The development of ink art in China has a history of >1,300 years . The production of ink and wash art is closely related to landscape painting. To some extent, landscape painting has contributed to the emergence and development of ink and wash arts. As a unique art form in China, ink art has an unquestionable position in traditional Chinese painting, and is recognised as the art form that best represents the Chinese spirit . From the perspective of its historical development process, the ups and downs of >1,300 years, the sea and the stormy fields, are enough to witness its indelible historical achievements and status in the field of Chinese art creation . Ink art masters who appeared in various historical periods have made immeasurable contributions to the development of ink art and laid a solid foundation for the development of modern ink art. With the progress of the times and the development of economy and society, China's graphic design is gradually moving towards the direction of internationalisation and diversification. It constantly adapts to the requirements of the commercial society and has made a lot of contributions to the development of the market economy. However, while making progress, this paper should also think carefully about the overall development of graphic design in China .
The trend of modern packaging design has pointed to the global environmental protection principle, and at the same time, more emphasis is on humanised design than ever before, to achieve the coordination of people, packaging and environment. This forces the packaging of products to change . The inheritance and development of traditional ink painting art is constantly reflected in modern packaging design, and seeking innovation, difference and change, integrating the essence of traditional ink painting art with modern design concepts has become a necessity. Under the trend of more and more frequent international exchanges, to adapt to the competition in the modern international market, it is necessary to meet people's pursuit of product personality, fashion and cultural taste, which requires packaging designers to establish new design concepts and further strengthen the cultural connotation and taste of products, and put forward higher requirements for modern packaging design. Therefore, the inheritance and transcendence of traditional culture is a problem that packaging design needs to face and solve, and it is also the only way to make the packaging of Chinese local products with Chinese characteristics [6, 7].
The traditional ink art form comes from the daily life of this article, so it is often endowed with traditional cultural connotation and spirit. Using it in packaging design not only enriches the appearance but also enhances the taste of the product . For example, tea culture can be combined with the art of calligraphy and reflected in modern packaging design. The auspicious patterns in the traditional ink art elements are also the artistic expressions often used in modern packaging design. For example, dragon and phoenix patterns, plant patterns, symbol patterns, etc. and the use of auspicious patterns is the embodiment of the people's longing and pursuit of a better life in all dynasties. Applying these patterns to packaging design can give the product a charming traditional charm . The traditional ink art provides a wealth of design materials for the design of this article, and the unique national attribute reflected by this has become the distinctive feature of modern Chinese packaging design. The modern packaging design of this paper is rooted in the profound cultural background, combined with the current advanced concepts and methods, to create a modern packaging design with distinctive Chinese characteristics. This not only brings beautiful visual experience to consumers, but also easily arouses the aesthetic identity and emotional resonance of modern people, so that the traditional Chinese culture can be displayed and spread .
The function of the ink-wash image preprocessing system is that, after processing input ink-wash image, we get an output which is the processed result data called primitives. In fact, the output primitives are organically combined into ‘objects’ of this module. The area of interest in the ink image is separated, and then it is segmented, fused, then skeleton extraction and other processing are performed, and finally we get the primitive information as the output. The ink and wash image preprocessing system is the first processing module designed in this paper. If the ink wash image preprocessing system to the stylised rendering system is regarded as an ink wash image data processing process, then the preprocessing system and every other subsystem again are associated input and output data . Ink image preprocessing is the premise of the design of ink painting artistic style. Only on the basis of good ink image preprocessing specific feature analysis and feature extraction can be carried out effectively. Therefore, it is very important to choose a stable preprocessing algorithm. First of all, for the result of ink image processing, as these primitive information will be transmitted to the style learning system, they will be called input samples in the style learning system. It is stipulated here that in the ink-wash image preprocessing subsystem, the results of the ink-wash image processing are collectively referred to as primitives .
The skeleton information obtained from the skeleton extraction of the texture describes the extension direction of the primitive pixels to a certain extent. The length of the skeleton in this system is normalised to [0, 1]; the position coordinate (x, y) of any point on the skeleton in the primitive texture area is the
The system not only needs to extract the various primitives of the original ink image, but also organically combine the discrete primitives into different ‘objects’.
An object is a collection of primitives that are relatively close in the spatial and colour domains. From the perspective of the whole system, combining primitives into objects is the process of extracting objects of different ink styles from ink works . Therefore, the ink image segmentation algorithm in this paper consists of two parts namely region growing and object extraction. Region growing is a process of aggregating pixels or seed regions into large regions according to pre-defined criteria; the basic method is to start with a set of ‘seed’ points and attach adjacent pixels with similar properties to the seed to each seed of the growing region, until no pixels meet the conditions for joining a region. The most important part of the region growing method is the selection algorithm of seed points and the similarity measure function between regions. Here, the description of the two parts selected for this topic is given first, and then the details of the region growing algorithm process are described in general .
The inter-region similarity measure employed during growth is based on the region-averaged colour distance. Here, the colour distance is defined in the a*b colour space, not the RGB colour space. Because the visual perception of colour in the RGB colour space is non-linear. The a*b colour space is suitable for the representation and calculation of all light source colours or object colours. It is a space that reflects the uniformity of object colours in human perception. The colour space distance obtained in this space is more in line with human visual perception; Perceptual properties of colour differences. Since the ink images processed by this system are mainly stored in RGB colour format, this paper needs to know the conversion formula between the two. To make the conversion easier, this paper first introduces the CIEXYZ space as the transition space. The formula for converting RGB colour space to CIEXYZ space is as Eq. (2):
The conversion formula from CIEXYZ space to a*b space is as follows
In the a*b space, the colour difference between the two colours (L1, a1, b1) and (L2, a2, b2) is defined as the Euclidean distance between them in this space, as shown in Eq. (7)
Skeletons, also known as regional centrelines, are a way to express the structure of a target shape. From the definition of primitives, we can see that the skeleton largely expresses the extension direction of a primitive texture, and at the technical level, it also reflects the path and direction of the painter's strokes when depicting objects . In addition, the texture features of the primitive itself are usually generated along this path, and the average width of the texture that the system needs is to be calculated based on the skeleton information. In general, skeletons have three main properties: continuity, minimum width of 1 and centrality. The traditional technique for extracting the skeleton of a region is the mid-axis transformation. For the skeleton extraction algorithm, first mark the known target point as 1 and the background point as 0; consider the 8-neighbourhood with the boundary point as the centre, denote the centre point as
After checking all boundary points, delete all marked points, and repeat the above steps until no boundary points are marked. The skeletons generated by this method have a disadvantage and are prone to glitches, i.e., short skeleton branches due to unsmooth region boundaries . The glitches interfere with the analysis process in this paper and should be removed. Using the burr culling algorithm, the generated skeleton can be very smooth.
In the skeleton calculation, this paper obtains the shape description of the pixel area, which guarantees the extraction of other information of the primitives in this section. This paper will describe the extraction algorithm of each component data of the primitive . The geometric area refers to the size of the smallest rectangular bounding box representing the pixel area of the primitive itself and its coordinate position in the original image. Since the index number of the segmentation area to which each pixel in the original image belongs has been marked in the ink image segmentation stage, it is natural to get the pixel coordinates of the lower left corner of a certain pixel area when scanning the original image from bottom to top and from left to right and top right position. Here, the lower left corner is marked as (
Primitive ink density represents the average grey level of the primitive texture. In this system, the average grey level of the primitives is normalised to [0, 1] for the convenience of ink colour analysis.
The main colour of the primitive is actually the average colour information of the statistical primitive. Since this information will be used for colour recovery of greyscale primitive textures, this paper should consider extracting the average colour information of the primitives instead of simple RGB colour values. An optional algorithm used here to describe colour information is the HSI colour model . The HSI value is a triple (
In the above three evaluation formulas, if the
The average width of the primitive is the average of the lengths of the vertical segments at all points on the skeleton line (the vertical segments are marked by red lines). The calculation formula is Eq. (15):
As most Chinese ink landscape paintings are drawn with brushes, the brushes are a special painting tool, and the lines drawn by the brush are also very special. It is not difficult to find that the ink lines have a certain width, so the ink line rendering is performed. Previously, the outline of the ink image needs to be further processed, and the concept of the spline model is introduced for this purpose. The so-called spline model represents the ink outline with a strip of a certain width. The purpose is that the spline model can help to use texture mapping technology to complete the rendering of ink lines and make the drawn ink lines more realistic .
The ink and wash line rendering algorithm is completed in three parts: one part is the vectorisation of the ink and wash outline, which simplifies the complete ink and wash outline by reducing the number of coordinates; the second part is the drawing of the spline, by translating and rotating the simplified outline stagnation point. The stagnation point coordinates of the spline are obtained, and the spline model is obtained; the third part is to obtain the real brushstrokes of the painter, and design the algorithm according to the texture mapping technology to complete the outline rendering of the ink and wash lines . Finally, using texture synthesis technology, the hand-painted chapped texture is synthesised into the mountain of the real picture, and the ink painting of the mountain is completed. Then integration the ink mountain and the outline of the ink line is performed to complete the line rendering of the ink landscape painting.
The outer contour vectorisation algorithm of ink images is also applicable to the inner contour. By observing the inner contour obtained after edge detection, it is found that the trend of the inner contour is obviously smooth, and the length of the inner contour is smaller than that of the outer contour. Therefore, the outer contour vectorisation algorithm is applied to the inner contour. When contouring, two principles are followed in threshold selection: one is to choose a larger angle threshold and the other is to choose a smaller sampling interval [23, 24]. Referring to the outer contour vectorisation algorithm, each line array of the inner contour of the ink image is processed separately, and the vectorised coordinates are stored in the array.
Contour vectorisation greatly reduces the number of pixel coordinates, obtains a vectorised mountain contour, and stores the stationary point coordinates in an array. In this section, an algorithm is designed to translate, rotate and connect the stagnation point, so that a mountain contour line evolves from a line to a strip. Let the width of the spline be
Description of spline drawing algorithm: Traverse the pixel coordinates
After calculating the mirror point of
The purpose of colour segmentation of ink and wash images is to determine the information of the sky, trees, waterfalls and people in the image, and to finally find the area that reflects the outline of the ink and wash image. Based on the Euclidean distance formula mentioned previously, according to the calculation of the colour difference of two pixels, all the pixels whose colour difference Δ
Greyscale the ink image after colour segmentation to obtain a greyscale image of the ink image. However, although the ink image in the greyscale image preserves the internal mountains and veins of the ink image, it also preserves information such as trees and rivers. These trivial information will interfere with the extraction of the inner contour of the ink image. The purpose of filtering the image is to reduce the interference of useless information such as trees and rivers on the internal vein texture of the ink image, and to highlight the edges of the internal concave and convex texture of the ink image for easy extraction. The filtering of ink images often starts from the spatial domain, rather than the frequency domain filtering commonly used for signals . Spatial domain filtering is a very important application in ink image processing, which is of great help in reducing noise in ink images. The greyscale image preprocessing of the ink image is filtered by calculating the edge gradient features of the ink image, and the interference is filtered while maintaining the original edge. Its filter formula is shown in Eq. (19)
The gradient magnitude of the boundary taken by
According to the mathematical relationship, the boundary gradient magnitude function Δ
Through the above analysis of the principle of the PM model, the sharpening spatial filter that uses the gradient magnitude function as the control function of the PM model will filter the part with large gradient changes in the ink image, which is obviously contrary to preserving the gradient in the greyscale image. The original intention is of clearly changing lines. Since it is necessary to suppress the filtering in the gradient direction, the filtering control function
The gradient magnitude (Δ
In ink image processing, bilinear interpolation algorithm completes the enlargement or reduction of the original ink image by generating new pixels. Adjust the size of the painter's strokes through bilinear interpolation, so that the real ink strokes can match the width of the spline model. Using bilinear interpolation to calculate the pixel value of a point in the target ink image is to find the 2*2 adjacent pixels of the point in the source ink image, and then use the pixel weighted average of the 2*2 area to obtain the pixel value of a point in the target ink image. The formulas for calculating the bilinear interpolation in the x direction are as follows
In the implementation process,
If the ink image consists of pixels, there will be
Through linear interpolation in the x and y directions, the pixels of the source point are finally transported to the target position to achieve the scaling of the original ink image. The effect of the ink image calculated by the bilinear interpolation algorithm is relatively good, and there will be no obvious distortion and discontinuity, which is a good anti-aliasing technology. The size of the ink stroke is adjusted by the bilinear interpolation algorithm to fit the width of the spline model.
How to use ink art elements precisely in design is a very important issue. The information contained in a graphic element is a complex set. Considering the complexity of the overall style analysis of ink images, the article focuses on the analysis and research; on the characteristics of local brush strokes and technical styles of ink and wash images. The application of ink art elements in packaging design is by no means isolated, but the comprehensive application of concepts, aesthetic techniques and other elements, and only in this way can the characteristics of ink art elements be brought into full play in packaging design. With its unique aesthetic characteristics and profound cultural heritage, ink art is a huge treasure trove to enrich the connotation and expression of packaging design. Integrating the essence of the traditional culture and art of the nation into modern packaging design is beneficial to us – the road of packaging design with Chinese characteristics. It is the essence of national design to carry forward the art of ink painting and to create a packaging design with a rich national meaning. Only the design art based on the local area can better show the due national charm.
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points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network