1. bookVolumen 9 (2021): Edición 4 (December 2021)
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2544-3577
Primera edición
01 Oct 2009
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Acceso abierto

Endocrine disrupting chemicals and their detection in an IVF laboratory

Publicado en línea: 30 Dec 2021
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 9 (2021) - Edición 4 (December 2021)
Páginas: 165 - 169
Recibido: 25 Oct 2021
Aceptado: 03 Dec 2021
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2544-3577
Primera edición
01 Oct 2009
Calendario de la edición
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Introduction

There is a large amount of endocrine disruptors (EDs) present in our environment and they are both substances with a short half-life (e.g. bisphenols), and substances persistent in the environment with half-life of several years (perfluorinated bisphenols). The endocrine disruptors are defined as exogenous substances that alter functions of the endocrine system, which leads to adverse health effects. The EDs can interfere with metabolism of various hormones, they can modify their functions or receptors. This wide group of chemical substances includes pesticides, flame retardants, paints, industrial solvents and substances used in production of plastics and other goods of daily use [1]. Due to their widespread use, practically all human population of industrially developed countries is exposed to them. There are several action mechanisms of the endocrine disruptors on reproductive system and gametogenesis. In male, the blood-testis barrier disruption pathway, described for example for BPA or di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites, is most important [2]. In such cases, synthesis of proteins necessary for formation of intracellular junctions (occludin, clausin-11) is disrupted, which leads to malfunctions of these junctions and overall instability of the blood-testis barrier [2]. BPA also affects estrogen and androgen receptors in testicles and therefore disrupts steroidogenesis [3]. BPA also shows a positive affinity to the LH receptors and thus disrupts testosterone production in Leydig cells [4]. Patients with the BRCA1/2 mutation have even been found to have a higher risk of developing breast cancer due to bisphenols [5]. In women, higher levels of BPA are often associated with lesser numbers and quality of oocytes [6]. In vitro maturation of oocytes in presence of BPA (87 nM) caused disruption of bipolar spindle [7]. Similarly, Ferris et al. [8] reported damaged spindles in bovine COCs exposed to BPA (131 nM). The effects of bisphenols on meiotic maturation of oocytes are often non-linear, when lower concentrations can have worse impact on oocytes [7,9]. In recent years, general use of BPA has been limited. Thanks to regulations, its use in production has been decreased and BPA has not been detected in cultivation media in an IVF laboratory [10]. Comparison of glass and polycarbonate transfer pipettes (releasing BPA) showed no effect on development of embryos related to the presence of BPA [11].

Nevertheless, the limitation of the use of BPA is associated with gradual replacement of BPA with structural analogues of bisphenols that are not monitored as thoroughly as BPA (such as BPS, BPAF, BPAP, BPB, BPF and BPZ). The most frequent substitute for BPA is BPS, which has been intensively monitored lately. Some recent studies documented, that BPS disrupts steroid secretion in human granulosa cells and negatively affects quality of ovine oocytes even in nanomolar concentrations [12,13]. It also negatively influences steroidogenesis in ovine granulosa cells similarly to BPA [14]. In bovine oocytes, BPS, just like BPA, disrupted the structure of mitotic spindle during 24 h of in vitro maturation, even in very low concentrations (10 fM) [9]. The effect was non-linear and did not correlate with increasing concentration of bisphenols.

Presence of EDs disruptors in laboratory equipment

In the present work, we want to comment on the result of a recent study focused on detection of 10 different bisphenols in IVF laboratories. First, presence of bisphenols in plastic consumables used for IVF procedures was analysed. A total of 17 plastic consumables used commonly in IVF laboratory were included in the study (tubes, tips, cultivation flasks, plates, bottles for media or tubes for cryopreservation). After 24 hours of treatment with methanol, presence of BPA, BPS and 8 more bisphenols was analysed in methanol. BPA, BPS and BPAF were detected in all the 17 samples of plastic consumables. On the contrary, BPAP, BPB, BPC, BPE, BPF, BPP and BPZ were not detected in any of the samples. Regarding the concentrations of the detected bisphenols in comparison with LOQ (limit of quantitation), five consumables contained systematically high concentration of bisphenols (at least 15 times the LOQ). BPAF showed high concentration in the 50 ml centrifugation tube and the cultivation flask. The tips contained BPA and BPS. BPS and BPAF were detected in the bottle for cultivation media. It needs to be emphasized that the bisphenol concentration in methanol only gives information about the plastic composition and gives no significant information about a potential leaching to the IVF media. Therefore, an leaching test was performed for the five consumables with the highest concentrations of the detected bisphenols under conditions similar to those used in common practice. After this treatment, no bisphenols were detected in the leaching water nor in the controls [15].

Presence of EDs in IVF media

The next focus of the study was on the presence of bisphenols in the IVF cultivation media. A total of 28 media samples from 5 different producers were analysed. They included all kinds of media used in the IVF laboratories (manipulation media, cultivation media, IVM media, holding and washing media and sperm preparation media). BPS was the main bisphenol detected in the evaluated media for cell culture. Six bisphenols (BPA, BPS, BPAF, BPAP, BPE and BPF) (Fig. 1) were found in 18 evaluated media samples, while BPB, BPC, BPP and BPZ were not detected in any of the analysed media samples. BPAP was detected in four samples and its highest concentration was 38 ng/l (0.13 nM), BPAF was found in 5 samples with the highest concentration 10 ng/l (0.03 nM), BPF was found in 9 samples in up to 25 ng/l (0.12 nM) concentration, BPE was present in 8 media samples in highest concentration 119 ng/l (0.55 nM), BPA was detected in 9 samples and reached concentration of 155 ng/l (0.68 nM) and BPS was found in 16 of the 18 samples. BPS was also the bisphenol found in the highest concentrations in all cases: up to 1693 ng/l (6.8 nM). It exceeded the 1nM concentration in six samples: 308 ng/l in Medium 199 with Hepes (1.23 nM), 322 ng/l v BO-IVC (1.28 nM), 338 ng/l v SAGE-1 Step (1.35 nM), 446 ng/l in Flushing Medium (1.78 nM), 750 ng/l in Universal IVF Medium (3,0 nM) and 922 ng/l v Medium 199 (3.69 nM). These concentrations are relatively high, also with regard to the known effect of BPS on oocytes. Of all the bisphenols evaluated in the study, presence of BPS was the most significant in all the analysed media and in high concentrations (1-6.8 nM) in 6 of the 18 media samples [15].

FIGURE 1

Chemical structure of bisphenols detected in IVF media [15]

These values (mainly the concentrations of BPS) are alarming and it has been documented that concentration of 10 nM during 24h maturation of ovine oocytes caused their damage and disruption of subsequent embryonic development [13]. Even a lower concentration (3nM) was sufficient for disruption of meiotic maturation in porcine oocytes [16]. Meiotic maturation is possibly more sensitive to the effects of BPS than embryonic development. Also, during in vitro cultivation, embryo stays in the same environment for 5 days. In addition, deactivation of bisphenols by glucuronidation does not work in the in vitro conditions. That is an important difference from in vivo exposition, where glucuronidation occurs immediately after exposure.

Other foreign chemical substances detected in cultivation media can also have significant adverse effects, while they can also act synergistically. Presence in cultivation media was proven for example for phthalates [17]. The comprehensive work of T. Pollock and his colleagues produced valuable results, describing crosstalk of common EDs. The combined presence of bisphenols is considered to be deleterious [18]. Degradation of bisphenol is inhibited under other EDs exposure and, obviously, the co-exposure achieves various modes for how to affect the body [19]. In addition to human and mammalian models, there is an evidence for interaction of xenobiotics and pesticide residua [20], as well as synergistic interactions of organophosphates and pyrethroids [21]. In contrast to synergistic effects leading to an increase of the deleterious impact, competition of some pollutants is known and, surprisingly, a reverse effect of the synergistic activity of pollutants has been described, where one pollutant protects cells against damage caused by another pollutant [22]. The molecular action of interacting pollutants remains to be explained in mammalian models and there is an obvious need for further studies. Also, the results of these studies will influence public health protection.

Conclusions

Common use of plastic consumables in laboratories is unlikely associated to a high risk of exposure to bisphenols. Nevertheless, surprisingly high concentrations of BPS were detected in cultivation media. An unknown effect of this substance on early embryonic development and potential synergistic effect with other organic substances may pose a future risk for a correct course of in vitro cultivation of human embryos.

People constantly release new chemicals into the environment without a proper evaluation of their effects on human and animal health. Development of chemical production enables rather quick replacement of prohibited substances with new similar analogues suitable for industrial utilization, but with completely unknown effects on health of human and animals. The legislative process is very lengthy and before adverse effects are clearly proven, the harmful substance is spread globally and used commonly in general population including pregnant women and infants.

Current research is insufficiently prepared for solution of this newly developed situation. Most chemicals are not traceable, due to lack of sensitive tests, and their effects cannot be studied using classical methods, since there are no exposed and totally unexposed individuals. Moreover, many EDs potentiate one another's effects and they are often characterized by non-linear effects.

FIGURE 1

Chemical structure of bisphenols detected in IVF media [15]
Chemical structure of bisphenols detected in IVF media [15]

Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon JP, Giudice LC, Hauser R, Prins GS, Soto AM, Zoeller RT, Gore AC. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocr Rev. 2009;30(4):293–342; DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0002. Diamanti-KandarakisE BourguignonJP GiudiceLC HauserR PrinsGS SotoAM ZoellerRT GoreAC Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement Endocr Rev 2009 30 4 293 342 10.1210/er.2009-0002 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chiba K, Kondo Y, Yamaguchi K, Miyake H, Fujisawa M. Inhibition of claudin-11 and occludin expression in rat Sertoli cells by mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate through p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Androl. 2012;33(3):368–374; DOI:10.2164/jandrol.111.013664. ChibaK KondoY YamaguchiK MiyakeH FujisawaM Inhibition of claudin-11 and occludin expression in rat Sertoli cells by mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate through p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway J Androl 2012 33 3 368 374 10.2164/jandrol.111.013664 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kitamura S, Suzuki T, Sanoh S, Kohta R, Jinno N, Sugihara K, Yoshihara S, Fujimoto N, Watanabe H, Ohta S. Comparative study of the endocrine-disrupting activity of bisphenol A and 19 related compounds. Toxicol Sci. 2005;84(2):249–259; DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfi074. KitamuraS SuzukiT SanohS KohtaR JinnoN SugiharaK YoshiharaS FujimotoN WatanabeH OhtaS Comparative study of the endocrine-disrupting activity of bisphenol A and 19 related compounds Toxicol Sci 2005 84 2 249 259 10.1093/toxsci/kfi074 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wetherill YB, Akingbemi BT, Kanno J, McLachlan JA, Nadal A, Sonnenschein C, Watson CHS, Zoeller RT, Belcher SM. In vitro molecular mechanisms of bisphenol A action. Reprod Toxicol. 2007;24(2):178–198; DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.05.010. WetherillYB AkingbemiBT KannoJ McLachlanJA NadalA SonnenscheinC WatsonCHS ZoellerRT BelcherSM In vitro molecular mechanisms of bisphenol A action Reprod Toxicol 2007 24 2 178 198 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.05.010 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ventruba T, Brančíková D, Ventruba P, Minář L, Felsinger M, Vomela J. Breast reconstruction in patients with BRCA mutation and breast cancer – our approach. Cesk Gynekol 2021;86(6): 1–7; DOI:10.48095/cccg20211. VentrubaT BrančíkováD VentrubaP MinářL FelsingerM VomelaJ Breast reconstruction in patients with BRCA mutation and breast cancer – our approach Cesk Gynekol 2021 86 6 1 7 10.48095/cccg20211 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fujimoto VY, Kim D, vom Saal FS, Lamb JD, Taylor JA, Bloom MS. Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in women may adversely influence oocyte quality during in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(5):1816–1819; DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.11.008. FujimotoVY KimD vom SaalFS LambJD TaylorJA BloomMS Serum unconjugated bisphenol A concentrations in women may adversely influence oocyte quality during in vitro fertilization Fertil Steril 2011 95 5 1816 1819 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2010.11.008 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Machtinger R, Combelles CM, Missmer SA, Correia KF, Williams P, Hauser R, Racowsky C. Bisphenol A and human oocyte maturation in vitro. Hum Reprod. 2013;28(10):2735–2745; DOI:10.1093/humrep/det312. MachtingerR CombellesCM MissmerSA CorreiaKF WilliamsP HauserR RacowskyC Bisphenol A and human oocyte maturation in vitro Hum Reprod 2013 28 10 2735 2745 10.1093/humrep/det312 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ferris J, Favetta LA, King WA. Bisphenol A exposure during oocyte maturation in vitro results in spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment in Bos taurus. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2015;145(1):50–58; DOI:10.1159/000381321. FerrisJ FavettaLA KingWA Bisphenol A exposure during oocyte maturation in vitro results in spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment in Bos taurus Cytogenet Genome Res 2015 145 1 50 58 10.1159/000381321 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Campen KA, Kucharczyk KM, Bogin B, Ehrlich JM, Combelles CMH. Spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment in bovine oocytes after exposure to low doses of bisphenol A or bisphenol S. Hum Reprod. 2018;33(5):895–904; DOI:10.1093/humrep/dey050. CampenKA KucharczykKM BoginB EhrlichJM CombellesCMH Spindle abnormalities and chromosome misalignment in bovine oocytes after exposure to low doses of bisphenol A or bisphenol S Hum Reprod 2018 33 5 895 904 10.1093/humrep/dey050 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gatimel N, Lacroix MZ, Chanthavisouk S, Picard-Hagen N, Gayrard V, Parinaud J, Léandri RD. Bisphenol A in culture media and plastic consumables used for ART. Hum Reprod. 2016;31(7):1436–1444; DOI:10.1093/humrep/dew116. GatimelN LacroixMZ ChanthavisoukS Picard-HagenN GayrardV ParinaudJ LéandriRD Bisphenol A in culture media and plastic consumables used for ART Hum Reprod 2016 31 7 1436 1444 10.1093/humrep/dew116 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Moreau J, Gatimel N, Lippi Y, Tavenier G, Fauque P, Guilleman M, Naylies C, Huesca AA, Gayrard V, Parinaud J, Léandri RD. Impact of the polycarbonate strippers used in assisted reproduction techniques on embryonic development. Hum Reprod. 2021;36(2):331–339; DOI:10.1093/humrep/deaa290. MoreauJ GatimelN LippiY TavenierG FauqueP GuillemanM NayliesC HuescaAA GayrardV ParinaudJ LéandriRD Impact of the polycarbonate strippers used in assisted reproduction techniques on embryonic development Hum Reprod 2021 36 2 331 339 10.1093/humrep/deaa290 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Amar S, Binet A, Téteau O, Desmarchais A, Papillier P, Lacroix MZ, Maillard V, Guérif F, Elis S. Bisphenol S impaired human granulosa cell steroidogenesis in vitro. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(5):1821; DOI:10.3390/ijms21051821. AmarS BinetA TéteauO DesmarchaisA PapillierP LacroixMZ MaillardV GuérifF ElisS Bisphenol S impaired human granulosa cell steroidogenesis in vitro Int J Mol Sci 2020 21 5 1821 10.3390/ijms21051821 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Desmarchais A, Téteau O, Papillier P, Jaubert M, Druart X, Binet A, Maillard V, Elis S. Bisphenol S impaired in vitro ovine early developmental oocyte competence. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(4):1238; DOI:10.3390/ijms21041238. DesmarchaisA TéteauO PapillierP JaubertM DruartX BinetA MaillardV ElisS Bisphenol S impaired in vitro ovine early developmental oocyte competence Int J Mol Sci 2020 21 4 1238 10.3390/ijms21041238 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Téteau O, Jaubert M, Desmarchais A, Papillier P, Binet A, Maillard V, Elis S. Bisphenol A and S impaired ovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Reproduction. 2020;159(5):571–583; DOI:10.1530/REP-19-0575. TéteauO JaubertM DesmarchaisA PapillierP BinetA MaillardV ElisS Bisphenol A and S impaired ovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis Reproduction 2020 159 5 571 583 10.1530/REP-19-0575 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Togola A, Desmarchais A, Téteau O, Vignault C, Maillard V, Buron C, Bisteau S, Guérif F, Binet A, Elis S. Bisphenol S is present in culture media used for ART and cell culture. Hum Reprod. 2021;36(4):1032–1042; DOI: 10.1093/humrep/deaa365. TogolaA DesmarchaisA TéteauO VignaultC MaillardV BuronC BisteauS GuérifF BinetA ElisS Bisphenol S is present in culture media used for ART and cell culture Hum Reprod 2021 36 4 1032 1042 10.1093/humrep/deaa365 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Žalmanová T, Hošková K, Nevoral J, Prokešová Š, Zámostná K, Kott T, Petr J. Bisphenol S instead of bisphenol A: a story of reproductive disruption by regretable substitution – a review. Czech J Anim Sci. 2016;61(10):433–449; DOI:10.17221/81/2015-CJAS. ŽalmanováT HoškováK NevoralJ ProkešovአZámostnáK KottT PetrJ Bisphenol S instead of bisphenol A: a story of reproductive disruption by regretable substitution – a review Czech J Anim Sci 2016 61 10 433 449 10.17221/81/2015-CJAS Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Takatori S, Akutsu K, Kondo F, Ishii R, Nakazawa H, Makino T. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in media for in vitro fertilization. Chemosphere. 2012;86(5):454–459; DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.043. TakatoriS AkutsuK KondoF IshiiR NakazawaH MakinoT Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in media for in vitro fertilization Chemosphere 2012 86 5 454 459 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.09.043 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pollock T, Greville LJ, Weaver RE, Radenovic M, deCatanzaro D. Bisphenol S modulates concentrations of bisphenol A and oestradiol in female and male mice. Xenobiotica. 2019;49(5):540–548; DOI:10.1080/00498254.2018.1480818. PollockT GrevilleLJ WeaverRE RadenovicM deCatanzaroD Bisphenol S modulates concentrations of bisphenol A and oestradiol in female and male mice Xenobiotica 2019 49 5 540 548 10.1080/00498254.2018.1480818 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pollock T, Weaver RE, Ghasemi R, deCatanzaro D. A mixture of five endocrine-disrupting chemicals modulates concentrations of bisphenol A and estradiol in mice. Chemosphere. 2018;193:321–328; DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.030. PollockT WeaverRE GhasemiR deCatanzaroD A mixture of five endocrine-disrupting chemicals modulates concentrations of bisphenol A and estradiol in mice Chemosphere 2018 193 321 328 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.030 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hawthorne DJ, Dively GP. Killing them with kindness? In-hive medications may inhibit xenobiotic efflux transporters and endanger honey bees. PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e26796; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026796. HawthorneDJ DivelyGP Killing them with kindness? In-hive medications may inhibit xenobiotic efflux transporters and endanger honey bees PLoS One 2011 6 11 e26796 10.1371/journal.pone.0026796 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Johnson RM, Pollock HS, Berenbaum MR. Synergistic interactions between in-hive miticides in Apis mellifera. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102(2):474–479; DOI:10.1603/029.102.0202. JohnsonRM PollockHS BerenbaumMR Synergistic interactions between in-hive miticides in Apis mellifera J Econ Entomol 2009 102 2 474 479 10.1603/029.102.0202 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Lee GA, Choi KC, Hwang KA. Treatment with phytoestrogens reversed triclosan and bisphenol A-induced anti-apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2018;26(5):503–511; DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2017.160. LeeGA ChoiKC HwangKA Treatment with phytoestrogens reversed triclosan and bisphenol A-induced anti-apoptosis in breast cancer cells Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2018 26 5 503 511 10.4062/biomolther.2017.160 Abierto DOISearch in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo