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Mechanisms and Methods of Decision Making / Ed. by Ewa Roszkowska

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Aug 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 61 (2020): Heft 1 (March 2020)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2199-6059
ISSN
0860-150X
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Aug 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Conceptual Blends Across Image Macro Genres

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 7 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper analyzes image macros via the theoretical framework of conceptual blending on the example of online responses to 2011 and 2012 doomsday predictions. To date, conceptual blending has shown promise in the analysis of a variety of internet memes; however, most studies have been limited to one type of meme or one blending model. This project adds to the discussion in two ways. First, it presents a thematic analysis – image macros responding to end of the world predictions – thereby covering a broader variety of image macro genres. Second, it modifies blending models according to the needs of the different genres. The discussion explores the extent to which the three different image macro genres require different blending models and the implication for future study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conceptual blending
  • internet memes
  • image macros
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Cognitive Motivation Behind the Semantics of Hungarian Co-Verbial Constructions with Össze and Szét

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 31 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The use of an elaborate system of co-verbial constructions is the hallmark of the Hungarian language and one of the biggest challenges a translator or a learner of this language has to face. Co-verbial constructions consist of verbs, or their derivates, accompanied by a limited number of prefixes or particles that modify their meanings. They not only perform numerous syntactic and lexical functions, which is important in terms of language production, but also are able to change the meaning of the verb completely. The aim of this study is to trace the cognitive motivation behind the use of Hungarian co-verbial constructions with össze/szét and to show that the meanings developed by these constructions can be organized with reference to prototypical scenes structured in the form of a radial category.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hungarian
  • co-verbial constructions
  • preverbs
  • verbal prefixes
  • polysemy
  • semantic extension
  • cognitive linguistics
  • cognitive motivation
  • scenes
  • radial category
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Normative Generics and Norm Breaching – A Questionnaire-Based Study of Parent-Child Interactions in English

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 49 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the phenomenon of normativity and genericity in language and cognition. More specifically, it investigates the use of normative generics, which are generalizations that state an ideal norm for a given category, in the context of norm breaching in parent-child interactions in English. This issue is researched by means of a specially designed questionnaire including 8 norm breaching parent-child interactions, which has been completed online by ca. 70 English-speaking female respondents. The paper uses qualitative and quantitative methods to address two specific research issues. First, it compares the frequency of use of normative generics in norm breaching situations vis-à-vis the use of other types of normative linguistic expressions. Second, it analyses selected factors that are believed to favour the use of normative generics, including interactive openness of a given situation, norm salience, and perceived norm importance. Moreover, the paper sketches an explanatory model of normative generics that draws upon insights from the Conceptual Metonymy Theory, Construction Grammar, and Dual System Theory.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genericity
  • normativity
  • normative generics
  • normative force
  • norms
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Interplay of Syntactic and Lexical Salience and its Effect on Default Figurative Responses

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 69 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to determine how salient and non-salient figurative discourse nouns affect readers’ default response processing and oculo-graphic (eye-movement) reactions. Whereas the theories of the Graded Salience and the Defaultness Hypotheses, developed by R. Giora (Giora, 1999, 2003; Giora, Givoni, & Fein, 2015), have stimulated further research in the area of interpretive salience (Giora et al., 2015; Giora, Jaffe, Becker & Fein, 2018), the resonating influence of syntactic salience on default interpretations has been largely neglected. In this study we provide corpus-based evidence followed by eye-tracking experiment verification, supportive of the synchronized influence of syntactic and lexical salience. The results show that default figurative responses in lexically salient positions may require more cognitive effort (longer fixations) if they are syntactically less salient. Literal responses to figurative nouns may also result from either weak lexical or syntactic salience of nouns. Therefore, apart from exemplifying resonance with lexical salience (in terms of lexical frequency, familiarity, conventionality, and prototypicality), the default figurative interpretations are also syntactically dependent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • figurative nouns
  • the Defaultness Hypothesis
  • syntactic salience
  • corpus-based analysis
  • eye-tracking experiment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

English Straight and Tok Pisin Stret: A Case Study from the Perspective of Cognitive Linguistics

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 89 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The framework of cognitive linguistics can be an efficient tool to represent the conceptual scope of meaning extension in reduced lexicons of pidgins and creoles. Image-schema based metaphors (Lakoff, 1993; Cienki, 1998) underlie the usage of English straight and its Tok Pisin counterpart stret, but the creole employs the concept in more contexts than English. The resultant variation in the scope of metaphor takes the form of a particular source domain being used to conceptualize more target domains than in the lexifier language. Functioning mainly as a compensation strategy, the variation is the effect of strong influence of English on the conceptual system of the creole.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adjunct
  • creole
  • English
  • image schema
  • metaphor
  • pidgin
  • Tok Pisin
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Logic and Normative Force of Dual-Character Generics: Towards a Theoretical Model for the Study of Normatively Shifted Predications

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 113 - 126

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between generic statements and the expression, transmission and persistence of social norms. The author presents the concept of normativity and its importance in the decision-making process in the context of social reality and social norms that comprise it (Bicchieri, 2006, 2016; Bicchieri et al., 2018). The paper analyses the idea of “what is normal” (Haslanger, 2014) to show how social norms are triggered by particular generic constructions relating to “social kinds”, represented by noun phrases denoting “dual character concepts” (Knobe et al., 2013; Prasada et al., 2013; Leslie, 2015). DCCs are shown as effectively serving their persuasive and explanatory function due to their polysemous nature (Leslie, 2015) rather than to different pragmatics (Leslie, forthcoming). Special focus is placed on gender terms as particularly salient social kinds; this salience can be explained by a culturally pivotal role of social constructs of manhood and womanhood and by linguistic potential of generics in the development of social beliefs and legitimizing norm-driven behaviours.

Schlüsselwörter

  • generics
  • normativity
  • social norms
  • gender terms
  • normative generics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Multimodal View of Late Medieval Rhetoric: The Case of the White Rose of York

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 127 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of heraldry, in particular of para-heraldic devices known as “badges”, in 15th-century England. The case chosen for examination is that of the white rose, one of the major badges of Edward IV.

The data consists of four contemporary texts in which Edward is referred to as the “rose”, analysed against the background of the use of the white rose of York as a heraldic device. This includes surviving artefacts ranging from effigies to stained glass to seals and manuscript illuminations, as well as contemporary descriptions and depictions of those artefacts.

Using the methodological apparatus of cognitive linguistics, specifically the multimodal metaphor and metonymy analysis, the author examines the interplay between language and heraldry. The results show that while the primary function of the white rose and of other badges employed by Edward IV was to emphasize his heritage and thus invite a metonymic reading, the badge inspired other, metaphorical readings, which were employed rhetorically by his supporters. In this context, the concept of the badge may be reinterpreted as a metaphtonymy.

The analysis supports the view of heraldry as an integral element of medieval society. From a semiotic perspective, heraldry should be seen as a dynamic system that could be exploited creatively to suit the needs of its users, which in turn corresponds to the dynamic theory of metaphor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heraldic badge
  • metaphor
  • metonymy
  • rhetoric
  • Edward IV
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Do All Eagles Fly High? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect: The Impact of Fillers in Truth Value Judgment Tasks

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 147 - 162

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The generic overgeneralization effect is an attested tendency to accept false universal generalizations such as “all eagles fly” or “all snakes lay eggs” as true. In this paper, we discuss the generic overgeneralization effect demonstrated by Polish adult speakers. We asked 313 native speakers of Polish to evaluate universal quantified generalizations such as “all eagles fly” or “all snakes lay eggs” as true or false. The control group of 107 respondents provided data on the acceptance rates of the corresponding generic generalizations such as “eagles fly” or “snakes lay eggs”. By determining the impact of test fillers on the participants’ acceptance rates, the study aimed to identify the scope of the generic overgeneralization effect. We manipulated four conditions: the universal negative, positive, neutral, and generic control conditions. The results showed significant differences between the first two conditions, but neither the negative nor the positive condition differed from the neutral one. The overall acceptance rates of universal statements were 63% for the negative condition, 49% for the positive condition, 55% for the neutral condition, and 90% for the control group. Overall, the participants accepted universal quantified statements at high rates even when they were prompted to reject them. The results may be interpreted as another piece of evidence in support of the generic overgeneralization effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • generic overgeneralization (GOG) effect
  • generic generalizations
  • universal quantified generalizations
  • negative, positive, and mixed fillers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inconsistencies in Temporal Metaphors: Is Time a Phenomenon of the Third Kind?

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 163 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper discusses the problem of inconsistencies in the metaphorical conceptualizations of time that involve motion within the framework of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT). It demonstrates that the TIME AS A PURSUER metaphor contrasts with the reverse variant TIME AS AN OBJECT OF PURSUIT, just as the MOVING TIME metaphor contrasts with the MOVING OBSERVER variant. Such metaphorical conceptualizations of time functioning as pairs of minimally differing variants based on Figure-Ground reversal are, strictly speaking, inconsistent with one another. Looking at these inconsistencies from a wider perspective suggests that time may belong to a separate category of conceptual phenomena. This paper puts forward a proposal to approach time from the perspective of “phenomena of the third kind”, which according to Keller’s thesis include conceptual establishments resulting from human cognition, but not of human design.

Schlüsselwörter

  • temporality
  • conceptual metaphor theory
  • time as motion
  • duality
  • cognitive corpus-illustrated linguistics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“That’s the Metaphor You’re Going for?” Deliberate Metaphor and Humor

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 183 - 204

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper aims at discussing the function of deliberate metaphors in humorous narratives due to the similarities in mechanisms underlying both elements of language. This corpus-based analysis has shown the relation between deliberate metaphors and elements of the knowledge resources of the General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH). The study has revealed that if deliberate metaphors are part of humorous narratives, they are more likely to be the source of the funniness rather than the transit system which conveys the metaphors themselves. With this in mind, it is possible to assess the extent to which deliberate metaphors contribute to humor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • deliberate metaphor
  • humor
  • GTVH
  • metaphor identification
  • corpus study
10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Conceptual Blends Across Image Macro Genres

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 7 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper analyzes image macros via the theoretical framework of conceptual blending on the example of online responses to 2011 and 2012 doomsday predictions. To date, conceptual blending has shown promise in the analysis of a variety of internet memes; however, most studies have been limited to one type of meme or one blending model. This project adds to the discussion in two ways. First, it presents a thematic analysis – image macros responding to end of the world predictions – thereby covering a broader variety of image macro genres. Second, it modifies blending models according to the needs of the different genres. The discussion explores the extent to which the three different image macro genres require different blending models and the implication for future study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conceptual blending
  • internet memes
  • image macros
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Cognitive Motivation Behind the Semantics of Hungarian Co-Verbial Constructions with Össze and Szét

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 31 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The use of an elaborate system of co-verbial constructions is the hallmark of the Hungarian language and one of the biggest challenges a translator or a learner of this language has to face. Co-verbial constructions consist of verbs, or their derivates, accompanied by a limited number of prefixes or particles that modify their meanings. They not only perform numerous syntactic and lexical functions, which is important in terms of language production, but also are able to change the meaning of the verb completely. The aim of this study is to trace the cognitive motivation behind the use of Hungarian co-verbial constructions with össze/szét and to show that the meanings developed by these constructions can be organized with reference to prototypical scenes structured in the form of a radial category.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Hungarian
  • co-verbial constructions
  • preverbs
  • verbal prefixes
  • polysemy
  • semantic extension
  • cognitive linguistics
  • cognitive motivation
  • scenes
  • radial category
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Normative Generics and Norm Breaching – A Questionnaire-Based Study of Parent-Child Interactions in English

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 49 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the phenomenon of normativity and genericity in language and cognition. More specifically, it investigates the use of normative generics, which are generalizations that state an ideal norm for a given category, in the context of norm breaching in parent-child interactions in English. This issue is researched by means of a specially designed questionnaire including 8 norm breaching parent-child interactions, which has been completed online by ca. 70 English-speaking female respondents. The paper uses qualitative and quantitative methods to address two specific research issues. First, it compares the frequency of use of normative generics in norm breaching situations vis-à-vis the use of other types of normative linguistic expressions. Second, it analyses selected factors that are believed to favour the use of normative generics, including interactive openness of a given situation, norm salience, and perceived norm importance. Moreover, the paper sketches an explanatory model of normative generics that draws upon insights from the Conceptual Metonymy Theory, Construction Grammar, and Dual System Theory.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genericity
  • normativity
  • normative generics
  • normative force
  • norms
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Interplay of Syntactic and Lexical Salience and its Effect on Default Figurative Responses

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 69 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to determine how salient and non-salient figurative discourse nouns affect readers’ default response processing and oculo-graphic (eye-movement) reactions. Whereas the theories of the Graded Salience and the Defaultness Hypotheses, developed by R. Giora (Giora, 1999, 2003; Giora, Givoni, & Fein, 2015), have stimulated further research in the area of interpretive salience (Giora et al., 2015; Giora, Jaffe, Becker & Fein, 2018), the resonating influence of syntactic salience on default interpretations has been largely neglected. In this study we provide corpus-based evidence followed by eye-tracking experiment verification, supportive of the synchronized influence of syntactic and lexical salience. The results show that default figurative responses in lexically salient positions may require more cognitive effort (longer fixations) if they are syntactically less salient. Literal responses to figurative nouns may also result from either weak lexical or syntactic salience of nouns. Therefore, apart from exemplifying resonance with lexical salience (in terms of lexical frequency, familiarity, conventionality, and prototypicality), the default figurative interpretations are also syntactically dependent.

Schlüsselwörter

  • figurative nouns
  • the Defaultness Hypothesis
  • syntactic salience
  • corpus-based analysis
  • eye-tracking experiment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

English Straight and Tok Pisin Stret: A Case Study from the Perspective of Cognitive Linguistics

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 89 - 112

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The framework of cognitive linguistics can be an efficient tool to represent the conceptual scope of meaning extension in reduced lexicons of pidgins and creoles. Image-schema based metaphors (Lakoff, 1993; Cienki, 1998) underlie the usage of English straight and its Tok Pisin counterpart stret, but the creole employs the concept in more contexts than English. The resultant variation in the scope of metaphor takes the form of a particular source domain being used to conceptualize more target domains than in the lexifier language. Functioning mainly as a compensation strategy, the variation is the effect of strong influence of English on the conceptual system of the creole.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adjunct
  • creole
  • English
  • image schema
  • metaphor
  • pidgin
  • Tok Pisin
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Logic and Normative Force of Dual-Character Generics: Towards a Theoretical Model for the Study of Normatively Shifted Predications

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 113 - 126

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationship between generic statements and the expression, transmission and persistence of social norms. The author presents the concept of normativity and its importance in the decision-making process in the context of social reality and social norms that comprise it (Bicchieri, 2006, 2016; Bicchieri et al., 2018). The paper analyses the idea of “what is normal” (Haslanger, 2014) to show how social norms are triggered by particular generic constructions relating to “social kinds”, represented by noun phrases denoting “dual character concepts” (Knobe et al., 2013; Prasada et al., 2013; Leslie, 2015). DCCs are shown as effectively serving their persuasive and explanatory function due to their polysemous nature (Leslie, 2015) rather than to different pragmatics (Leslie, forthcoming). Special focus is placed on gender terms as particularly salient social kinds; this salience can be explained by a culturally pivotal role of social constructs of manhood and womanhood and by linguistic potential of generics in the development of social beliefs and legitimizing norm-driven behaviours.

Schlüsselwörter

  • generics
  • normativity
  • social norms
  • gender terms
  • normative generics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Multimodal View of Late Medieval Rhetoric: The Case of the White Rose of York

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 127 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the present paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the role of heraldry, in particular of para-heraldic devices known as “badges”, in 15th-century England. The case chosen for examination is that of the white rose, one of the major badges of Edward IV.

The data consists of four contemporary texts in which Edward is referred to as the “rose”, analysed against the background of the use of the white rose of York as a heraldic device. This includes surviving artefacts ranging from effigies to stained glass to seals and manuscript illuminations, as well as contemporary descriptions and depictions of those artefacts.

Using the methodological apparatus of cognitive linguistics, specifically the multimodal metaphor and metonymy analysis, the author examines the interplay between language and heraldry. The results show that while the primary function of the white rose and of other badges employed by Edward IV was to emphasize his heritage and thus invite a metonymic reading, the badge inspired other, metaphorical readings, which were employed rhetorically by his supporters. In this context, the concept of the badge may be reinterpreted as a metaphtonymy.

The analysis supports the view of heraldry as an integral element of medieval society. From a semiotic perspective, heraldry should be seen as a dynamic system that could be exploited creatively to suit the needs of its users, which in turn corresponds to the dynamic theory of metaphor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heraldic badge
  • metaphor
  • metonymy
  • rhetoric
  • Edward IV
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Do All Eagles Fly High? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect: The Impact of Fillers in Truth Value Judgment Tasks

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 147 - 162

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The generic overgeneralization effect is an attested tendency to accept false universal generalizations such as “all eagles fly” or “all snakes lay eggs” as true. In this paper, we discuss the generic overgeneralization effect demonstrated by Polish adult speakers. We asked 313 native speakers of Polish to evaluate universal quantified generalizations such as “all eagles fly” or “all snakes lay eggs” as true or false. The control group of 107 respondents provided data on the acceptance rates of the corresponding generic generalizations such as “eagles fly” or “snakes lay eggs”. By determining the impact of test fillers on the participants’ acceptance rates, the study aimed to identify the scope of the generic overgeneralization effect. We manipulated four conditions: the universal negative, positive, neutral, and generic control conditions. The results showed significant differences between the first two conditions, but neither the negative nor the positive condition differed from the neutral one. The overall acceptance rates of universal statements were 63% for the negative condition, 49% for the positive condition, 55% for the neutral condition, and 90% for the control group. Overall, the participants accepted universal quantified statements at high rates even when they were prompted to reject them. The results may be interpreted as another piece of evidence in support of the generic overgeneralization effect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • generic overgeneralization (GOG) effect
  • generic generalizations
  • universal quantified generalizations
  • negative, positive, and mixed fillers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inconsistencies in Temporal Metaphors: Is Time a Phenomenon of the Third Kind?

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 163 - 181

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper discusses the problem of inconsistencies in the metaphorical conceptualizations of time that involve motion within the framework of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT). It demonstrates that the TIME AS A PURSUER metaphor contrasts with the reverse variant TIME AS AN OBJECT OF PURSUIT, just as the MOVING TIME metaphor contrasts with the MOVING OBSERVER variant. Such metaphorical conceptualizations of time functioning as pairs of minimally differing variants based on Figure-Ground reversal are, strictly speaking, inconsistent with one another. Looking at these inconsistencies from a wider perspective suggests that time may belong to a separate category of conceptual phenomena. This paper puts forward a proposal to approach time from the perspective of “phenomena of the third kind”, which according to Keller’s thesis include conceptual establishments resulting from human cognition, but not of human design.

Schlüsselwörter

  • temporality
  • conceptual metaphor theory
  • time as motion
  • duality
  • cognitive corpus-illustrated linguistics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“That’s the Metaphor You’re Going for?” Deliberate Metaphor and Humor

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Mar 2020
Seitenbereich: 183 - 204

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper aims at discussing the function of deliberate metaphors in humorous narratives due to the similarities in mechanisms underlying both elements of language. This corpus-based analysis has shown the relation between deliberate metaphors and elements of the knowledge resources of the General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH). The study has revealed that if deliberate metaphors are part of humorous narratives, they are more likely to be the source of the funniness rather than the transit system which conveys the metaphors themselves. With this in mind, it is possible to assess the extent to which deliberate metaphors contribute to humor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • deliberate metaphor
  • humor
  • GTVH
  • metaphor identification
  • corpus study

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