and fusion of the two points clouds. We use a combination of the ICP algorithm (nearest neighbor registration method) and the manual registration method. The overall registration error of the point cloud is 2.37mm. In this way, high-precision fused point cloud data is obtained [11]. An example of registration accuracy is shown in Table 3. As shown in Figure 5, the blue part of the point cloud is the source point cloud of 3D laser scanning. The red part is the target point cloud obtained by oblique drone photography. We use the algorithm to match each point with the nearest point of the target point cloud and then perform the matching calculation. This study's point cloud density and data volume are relatively large. Its interior contains a more fine structure.

3D point cloud registration accuracy

N | Name | Error between point clouds/mm | Polymerization point/% | Confidence/% |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | F001 | 1.17 | 28 | 100 |

2 | F002 | 1.2 | 42 | 100 |

3 | F003 | 1.63 | 39 | 100 |

4 | F004 | 2.14 | 28 | 100 |

5 | F005 | 1.67 | 8 | 100 |

6 | F006 | 1.99 | 32 | 100 |

7 | F007 | 8.41 | 4 | 100 |

… | … | … | … | … |

Overall error of point cloud | 2.37mm |

We use a 3D laser scanner to supplement 3D point cloud data collection that drones cannot capture. We register and fuse the two source point clouds before constructing the 3D model. This method can effectively solve the problems of model loopholes and ambiguity. Figure 6 is the rendering of the 3D model of the forest scenic scene constructed after point cloud registration and fusion [12]. From the model diagrams from different angles, we can see that the detailed outline of the 3D model established after fusing the laser point cloud is clear. Its performance characteristics intuitively reflect the real structural state of the ground objects. This algorithm found that the model effect is greatly optimized through this algorithm. At the same time, manual participation in the 3D modeling process has been significantly reduced, and modeling efficiency has been greatly improved.

Although the 3D landscape modeling method based on UAV oblique photography has low cost and high efficiency, it needs to rely on the ground control point adjustment to ensure the modeling accuracy. Due to the poor GPS signal under the canopy and the secure connection between the canopies, it is difficult for us to find the ground control point marks and set the control points. As a result, the accuracy of oblique photography results cannot be guaranteed. The method uses a backpack-type 3D laser scanner to collect ground point clouds. This provides precise ground control points for drone tilt photography. This method saves the acquisition process of ground control points and improves the modeling efficiency.

The UAV oblique photography system collects multi-view images synchronously from different perspectives with the help of the mounted multi-eye camera. In this way, rich, high-resolution texture information of the top and side views of the features is obtained. The 3D model established in this paper has strong sensory authenticity.

However, this method cannot obtain the indoor environmental art landscape information under the canopy and cannot guarantee the integrity of the scene model. Although backpack-type 3D laser scanning technology cannot obtain complete canopy information, it can obtain complete and accurate landscape information under the canopy. We combine the two technologies to achieve the complementary advantages of the two technologies. This method reduces the cost of 3D modeling of indoor environment artistic landscape and improves the accuracy of scene model.

We use the ICP algorithm to register and fuse the two-point clouds to build a 3D model with clear details and outlines, and the structure of near-ground objects is clear. The performance characteristics of the algorithm directly reflect the real structural state of the object. It effectively solves the problems of model loopholes and model partial pull flowers.

This paper firstly uses beam method adjustment and projection difference optimization algorithm to extract key points, automatic connection point matching, and density matching of images obtained by oblique photography. We process a large number of dense point clouds with this method. In the experiment, a backpack-type three-dimensional laser scanning system was used to supplement the collection of the landscape under the canopy. In this way, a 3D laser scanning point cloud is obtained. We use the ICP algorithm to register and fuse the point clouds obtained by the two devices to construct a 3D scene model of the scenic forest area. The results of our 3D scene modeling experiments show that the overall error of point cloud registration is less than 2.37mm. This can fully meet the accuracy requirements of indoor environment art landscape 3D scene modeling. The 3D model we built effectively solves the problem of model holes and ambiguity at the bottom of the tree. The detailed outline of the model clearly and intuitively reflects the real structure of the ground objects.

This method saves the field control point acquisition process of oblique photography and effectively supplements the shortcomings of the two devices. This method realizes the complementary advantages of the two technologies and reduces the cost of 3D modeling of indoor environment art landscapes. At the same time, the method improves the modeling efficiency. This has certain practical significance for accurate forest measurement and refined management.

#### Related technical parameters of tilt camera

Technical indicators | Parameter |
---|---|

Number of sensors | 5pcs |

Sensor size | 23.2mm×15.4mm |

Pixel Physical Size | 4.25μm |

Lens focal length | 20mm |

Side view lens tilt angle | 45° |

Image resolution | 5472×3648 |

#### Related technical parameters of Heron backpack 3D laser scanning system

Technical indicators | Parameter |
---|---|

Scan distance | 100m |

Scan angle | −10; +30 |

Absolute accuracy | 5cm |

Relative accuracy | 1cm |

Absolute resolution | 2cm |

Initialization and battery life | The 30s, 3~4h |

#### 3D point cloud registration accuracy

N | Name | Error between point clouds/mm | Polymerization point/% | Confidence/% |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | F001 | 1.17 | 28 | 100 |

2 | F002 | 1.2 | 42 | 100 |

3 | F003 | 1.63 | 39 | 100 |

4 | F004 | 2.14 | 28 | 100 |

5 | F005 | 1.67 | 8 | 100 |

6 | F006 | 1.99 | 32 | 100 |

7 | F007 | 8.41 | 4 | 100 |

… | … | … | … | … |

Overall error of point cloud | 2.37mm |

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Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H _{2}-N_{2}atmosphereAlgorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model