This article addresses the issue of conflict situations caused by an out-of-date Land and Property Register (LPR) and the disadvantageous structure of rural areas in southern Poland. In this part of the country, holdings are very fragmented and scattered, made up of a large number of small surface area plots located far from the headquarters of the holding. The aim of the article is to present actions that can help improve rural spatial structure and validity of the land register. The authors have, therefore, analysed the problems that may result in both spatial and social conflicts. The following were analysed in particular: discrepancies between data in the LPR and the existing factual state, plots without access to public roads, property ownership structure, the necessity to regulate property boundaries, and problems with the procedure for taking land out of agricultural production. The article presents both positive and negative effects of the land consolidation and exchange process, modernisation of the Land and Property Register, and their impact on socio-spatial conflicts. Its results indicated that the land consolidation procedure and LPR modernisation have a significant impact on socio-spatial relations in rural areas. It has been found that despite the fact that both these activities may give rise to new disputes in addition to resolving conflicts, the overall balance is positive. It is because more positive aspects of these actions were found than negative consequences.