Vocational education and dynamic social development are two complex nonlinear systems. Establishing the linear system theory of vocational education in university education is a relatively complex subject. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to establish nonlinear differential equations of college students’ vocational education. This paper analyzes the structural characteristics of the vocational education industry-education integration system and the dynamic factors that cause the evolution of the nonlinear system. Finally, the article verifies the higher vocational education system’s non-equilibrium, openness, and nonlinearity through examples.