China is a big country with a population of 1.3 billion people, most of whom live in the rural areas. Because of its continuous economic development, the country has made some huge strides in the field of urban construction. In 2015, the urbanisation rate of Chinese permanent residents was 56.10%, up by 1.33 percentage points from the previous year. By 2020, the rate of urbanisation reached 60% [1]. In the face of economic, resource and environmental constraints, green and low-carbon new urbanisation roads have become unavoidable in China's urbanisation process.

Several studies on greening of small towns have been conducted in recent years. Jin Hong et al. [1] investigated Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County in Liuzhou; Guangxi focused on the core green industries in small towns from the perspective of global tourism, optimised its spatial structure quantitatively and qualitatively, and conducted research and proposed appropriate optimisation strategies; Chen Jun [2] drew on his experience of the urban ecological industry system of construction in Switzerland to make recommendations for the development of green small towns in Guizhou, China; Shen Mingrui et al. [3] concentrated on the current development of ecological small towns and problems associated with green transformation, and analysed and anticipated the future development of small towns; Liu Xiaoping [4] provided a brief analysis of the importance of implementing sustainable green buildings into urban construction, as well as tips on how to develop green buildings; Yue Dan [5] proposed green small town development ideas based on the field and literature research on small towns in Anyang County, Henan Province; and Bai Tao et al. [6] created the sustainable development evaluation index system of green ecological small towns by thoroughly studying the sustainable development theory and ecological theory. According to existing research analysis, a number of research results have been achieved in green small town evaluation, green small town building technology and green small town life-cycle economics, particularly in China's green building technology and green building projects. The economy has been thoroughly studied, and a quantitative economic evaluation method and evaluation system have been developed, which are primarily used for project technical selection and optimisation. However, only general and macro countermeasures are proposed from theoretical analysis for the development strategies and suggestions for green small towns, while they are rarely analysed from the perspective of quantifying the incremental cost and benefit of green small towns throughout their life cycle.

Small towns located between urban and rural areas are given special consideration. To summarise, different disciplines can have a narrow and broad understanding of the concept of ‘small town’. In China, small towns refer to towns other than municipalities directly under the Central Government, including county towns. This concept is more in line with the legal meaning of the People's Republic of China's Urban Planning Law. A town is the political, economic, cultural and life service centre of a rural area. In China, small towns in the broad sense include market towns, while in the narrow sense it includes county towns and organic towns. A market town is an unorganised town in which the people's government of a township or ethnic township is located, which has been confirmed by the people's government at the county level and has evolved from a market to a regional economic, cultural and life service centre in the rural areas. Small towns, in general, emphasise the dynamic and rural nature of their development, which is a relatively common viewpoint in the field of small towns research in China.

Small towns are the frontier of rural development, as well as the source of material and human support for urban development. The China Urban Science Research Association's ‘Green Small Town Evaluation Criteria’ provides a clear definition of green small towns as follows: ‘Scientific planning based on local conditions, a reasonable industrial model, intensive resource and energy conservation, environmental protection, complete functions, liveable and suitable for business, and distinguishing features’, highlight the construction of material civilisation, spiritual civilisation and ecological civilisation, and realise the sustainable development of small towns [7]. The Evaluation Standard for Green Small Towns, published in March 2015, established a scientific system for the development of green small towns that is tailored to China's specific needs. It proposes a comprehensive index system for ecological planning and construction, industrial planning and construction, small town planning and construction, heritage preservation, architectural and site design, energy planning and utilisation, water-saving and water resource utilisation, solid waste treatment and resource utilisation, and management and publicity. Table 1 displays the weight indicators for nine different aspects [8].

Index weight table of evaluation standards for green small towns

Ecological planning and construction | 0.39 |

Industrial planning | 0.26 |

Planning and construction of small towns | 0.27 |

Heritage protection | 0.10 |

Architectural design and site design | 0.39 |

Energy planning and utilisation | 0.20 |

Water saving and water resources utilisation | 0.14 |

Solid waste treatment and resource utilisation | 0.13 |

Management and publicity | 0.12 |

Gubeikou in Beijing, Daqiuzhuang in Tianjin, Haiyu in Jiangsu, Sanhe in Anhui, Guankou in Fujian, Xijiao in Guangdong and Mudong in Chongqing were the seven towns that won the national honorary title of ‘green low carbon key small towns’ in September 2011. After 3 years of construction, certain accomplishments have been achieved in town and village construction, green building, green traffic, comprehensive environmental improvement, infrastructure construction and other areas.

At the moment, the main technologies used in the construction of green small towns in China include four aspects: ecological planning and land-intensive use; energy-saving and renewable energy use; water-saving and water resource utilisation; solid waste treatment; and resource utilisation. According to the current state of affairs in China, energy conservation and emission reduction are the most pressing tasks they face. Energy conservation is an important part of creating a resource-saving society, and it is the energy-using field with the greatest potential for energy conservation, so it has become the focus of energy conservation efforts. At the same time, China's total freshwater resources are relatively small, accounting for only 6% of the global total, and placing it among the 13 water-scarce countries. The per capita water resources is only 2,200 m^{2}, accounting for one-quarter of the world's per capita water resources, with an extremely uneven spatial and temporal distribution. The scarcity of water resources and the worsening of water pollution have become major factors affecting China's long-term development. The Chinese energy-saving technology needs to focus on developing energy-saving and renewable energy use as well as water-saving and water resource use in green cities and towns, so this is an important aspect for the development of Chinese energy-saving technology.

With the incremental cost and incremental income of green small towns clarified, and developing the whole life cost-benefit quantitative model of green small towns using the Xiuyuanhe Green Ecological City in Zhangqiu, Shandong Province and the Lujiayao immigration project in Hongsibao, Ningxia Province as examples, this article calculates the economic performance of the whole life period, and the evaluation structure is used for green small town policy research.

The incremental cost of building technology in green small towns refers to the additional investment costs incurred in project planning, design, construction and transportation, replacement and maintenance, operation and management, and other aspects to achieve specific green goals and adopt building technology measures [9].

It is divided into two parts based on the different payment times: the initial investment cost and the later investment cost.

First, we consider the initial investment. The use of energy-saving and renewable energy utilisation technologies, water-saving, and water resource utilisation technologies will raise the project's initial investment cost, primarily due to the increased initial investment in the building envelope energy-saving, solar hot water system, reclaimed water system and rainwater system. For green small towns, the most effective way to improve the energy-saving performance of the building enclosure is to increase the thickness of the enclosure insulation layer and use the entire window heat transfer coefficient of less than 2.8 W/m^{2}·K outer window to achieve energy savings of 65% for residential buildings and 50% for public buildings. The initial investment cost of energy conservation of the building enclosure is the increased insulation thickness and the use of high-performance doors and windows. Because traditional small towns do not have a small town solar hot water system, reclaimed water system or rainwater system, the one-time investment in the equipment and pipelines of the said systems becomes the increased initial investment cost.

The second factor is the investment cost at a later stage. This primarily includes the costs of operation, maintenance, repair and replacement. To make the building envelope energy efficient, the solar hot water system, reclaimed water system and rainwater system in normal operation during the building's 50-year use period, the system requires daily costs of operation, maintenance and repair. As systems and equipment may not last for more than 50 years, this also means that the project's replacement costs will rise.

As a result, the incremental cost of small towns over their entire life cycle is calculated as follows: = _{i}_{o}_{m}_{r}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{m}_{r}_{a}_{s}

The economic, environmental and social benefits of green building technology are referred to as the ‘incremental benefits of green small town building technology’. Economic income is direct, whereas social and environmental income is indirect. That is the beneficial impact of green small towns on society and the environment, other than the owners. The incremental income of green small town construction technology includes economic income during operation, environmental income from a reduction in air pollution, health benefit to residents and social income saved by municipal facilities, which is as follows:
_{j}_{h}B_{h}_{sj}_{ss}

The economic income generated by the resources and energy saved after the completion and operation of green small _{j}

As China primarily relies on thermal power plants that use coal as a fuel source for power generation, the operation of green small towns saves a significant amount of electricity. It can also reduce the consumption of fossil fuels, which means that CO_{2}, SO_{2}, NO_{x}, smoke and other gases can be effectively avoided [11]. The environmental benefit of reducing air pollutant emissions in green small _{h}

In China, pollution can cause a variety of diseases. Green small towns use less energy on a daily basis and therefore PM10 and PM2.5 emissions are correspondingly reduced. Furthermore, as the incidence of respiratory diseases decreases, so do the medical expenses of the people. As a result, this paper considers the economic benefits of PM10 and PM2. 5 reducing emissions in green small towns as a means of providing health and social benefits, _{sj}

The construction cost of municipal sewage facilities is reduced as a result of green small towns’ outstanding performance in saving water and energy. It enables to avoid social losses, save a significant amount of electricity, reduce the country's power investment and avoid economic losses caused by a lack of electricity. As a result, municipal facility investment scale reduction is caused by water and electricity savings as its social benefits of municipal facility saving, _{ss}

The cost-effectiveness ratio is the ratio of project cost to benefit, which can reflect the project's rate of return on investment. The cost-effectiveness index was used in this paper to assess the economics of green small town buildings over their entire life cycle. To further refine the economics of the various return methods, the following formula is used to calculate the cost-effect ratio of direct and indirect returns:
_{1}Δ_{1} is the direct return of green small town building technology over its entire life cycle, Δ_{2}Δ_{2} is the cost-effectiveness ratio of indirect benefits of green small town building technology over its entire life cycle and the other parameters have the same meaning.

The Ningxia Ecological Migration Project was launched by the state to improve the quality of life of the people in the ancient area of Xihai in Ningxia. Wuzhong City's Hongsibao District is a national key ecological resettlement project that has relocated and resettled nearly 200,000 poor people.

The Lujiayao Project in Hongsibao District, Ningxia, has a total of 2,194 households, a total land area of 2.15 km^{2} and a residential construction area of 118,800 m^{2}. The residential building unit is a two-family, single-sloping roof with a slope of 23° with a 108 m^{2} floor-area and a 54 m^{2} household area [13,14,15,16]. The project's energy saving and solar energy-utilisation technologies primarily include enclosure energy-saving and solar domestic hot water systems. The details of its technical design are given below [17,18,19,20,21].

The exterior wall is made of 240-mm thick porous brick, with external insulation made of 50-mm thick XPS insulation board and a heat transfer coefficient of 0.611 W/m^{2}·K. Each of the two walls has a total insulation area of 120.2 m^{2}. Furthermore, the roof surface is reinforced concrete tile, with external insulation of 90-mm thick XPS insulation board and a heat transfer coefficient of 0.464 W/m^{2}·K. Each of the two roofs has a total insulation area of 121.6 m^{2}. The outer window is a PVC-framed hollow glass window with a heat transfer coefficient of 2.7 W/m^{2}·K and a surface area of 17.72 m^{2} per two outdoor windows.

Solar energy will be used in the project to provide domestic hot water for residential buildings. Their system is made up of a vacuum pipe collector, a hot water storage tank, a hot water pipe and an auxiliary heat source. Water consumption for four people is 120 L/d. As a result, the system's average daily water consumption _{w}_{w}_{i}_{end}_{end}_{t}_{t}^{2}.

Table 2 shows the incremental cost and income of energy saving and solar energy utilisation technology.

Incremental cost and income of energy saving and solar energy utilisation technology of Ningxia Project (Unit: 10,000 yuan)

Energy saving of enclosure structure | 2.43 × 10^{3} |
2.36 × 10^{4} |
9.25 × 10^{3} |
1.43 × 10^{4} |

Solar photothermal system | 1.27 × 10^{3} |
4.44 × 10^{3} |
1.56 × 10^{3} |
2.88 × 10^{3} |

Energy-saving and solar energy utilisation technology | 3.70 × 10^{3} |
2.80 × 10^{4} |
1.08 × 10^{4} |
1.72 × 10^{4} |

Table 3 shows the incremental cost-benefit analysis of energy conservation and solar energy utilisation technologies.

Incremental cost-benefit evaluation of Energy Saving and Solar Energy Utilisation of Ningxia Project

Building envelope energy saving | 9.71 | 3.81 | 5.88 |

Solar hot water system | 3.50 | 1.23 | 2.27 |

Energy-saving and solar energy utilisation technology | 7.57 | 2.92 | 4.65 |

Zhangqiu Shuyuan River Green Ecological City was designated as a Shandong Provincial Green Ecological Demonstration City in 2015, with a total urban area of 23.75 km^{2} and a starting area of 3.04 km^{2}. Special planning for the architecture, transportation, energy and municipal administration of the Xiuyuan River green eco-city area in Zhangqiu City was carried out under the guidance of the overall positioning of ‘a wealthy, harmonious, and happy new Zhangqiu under the framework of Jinan's big city’, combined with the planning and design strategies of the eco-city area. Design, and then accomplish the ecologicalisation and greening of the entire urban area. The surface water in the area comes from the Bayan River's Embroidery Source section, of which Mingshui Lake is 125 ha. The water resource utilisation technology used in the green ecological urban area of Zhangqiu Shuyuan River aims to regulate storage and reduce emissions. They also use non-traditional water sources like rainwater and reclaimed water to increase the utilisation rate of non-traditional water resources. The daily water consumption and reclaimed water treatment facilities of the entire urban residential building shall be reasonably planned in accordance with the project's goal of a water utilisation rate greater than 30%. Figure 1 depicts the specific planning. Given the safety of indoor water in residential buildings and people's acceptance of reclaimed water, reclaimed water is primarily used in residential communities for greening water, road square flushing, landscape water replenishment and car flushing, but not for building toilet flushing. The project will use a reclaimed water station with a contact oxidation treatment process and a daily reclaimed water treatment capacity as _{w}^{3} _{w}^{3}. According to the ^{2}.

The incremental cost and incremental income is as shown in Table 4.

Incremental cost and incremental income

Reclaimed water system | 3.17 × 10^{3} |
8.73 × 10^{3} |
8.6 × 10^{3} |
1.3 × 10^{2} |

Rainwater system | 2.09 × 10^{3} |
9.38 × 10^{3} |
9.25 × 10^{3} |
1.3 × 10^{2} |

Water resources utilisation | 5.26 × 10^{4} |
1.82 × 10^{4} |
1.79 × 10^{4} |
2.6 × 10^{2} |

The cost-earnings evaluation is as shown in Table 5.

Cost-earnings evaluation

Water system | 2.75 | 2.71 | 0.04 |

Rainwater system | 4.49 | 4.43 | 0.06 |

Water resources utilisation | 3.46 | 3.40 | 0.05 |

According to the evaluation results, the overall investment in green small towns in Ningxia's Hongsibao District increased by 37 million yuan, with an average increase of 17,000 yuan per household. Among them, the envelope structure's energy savings account for approximately 66%, and the new direct economic benefit is 108 million yuan, which is the incremental cost of the entire life cycle. This is a significant burden for immigrants who have a low annual per capita income. Despite the fact that the project may provide direct economic benefits to migrants in the subsequent operation process, the cost-effect ratio of direct income over 50 years is 2.92. Similarly, the investment income is substantial. Green small towns, on the other hand, have the flaws of high initial investment and long recovery cycle, which will severely limit their development. Zhangqiu green small towns in Shandong Province have increased their overall investment by 526 million yuan. The cost-effectiveness ratio of construction technology over the entire life cycle of the green small town within 50 years is 3.46, and the cost-effectiveness ratio of direct benefit is 3.40, both of which are higher than the cost-effectiveness ratio of the green small town in Hongsibao District, Ningxia. Their cost-effect ratio for direct economic income over the next 50 years is 3.46. However, there are issues with the project's large initial investment and slow income recovery.

The Ningxia green small town project, on the other hand, has a significant externality. The total income of their project environment and social income is 172 million yuan. The indirect return cost and effect ratio for Ningxia is 4.65, which is 1.6 times the direct income. Furthermore, Zhangqiu's green small town project has a positive externality, but its project environment and social income is only 2.6 million yuan, or 1.5% of the direct economic income. As the voice of social and public interest, the government benefits from increased investment in green small towns, and may even be the winner of the largest interests.

We can conclude the following from the preceding analyses:

First, the entire life economy of green construction technology in small towns differs.

Green small town construction technologies have varying life-cycle economics. Using Ningxia as an example, the direct benefit cost-benefit ratio of building maintenance structure energy saving is the highest, followed by energy saving and solar energy utilisation technology, while the solar water heating system has the lowest direct benefit cost-benefit ratio. It can be seen that, in terms of cost-effectiveness, the development of energy-saving technologies for building envelopes is more conducive to promotion for the Ningxia project, whereas the development of rainwater systems is more economical for the Zhangqiu project. At the same time, the cost-benefit ratio of the Ningxia project's energy-saving and solar energy utilisation technologies is 2.18 times that of the Zhangqiu project's water resource utilisation technologies. In terms of cost-benefit analysis, current green building energy-saving technology is more cost-effective and easier to promote than water-saving technology.

Second, as a beneficiary of green small towns, the government should promote their development and address the issue of initial investment by small town construction owners. As a result, the government must implement an incentive mechanism to encourage the development of green small towns. Furthermore, direct economic support to green small towns is provided in the form of direct capital subsidies, tax preferential treatment, building supporting fee reductions or preferential treatment, and a portion of the burden of increased investment is due to the use of green building technology.

Finally, the indirect income of building energy-saving technology is far greater than the direct income, implying that the environment, society and government have benefitted more than the occupants. As a result, the key point of promoting building energy conservation technology in green small towns is to carry out policy promotion from the standpoint of government fund incentives. Residents are the primary beneficiaries of water-saving technology in green towns, and its promotion should focus on expanding residents’ direct benefits from the perspective of stepped water prices.

#### Incremental cost-benefit evaluation of Energy Saving and Solar Energy Utilisation of Ningxia Project

Building envelope energy saving | 9.71 | 3.81 | 5.88 |

Solar hot water system | 3.50 | 1.23 | 2.27 |

Energy-saving and solar energy utilisation technology | 7.57 | 2.92 | 4.65 |

#### Cost-earnings evaluation

Water system | 2.75 | 2.71 | 0.04 |

Rainwater system | 4.49 | 4.43 | 0.06 |

Water resources utilisation | 3.46 | 3.40 | 0.05 |

#### Incremental cost and incremental income

Reclaimed water system | 3.17 × 10^{3} |
8.73 × 10^{3} |
8.6 × 10^{3} |
1.3 × 10^{2} |

Rainwater system | 2.09 × 10^{3} |
9.38 × 10^{3} |
9.25 × 10^{3} |
1.3 × 10^{2} |

Water resources utilisation | 5.26 × 10^{4} |
1.82 × 10^{4} |
1.79 × 10^{4} |
2.6 × 10^{2} |

#### Incremental cost and income of energy saving and solar energy utilisation technology of Ningxia Project (Unit: 10,000 yuan)

Energy saving of enclosure structure | 2.43 × 10^{3} |
2.36 × 10^{4} |
9.25 × 10^{3} |
1.43 × 10^{4} |

Solar photothermal system | 1.27 × 10^{3} |
4.44 × 10^{3} |
1.56 × 10^{3} |
2.88 × 10^{3} |

Energy-saving and solar energy utilisation technology | 3.70 × 10^{3} |
2.80 × 10^{4} |
1.08 × 10^{4} |
1.72 × 10^{4} |

#### Index weight table of evaluation standards for green small towns

Ecological planning and construction | 0.39 |

Industrial planning | 0.26 |

Planning and construction of small towns | 0.27 |

Heritage protection | 0.10 |

Architectural design and site design | 0.39 |

Energy planning and utilisation | 0.20 |

Water saving and water resources utilisation | 0.14 |

Solid waste treatment and resource utilisation | 0.13 |

Management and publicity | 0.12 |

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influence of X fuzzy mathematical method on basketball tactics scoring Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Application of regression function model based on panel data in bank resource allocation financial risk management Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand Research on aerobics training posture motion capture based on mathematical similarity matching statistical analysis Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Application of Sobolev-Volterra projection and finite element numerical analysis of integral differential equations in modern art design Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Research on motion capture of dance training pose based on statistical analysis of mathematical similarity matching Application of data mining in basketball statistics Application of B-theory for numerical method of functional differential equations in the analysis of fair value in financial accounting Research on the influence of fuzzy mathematics simulation model in the development of Wushu market Study on audio-visual family restoration of children with mental disorders based on the mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of differential equation Difference-in-differences test for micro effect of technological finance cooperation pilot in China Application of multi-attribute decision-making methods based on normal random variables in supply chain risk management Exploration on the collaborative relationship between government, industry, and university from the perspective of collaborative innovation The impact of financial repression on manufacturing upgrade based on fractional Fourier transform and probability AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification Validity and reliability analysis of the Chinese version of planned happenstance career inventory based on mathematical statistics Visual positioning system for marine industrial robot assembly based on complex variable function Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses Calculating university education model based on finite element fractional differential equations and macro-control analysis Educational research on mathematics differential equation to simulate the model of children's mental health prevention and control system Analysis of enterprise management technology and innovation based on multilinear regression model Verifying the validity of the whole person model of mental health education activities in colleges based on differential equation RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Determination of the minimum distance between vibration source and fibre under existing optical vibration signals: a study Nonlinear differential equations based on the B-S-M model in the pricing of derivatives in financial markets Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation MCM of Student’s Physical Health Based on Mathematical Cone Sports health quantification method and system implementation based on multiple thermal physiology simulation Research on visual optimization design of machine–machine interface for mechanical industrial equipment based on nonlinear partial equations Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Optimisation of Modelling of Finite Element Differential Equations with Modern Art Design Theory Mathematical function data model analysis and synthesis system based on short-term human movement Human gait modelling and tracking based on motion functionalisation The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Financial Accounting Measurement Model Based on Numerical Analysis of Rigid Normal Differential Equation and Rigid Functional Equation Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Differential equation model of financial market stability based on Internet big data 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Children’s cognitive function and mental health based on finite element nonlinear mathematical model Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp -groupsThe internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H _{2}-N_{2}atmosphereAlgorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model