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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2509-8934
Erstveröffentlichung
22 Feb 2016
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 59 (2010): Heft 1-6 (December 2010)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2509-8934
Erstveröffentlichung
22 Feb 2016
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

37 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Field Evaluation of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. at Two Sites in Indo-gangetic Plains of India

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Results from clonal trials of Populus deltoides conducted in two distinct agroclimatic regions of Punjab in northwestern India are reported and discussed. Sixteen clones were evaluated at Hambran and Bathinda where commonly grown clone ‘G-48’ was considered as control. Significant differences among clones (P < 0.001) were observed for diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and volume at the age of four and six years under both the site conditions. Clone ‘L-48’ ranked first for volume at six year age at both sites and was followed by clone ‘Ranikhet’. The respective superiority for volume of these clones over control was 44.8 and 23.2 per cent at Hambran and 72.5 and 30.7 per cent at Bathinda. All growth traits registered significantly higher values at Hambran in comparison to those at Bathinda. Clone x site interaction was also significant (P < 0.001). The clones ‘L-168’, ‘154/86’, ‘Solan-z’ and ‘170/88’ experienced huge fluctuation in ranking between sites for volume at 6-year age. The DBH and height showed significant and positive correlation with each other and with tree volume at all the age combinations. The clonal mean heritability was quite high both at Hambran (0.73-0.86) and Bathinda (0.80-0.95). The genetic advance were the highest for volume (33.34-64.26%) and the lowest (10.65-22.79%) in case of height.

Schlüsselwörter

  • clonal heritability
  • clone-site interaction
  • genetic correlation
  • clonal selection
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance of Maritime Pine Spanish Mediterranean Provenances at Young Ages in a Transitional Region Between Atlantic and Mediterranean Climates in NW Spain

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 8 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) occurs naturally in a wide variety of sites around SW Europe, from typical Mediterranean climates to areas in Northern Spain and France with a strong oceanic influence. Within its distribution range populations are strongly differentiated, showing local adaptations to environmental conditions that have been widely documented in different provenance trials both in the Atlantic region and in the Mediterranean area. In the present paper, we analyzed the performance of six Mediterranean provenances in three sites in the interior of Galicia (NW Spain), a transitional region between Atlantic and Mediterranean climates where few catalogued materials are available for reforestation. Seven year after planting, provenances coming from the mildest climates grew faster but showed inferior stem form. The provenance x site interaction was weak, although some significant provenance rank changes were observed in the driest site. Among the tested provenances, Serranía de Cuenca showed good early growth in all sites and acceptable stem form, being thus a potential recommended material for using in the area. The Albarracín origin showed also good results, with excellent stem form and acceptable growth, especially in the driest site. A combined spatial analysis allowed us to compare the tested provenances with improved materials from Coastal Galicia (NW Spain) and Western Australia planted in adjacent progeny trials. Although the differences were small, the Atlantic material of both breeding programs performed slightly better than the Mediterranean provenances, and represents another alternative material for use in reforestation in this transitional climate region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pinus pinaster
  • provenance trial
  • spatial analysis
  • seed origin
  • genetic resources
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clonal Variation and Genotype by Environment Interactions in Growth and Wood Density in Eucalyptus camaldulensis at Three Contrasting Sites in Vietnam

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 17 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A total of 172 clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were tested in three clonal tests in northern, north-central and southern Vietnam, with 32 of them planted across all three sites. At age 3-5 years, the clonal repeatabilities were 0.18-0.42 for growth traits, 0.71-0.78 for wood basic density and 0.56-0.66 for pilodyn penetration. Genotypic correlations between growth and density at the three sites were from -0.24 to 0.17, and did not differ significantly from zero. Genotypic correlations between sites were 0.32-0.56 for growth traits at age 3 years, and 0.72-0.88 for density and pilodyn penetration. Selection gains for breast height diameter at individual sites at a selection proportion of 5% were 22-32%, with minor effects on density. Selection for diameter at one site gave indirect responses in diameter at the other two sites that were only 40-60% of the gains obtainable from direct selection at those sites. This study shows that fast-growing E. camaldulensis clones can be selected in Vietnam with only minor effects on density. Selection for growth should be regionally based to maximize selection gain whereas clonal rankings for density will change little across regions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • clonal repeatability
  • correlated response
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • genotype by environment interaction
  • selection gain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Realized Gains from Block-Plot Coastal Douglas-Fir Trials in the Northern Oregon Cascades

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite - high predicted gain; intermediate - moderate predicted gain; and unimproved - wild seedlot) were compared at two planting spacings (1.8 × 1.8 m and 3.6 × 3.6 m). The realized gains at age 15 averaged over both the elite and intermediate progeny were 17.2% for stand volume per hectare, 3.5% for mean height, and 4.3% for diameter, compared to predicted genetic gains of 16.0% for volume, 5.4% for height, and 6.4% for diameter. Realized and predicted gains correlated well at the family level, with an average correlation coefficient close to 0.80. The improved populations also had higher survival rate and lower stem sinuosity than the unimproved population. Strong genetic level × planting spacing interaction effects were revealed for the growth traits at age 15 using mixed model analyses. Realized gains for stand per-hectare volume and mean growth rate were at least twice as large in the elite population as in the intermediate population at the close spacing. By contrast, both populations performed similarly at the wide spacing. This indicates that the selected genetic materials responded differently to the changes of competitive environment, and realized gain trials should closely mimic operational plantations in order to provide valid estimates of realized gains. Realized gains in per-hectare volume varied greatly among test sites. No significant genetic level x site interactions were found for any traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Realized genetic gain
  • Douglas-fir
  • competition
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induction of Diploid Eggs With Colchicine During Embryo Sac Development in Populus

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 40 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Diploid (2n) eggs were induced by treating developing embryo sacs of Populus with colchicine solution, in order to produce triploid plants. The optimal pollinated time of female catkins was confirmed as timing point for each treatment. When female catkins of P. pseudo-simonii x P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ had become 5.62 ± 0.13 cm long 84 h after they emerged from their bract scales and all stigmas were exposed, pistils all over the entire catkin had optimal stigma receptivity. Observation of paraffin sections showed that embryo sac development of ‘Zheyin3#’, which initiated 12 h before pollination and finished 132 h after pollination, was a successive and asynchronous process. Generative cell division of pollen of the male parent P. x beijingensis took place 3-16 h after pollination. Catkins of 18-96 h after pollination of ‘Zheyin3#’ were treated with colchicine solution. In the progeny, twenty three triploids were detected by chromosome counting and the highest rate of triploids was 66.7% in one treatment. The rate of triploid yield was positively correlated with the frequency of four-nucleate embryo sacs (r = 0.6721, p = 0.0981) and was not significantly correlated with the percentages of uni-, twoand eight-nucleate embryo sac (r = -0.1667, p = 0.7210, r = -0.3069, p = 0.5031 and r = 0.0189, p = 0.9679, respectively), suggesting that the third mitotic division of embryo sac may be the effective stage to induce 2n eggs. Through this approach, completely homozygous 2n eggs can be produced. Its significance for plant breeding is discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 2n egg
  • colchicine
  • embryo sac development
  • Populus
  • triploid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Variation in Cold Hardiness and Phenology Between and Within Turkish Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) Populations: Implications for Seed Transfer

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 49 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Wind-pollinated seeds from 40 trees (half-sib families) were collected from each of six Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) populations in southern Turkey. Two-year old seedlings were evaluated for growth, phenology and cold resistance in a common garden experiment established in Ankara, located outside the species’ natural range. Each family was represented with a six-tree row plot within each of the three replications. The below freezing temperatures (-15.2°C) observed in January and February of 2000 were sufficient to observe visually- assessable-cold damage to the seedlings. The populations significantly differed in all traits under investigation except for second flushing in 1999. Populations originating from more inland and higher elevation areas were more resistant to cold than coastal low elevation populations. Families within populations were significantly different as regards all traits except HT00. Family heritability for bud burst was 0.40, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.37 for height, and from 0.20 to 0.23 for bud set. Final height of cold damage prone seedlings was shorter than cold tolerant seedlings. Families with early bud-set, later bud-burst and shorter second flush shoots suffered less from cold damage. Considering the expected climate change in the eastern Mediterranean, there is a potential for using this species outside its natural range, especially in sites experiencing more continental climate since it will be possible to move the species 200-300 m in altitude and 2-3 degrees in latitude.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate warming
  • cold damage
  • genetic variation
  • Pinus brutia
  • Turkish red pine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Microsatellite Based Paternity Analysis in a Clonal Eucalyptus nitens Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 57 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Microsatellite markers were used to determine paternity in 473 open-pollinated progenies from a clonal Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard of 50 trees from 12 different genotypes. The outcrossing rate in this orchard was high, averaging 0.85 (weighted by capsule crop) but variable between trees (ranging from 0.6-1.0). Paternal contribution of each genotype to the open-pollinated seed crop was predicted by the size of the flower crop of each genotype (r = 0.76), but not the number of ramets. While the detectable contamination in this orchard is relatively low (4.5%), it is atypical when compared to other published estimates in eucalypt seed orchards suggesting that with suitable buffering low levels of contamination can be achieved.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Outcrossing rate
  • selfing
  • eucalypt genetics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Use of Microsatellite Markers in an American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Population and Paternity Testing

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 62 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech and were found to be highly polymorphic, with 4-22 alleles at each locus and an expected heterozygosity value of 0.291 to 0.913. Twenty-five trees (including two clonal clusters) from a mature stand were sampled and genotyped to compute population statistics. No linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was detected, and the marker loci indicated that the population is at Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The markers were also used to genotype two full-sibling families consisting of a combined total of 99 individuals and were found to contain sufficient genetic information to assign paternity using a maximum likelihood method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • beech bark disease
  • microsatellite markers
  • paternity testing
  • population genetics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-encoding Disease-resistance Gene Analogues from European Aspen (Populus tremula)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 68 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The majority of verified plant disease resistance genes (R genes) isolated to date was of the nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class. The conservation between different NBS-LRR R genes opens the avenue for the use of PCR based strategies in isolating and cloning other R gene family members or analogs (resistance gene analogue, RGA) using degenerate primers for these conserved regions. In this study, to better understand the R gene in European aspen (Populus tremula), a perennial tree, we used degenerate primers to amplify RGA sequences from European aspen. Cloning and sequence characterization identified 37 European aspen RGAs, which could be phylogenetically classified into seven subfamilies. Deduced amino acid sequences of European aspen RGAs showed strong identity, ranging from 30.41 to 46.63%, to toll interleukin receptor (TIR) R gene subfamily. BLAST searches with reference to the genomic sequence of P. trichocarpa found 209 highly homologous regions distributed in 28 genomic loci, suggesting the abundance and divergence of NBS-encoding R genes in European aspen genome. Although, numerous studies have reported that plant R genes are under diversifying selection for specificity to evolving pathogens, non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) ratio were <1 for NBS domains of European aspen RGA, showing the evidence of purifying selection in this perennial tree. In further analysis, many intergenic exchanges were also detected among these RGAs, indicating a probable role in homogenising NBS domains. The present study permits insights into the origin, diversification, evolution and function of NBS-LRR R genes in perennial species like European aspen and will be useful for further R gene isolation and exploitation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Populus tremula
  • disease resistance gene
  • nucleotide binding site
  • resistance gene analogue
  • phylogenetic analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bio-economic Modelling as a Method for Determining Economic Weights for Optimal Multiple-Trait Tree Selection

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 77 - 90

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A bio-economic model provides a framework for simultaneously considering breeding, management, and production decisions. Such a model should result in optimal breeding (and silvicultural) objectives if main goals of a production system are well defined. Historically estimation of economic weights for breeding-objective traits has been based on partial regressions and profit functions relating only to certain parts of the production system. A bio-economic model includes effects of growth rate, branching, form, and wood quality on all production system components and on overall profitability of an integrated production system. However, long rotation cycles in forestry make determination of relative economic values for the breeding-objective traits particularly difficult. When modelling complex systems under uncertainty about future production goals, there are necessary trade offs between the complexity of the model and the use of simplifying assumptions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • tree improvement
  • breeding objective
  • bio-economic modelling
  • production system analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Response to Selfing in Seed Set, Seedling Establishment and Nursery Growth Based on Controlled Crosses of Abies nordmanniana Clones

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 90 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) is used for production of high value Christmas trees in short rotation. Potentially all trees are intended to be sold - no thinnings are normally applied. A high proportion of saleable trees per ha is the main key to secure economic return to the growers. Consumers demand a symmetric and rather uniform tree and, dependent on local traditions, it should be more or less dense and narrow. In Denmark, breeding of Nordmann fir and establishment of seed orchards focus on seed supply and improved Christmas tree quality - aiming at adaption and a rather uniform ideotype Christmas tree. Benefits from employing rather few clones, to maximise gain and uniformity, may potentially be counteracted by increased selfing. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of selfing on percentage of filled seed and nursery establishment of seedlings. Inbreeding depression was seen for filled seeds (40%), growth traits (5-17%), plus mortality and axial damage (5-12 percent units). Many selfed seedlings survive and develop into marketable seedlings, although with a depression in numbers of 23-37%, or 9-12 percent units. Nursery sorting procedures can only partially reduce the number of inbred seedlings in Nordmann fir. The large variation among clones in the response to selfing indicates that knowledge of the behaviour of selfed progeny from specific clones in ‘small number seed orchards’ is of practical interest. Trade-offs between increased gain by selection of few clones and a penalty paid for increased inbreeding need further studies during a full Christmas tree rotation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seed orchard
  • selfing
  • filled seeds
  • inbreeding depression
  • nursery practice
  • Christmas tree
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Resistance to Ceratocystis Wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) in Parents and Progenies of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 99 - 106

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most damaging diseases in eucalyptus plantations worldwide. Although there are resistant genotypes, the genetic basis of resistance is still poorly understood. In this paper we studied the resistance level by a stem inoculation experiment of genotypes of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla and estimated the heritability and gains of selection in families derived from controlled interspecific crosses. In both species, highly resistant as well as highly susceptible genotypes to Ceratocystis wilt were found. Out of 21 parents assessed, twelve were resistant and nine susceptible. Estimates of individual narrow (50%) and broad (59%) sense heritability suggested a high degree of genetic control and low allelic dominance of the trait. There was great genetic variation among and within families, a fact that contributes to high heritability and genetic gain. A genetic gain in lesion size of up to -74.4% was obtained from selection of the 50 best clones in the evaluated families, i.e., the mean lesion length in the progeny population can be reduced by 74,4%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetic parameters
  • genetic resistance
  • forest pathology
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters of Somatic Clones of Coastal Douglas-fir for Growth, Stem and Wood Traits at 6½ or 7½-Years in Washington and Oregon, USA

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 107 - 113

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Five genetic tests involving 70 somatic clones of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were planted March-April 1999 in Weyerhaeuser plantations across western Washington and Oregon states, USA. Four of the tests are in the Longview and Twin Harbors regions of Washington, and one test is in Springfield, Oregon. Each test is designed as single-tree plots with 12 randomized complete-blocks. The 70 coastal Douglas-fir clones were propagated by somatic embryogenesis (SE) from two full-sib families created by crossings among three parents. Results are reported for height, diameter at breast-height (DBH) and stem volume measured at 71/2-years; and stem sinuosity, stress wave velocity (SWV) and pilodyn at 61/2-years. Withinfamily clonal heritabilities (or repeatabilities) were estimated as the ratio of the variance between-clones within- families to the overall phenotypic variance. Variance between families was not included in the numerator of the heritability equation because the 70 SE clones are from only two full-sib families. Height had a within-family clonal heritability of 0.31 ± 0.04, DBH 0.27 ± 0.04, volume 0.24 ± 0.04, stem sinuosity 0.13 ± 0.02, SWV 0.45 ± 0.04 and pilodyn 0.31 ± 0.04. The three growth traits were all closely genetically associated with clonal correlations among them of 0.86 to 0.98. Clonal performance for growth proved quite stable across tests with an overall betweentest clonal correlation of 0.80 ± 0.04 for stem volume, meaning that clone x test interactions only accounted for a minor part of the total variance. The between-test correlation was 0.79 ± 0.06 for sinuosity, 0.96 ± 0.01 SWV and 0.86 ± 0.03 for pilodyn.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Coastal Douglas-fir
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • adaptability
  • within-family clonal heritability
  • clonal stability
  • wood properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters and Genotype by Environment Interaction in Radiata Pine for Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Australia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The phenotypic response of genotypes across different environments can be quantified by estimating the genotype by environment interaction (GxE). In a practical sense, GxE means that the relative performance of genotypes does not remain constant under all test conditions. Genetic parameters and genotype by environment interactions for wood density, growth, branching characteristics and stem straightness were investigated in eight radiata pine progeny trials derived from a second generation breeding population in Australia. Five trials were on the mainland, while three trials were in Tasmania. Generally, ĥ2 for density > branch angle > stem straightness > tree diameter > branch size; and significant ĥ2 was observed for all traits and at all trials with only two exceptions. Genetic correlations were estimated among the five traits, and a large negative genetic correlation observed between wood density and tree diameter indicated that a selection strategy should be developed in dealing with this adverse genetic correlation in advanced generations of breeding for radiata pine. Interactions for density, branch angle, and stem straightness were small within the two regions. Overall, branch angle had the least GxE, followed by density and stem straightness. Growth traits (tree diameter and branch size) tended to be the most interactive with substantial GxE present. Genotype by regional interactions (Mainland versus Tasmania) revealed that density and branch angle had the least interactions (ȓB = 0.98 and ȓB = 0.95, respectively). Branch size and tree diameter had the highest interactions among the two regions (ȓB = 0.55 and ȓB = 0.63, respectively). Within Tasmania, only branch size and tree diameter had a sizable interaction within the three sites. In contrast, there was little interaction for tree diameter among the Mainland trials. Branch size in the Mainland trials had a similar size of interaction as in Tasmania. Further research is recommended in identifying the cause of GxE for tree diameter and branch size in radiata pine across the entire radiata pine estate in Australia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heritability
  • genetic correlations
  • genotype by environment interaction
  • Pinus radiata
  • growth
  • wood quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Growth Characteristics, Physiological and Metabolic Responses of Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) Clones Differing in Rejuvenation Capacity Subjected to Drought Stress

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 124 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antioxidative enzymes
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Drought stress
  • Leaf oxidative damage
  • Osmolyte accumulation
  • Photosynthetic capacity
  • Teak clones
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differences Between Georgian and French Wild Cherry Populations and Consequence for Wild Cherry Breeding Programmes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 137 - 144

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

For the first time, the diversity of wild cherry in Caucasia was sampled: 5 populations of Georgia, together with 11 French populations. 23 alleles from 7 isozyme loci were scored, among them 6 new alleles in Georgia. Though the total number of alleles was higher in Georgia (A = 2.4) than in France (A = 2.0), the diversity was higher in France (He = 0.324) than in Georgia (He = 0.284). A higher level of differentiation was found in France (Fst = 0.094) than in Georgia (Fst = 0.057), and the total Fst was even higher (0.108). Mean pairwise distances inside the French group, the Georgian group and between the two groups were 0.054, 0.037 and 0.094, respectively. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between genetic and geographical distances was 0.58 (p = 0.014) between France and Georgia, which indicated a moderate pattern of isolation by distance. The number of migrants after correction of size was high among the French populations (Nm= 7.6) and even higher among the four nearby Georgian populations (Nm= 32), but it was very low between the pooled French populations and the pooled Georgian populations (Nm= 0.33). Georgia in Caucasia, as an extreme country in the distribution area, can be considered as a source of neutral gene diversity for wild cherry, and thus may also be one for adaptative gene diversity we could use to increase the genetic base of our western country wild cherry breeding populations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Prunus avium
  • isozyme
  • diversity
  • breeding
  • France
  • Georgia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clone Fertility and Genetic Diversity in a Black Pine Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 145 - 150

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Clonal variation in the number of female and male strobili was studied for three consecutive years (2002-2004) in a clonal black pine seed orchard in Turkey. The data showed large differences in female and male fertility among clones in the three years. The correlation between female and male strobilus production was negative and statistically significant in 2004, a good-flowering year. Clonal fertility and fertility variation, expressed by the sibling coefficient and coefficient of variation in strobilus production among 30 clones, were reported. Fertility varied among clones and among years, producing three-year averages of 99.3 and 801.6 for female and male strobili per ramet, respectively. Male fertility variation was higher than was female fertility variation in the three years. The status number, a measure of genetic diversity, was calculated as 26.4 (2002), 23.9 (2003), and 24.0 (2004). On average, the relative status number, estimated based on total fertility, was 86% of the census number. Sexual asymmetry calculations showed that clonal contributions would be balanced between genders. Some management activities such as adjusting ramet number to balance clone contributions and mixing of seeds from consecutive years are suggested for the black pine seed orchard.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fertility variation
  • status number
  • genetic diversity
  • sexual asymmetry
  • Pinus nigra
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters for Bud Flushing and Growth Characteristics of White Spruce Seedlings

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 151 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We estimated heritabilities and correlations for bud flushing and growth traits of white spruce seedlings, and the correlations of seedling traits with 10- and 11- year height of the same families in the field. The seedling greenhouse experiment had a randomized complete block design with 30 replications, 58 open-pollinated families and single-tree plots. Individual tree heritability (hi2) was 0.78 and 0.54 for 18 (H18) and 36 (H36)-week total height, respectively. The corresponding heritabilities for family means (hf2) were 0.91 and 0.82. For root collar diameter, hi 2 were respectively, 0.61 and 0.22 at 24 and 54 weeks from germination. The corresponding hf2 were 0.87 and 0.55. Heritability for bud flushing ranged from 0.13 to 0.46 (hi2) and 0.44 to 0.83 (hf 2). The genetic correlation (ra) between H18 and H36 was 0.70 and that of D24 and D54 was 0.89, indicating a substantial change in family ranking in one growing season. The type B genetic correlation for H18 with field heights ranged from 0.22 to 0.30. Type B genetic correlations of field height with all other seedling traits were very low and largely negative. It can be concluded that: (1) age-age correlation of seedling height can be expected to decline drastically even in a stable environment of the greenhouse, (2) heritability for growth potential is meaningful when estimated on cumulative growth not on individual annual growth increments that are susceptible to short-term environmental variation, (3) dates of bud flushing did not influence variation in height and root collar diameter, and (4) field growth potential is better predicted by greenhouse growth potential than other morphological and shoot phenological traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Heritability
  • genetic correlation
  • early selection
  • bud flushing
  • progeny test
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Population Differentiation and Climatic Adaptation for Growth Potential of White Spruce (Picea glauca) in Alberta, Canada

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 158 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Genetic differentiation among white spruce populations in Alberta, Canada, was studied using time series data of height and diameter and a climatic index developed by principal component analysis. The objectives were to discern patterns of variation for growth potential and predicted optimum climate; compare optimum climate between populations, between height and diameter at the same age and between height or diameter at different ages; and to see if optimum climate differed from the climate inhabited by populations. Using cluster analysis we found that: (1) populations from mid-latitudes (54° - 57°N) and mid-elevations (600 - 800 m) were grouped together and exhibited high growth potential; populations from north of 57°N were grouped with those from elevations higher than 900m in the Rocky Mountains and exhibited low growth potential; and (2) With minor exceptions, populations from similar climates or geography were grouped together in terms of predicted optimum climate. (3) Analysis of variance showed that optimum climate differed significantly (P < 0.05) among populations; among heights at different ages; among diameters at different ages and between height and diameter at the same ages. However, there was no consistent trend in the direction of change in optimum climate with tree age. (4) The range of climate inhabited by the populations (PI₁ = -5.792 to 4.483) was much wider than the range of their predicted optimum climate (P̂Ō₁ = -1.001 to 0.842), which suggests that in terms of growth potential some populations inhabit sub-optimal climates. Implications of the results on management of white spruce in Alberta are discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Multivariate Climatic Index
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Genetic Variation
  • Optimum Climate
  • Principal Component
  • Response Functions
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clonal Variation in Acorn Production and its Effect on the Effective Population Size in a Quercus acutissima Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 170 - 175

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Acorn production was surveyed for eight consecutive years (2000-2007) in a 94-clone Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) seed orchard established in 1992. Acorn production commenced in 2000 and peaked in 2005 and was characterized by a 3-4 years interval. Sixty out of the orchard’s 94 clones were consistent producers across the study period. Acorn production’s Pearson productmoment and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were significant and consistently positive over the eight years study period. Parental cumulative reproductive output, represented by parental balance curves, slightly varied among mast years and showed steady improvement (less distortion) over years. Effective population size (Np) was high in moderate and good acorn production years; however, departure from clonal equal contribution was observed throughout the study period. Parental effective population size was estimated under various scenarios of male fecundity (pollen production is: 1) proportional to clone size, 2) equal to female contribution, and 3) equal across all clones) resulted in high Np and low group co-ancestry under equal male fecundity scenario while moderate Np size and group co-ancestry were observed when male fecundity was assumed to be proportional to clone size (i.e., ramet number).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Quercus acutissima
  • contribution
  • parental balance
  • fertility variation
  • gene diversity
  • effective number
  • co-ancestry
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Karyotypic Studies in Ecotypes of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. from Romania

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 175 - 182

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Sea buckthorn is a dioecious Eurasian shrub or small tree with large morphological, biochemical and physiological variability, evidenced by the great number of studies. Cytogenetically, uncertainties exist on species basic number, ploidy level, and sex chromosomes. In this study, detailed cytogenetic measurements were carried out on six Romanian ecotypes belonging to Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. carpatica Rousi, in order to establish the features and the symmetry degree of karyotypes, to evidence the sex chromosomes, and to construct the idiogram. The ecotypes have 2n = 24 metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. An intraspecific variation exists concerning the proportion of these two morphotypes. The karyotypes have similar symmetry patterns (R = 2.57-2.89; TF%= 38.54-42.70; AsI%= 57.99-61.41; A1=0.27-0.35; A2 = 0.26-0.36) and belong to 1B and 2B classes, being relatively high symmetric. Based on obtained results, we presume that the male sex chromosomes are heteromorphic, while in female plants are homomorphic. The Y chromosome is larger than X chromosome.

Key words

  • Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. carpatica Rousi
  • heterosomes
  • idiogram
  • karyotype
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Correlations Among Field Trials of Norway Spruce Clones Representing Different Propagation Cycles

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 182 - 189

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Serial cutting propagation means that clones are produced in consecutive propagation cycles, where a new round of cuttings are taken from the previously rooted cuttings, etc. The objective of this study was to judge the importance of propagation cycle on height growth in field trials. In a field trial series with Norway spruce clones, comprising nine trials in four cutting propagation cycles, propagation cycle only had a minor effect on height growth compared to the site effect. For inter-site correlation models where all trials were included, the best fit was obtained by an unstructured model, while the most parsimonious model included constraints on the correlations depending on cycle structure. Model constraints based on grouping of the trials by site productivity did not improve the fit. Testing for generally good performers over a range of different site conditions appears to be a good approach, unless drivers of genotype by environment interaction can be identified.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cuttings
  • field performance
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • Norway spruce
  • propagation effects
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Provenance Productivity of High and Low Elevation Pinus tecunumanii in Zimbabwe

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 189 - 199

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The productivity potential of provenances and families of Pinus tecunumanii were determined across a range of environments in four orthogonal field trials in Zimbabwe. Provenances of P. tecunumanii from altitudes above 1500 m (High Elevation) in natural stands in Mexico and Central America were significantly superior (P < 0.05) to provenances from altitudes below 1500 m (Low Elevation) when planted in Zimbabwe in eightyear mean individual tree volume (1729.2 versus 1588.6 dm3) at 1760 m a.s.l.; were not significantly different (1163.1 versus 1143.9 dm3) at 1450 m a.s.l.; but the latter was significantly superior (1756.4 versus 1468.6 dm3) at 1050 m a.s.l., and (720.7 versus 531.5 dm3) at 780 m a.s.l. The most productive provenances were Juquila (26.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1760 m, Yucul (17.3 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1450 m, San Francisco (24.9 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1050 m and Villa Santa (11.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 780 m a.s.l. Improved P. patula was significantly superior to P. tecunumanii at 1760 m a.s.l but the differences were nonsignificant at 1450 m a.s.l. In the warm lower altitude sites, P. tecunumanii was not significantly different from improved P. oocarpa, the commonly planted species, although some provenances of P. tecunumanii were significantly superior by as much as 31%. The top 10 ranked families of the high elevation P. tecunumanii had an eight-year volume advantage of 1% and 23% over P. patula at Stapleford and Cashel, and 40% and 34% over P. oocarpa at Gungunyana and Maswera respectively. Genotype-environment interaction was significant by elevation group, provenance and family level. The interaction at the family level was however largely contributed by families from the high elevation P. tecunumanii. Opportunities exist for immediate deployment of seed of selected provenances of P. tecunumanii in medium and low altitude areas to improve plantation productivity. There is however, no immediate yield advantage of using P. tecunumanii seed in high potential environments currently planted to P. patula. Breeding and selection could also bring about the planting of P. tecunumanii in the higher altitudes in the near future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Low and High Elevation P. tecunumanii
  • provenance
  • productivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Different Simulated Management Intensities on The Genetic Diversity of a Heart-of-palm Tree Natural Population (Euterpe edulis Martius)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 201 - 210

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of selective logging on genetic diversity and inbreeding a heart-of-palm tree (Euterpe edulis), simulating different cutting intensities. To detect the effects of logging, we first performed the genetic characterization of the reproductive plants present in 24 plots that were allocated in Ibirama-SC, Brazil. For the genetic characterization we used allozyme markers, and for simulating the occurrence of different cutting intensities (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 150 seed-trees/ha) we performed 1000 resamplings within the total seed-tree group (599). Thus, it was possible to compare the genetic diversity among the different cutting intensities and the unmanaged population, through alterations to the allelic frequencies, heterozygosity, loss of alleles and increase in the inbreeding. The results of genetic indexes for different cutting intensity were variable, but all presented the same tendency towards genetic diversity reduction when the density of the seed-trees/ha was reduced. The results show that the density of 60 seed-trees/ha, or higher are the most indicated when the objective is to utilize this natural resource in a sustainable way as regards the management issues, because they did not present loss of alleles or reduction in the number of polymorphic loci, and also because they presented the lowest reductions in the observed and expected heterozygosity index and fixation index.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Euterpe edulis
  • natural population management
  • effective population size
  • genetic diversity
  • heart-of-palm
  • allozyme markers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd Provenances in Dryland Savannah of Niger

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 210 - 218

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 11 Acacia senegal provenances in Niger, West Africa, grown on 2 different soil types. Among the provenances, 6 are from Niger, 4 from Mali and 1 from Sudan. The assessment was carried out with measurements of growth parameters (survival rate, height, diameter and basal area) as well as gum and fruit production at age 15. The results showed significant differences in growth parameters between soil types and provenances. The provenances from Mali perform best, followed by the local Niger provenances. There were no significant differences in gum and fruit production between provenances, but it cannot be excluded that this was a result of limited power in the test of provenance variation in these traits. Survival of the provenances was correlated to the precipitation and the latitude of the origin, whereas basal area was correlated to latitude, and height was correlated to longitude/altitude at the origin. Recommendations could be made for genetic selection of two Mali provenances if growth is a desired character. We conclude that recommendations in terms of gum and fruit production must be based on a relative high number of sample trees as tree to tree variation within provenances may be large.

Key words

  • Acacia senegal
  • gum arabic
  • growth
  • Niger
  • Provenance trial
  • clines
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Karyotype Analysis of Alnus Mill. (Betulaceae) Species Originating From Northeastern Asia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 219 - 223

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Alnus Mill. (alder) is an ecologically valuable tree genus. It is essential to study its genetic makeup in order to use alder trees to their full potential. Five specimens from four Alnus species (A. mandshurica, A. pendula, A. sibirica, and A. sieboldiana), found in northeastern Asia, were subjected to karyotype analysis. The analysis showed that these tree samples could be divided into three categories based on chromosome numbers or ploidy levels: viz., 2n = (4x) = 28, 2n = (8x) = 56 and 2n = (16x) = 112. The differences in chromosome number and karyotype parameters among Alnus species and even within the same species possibly resulted from natural polyploidization. Comparing the chromosome numbers of Alnus species in China with those in Japan showed that there appear to be only two categories in China, whereas there are up to five categories in Japan. The earliest fossil records of Alnus pollen were also discovered in Japan. We conclude that the center origin of Alnus spp. is Japan rather than China.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alder
  • Asia
  • center of origin
  • chromosomal evolution
  • karyotype analysis
  • polyploidy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Realized Genetic Gains in Coastal Douglas-fir in British Columbia: Implications for Growth and Yield Projections

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 223 - 233

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Realized genetic gain trials for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) at five different sites with four different spacings were assessed at age 12 to compare early gain predictions in growth from small plot progeny test designs to those obtained from large block designs. Seedlings from three genetic levels, i.e., local wild-stand controls (WS), a mid-gain seedlot (MG), and a top-cross seedlot (TC) were planted in 12 × 12 tree plots with two replications at spacings of 1.6 m, 2.3 m, 2.9 m and 4.0 m. Two replications of a “single-tree plot” design at 2.9 m spacing for the three genetic levels (30 trees per genetic level) were also established, to allow for more detailed comparisons between single-tree and multiple-tree plot means. Although these trials are still relatively young, trees in the closest spacing had the highest levels of mortality with the TC trees having the highest rate of survival. Height gains in the block trials ranged from 10.4% to 16.1% for MG and TC trees, respectively, and were relatively close to the predicted values; however, volume (individual tree and volume/ha) gains exceeded expectations. Effects of genetic entry on height at age 12 were highly significant, while spacing, genetic entry by spacing, and genetic entry by test site interactions were not significant. We also compared height growth over the first 12 years to growth estimated from the “Bruce height growth model” for Douglas-fir and found that on four of the five test sites our MG and TC seedlings follow the expected height growth trajectories.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • breeding value
  • competition
  • spacing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Controlled Pollination Methods for Creating Corymbia Hybrids

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 233 - 241

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inter-specific Corymbia hybrids are of increasing interest to plantation forestry, yet there is little knowledge of the most suitable controlled pollination methods for this genus. Inter-specific crosses were made between C. torelliana [CT(maternal parent)] and C. citriodora subsp. variegata (CCV), C. henryi (CH) and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora (CCC) using conventional pollination, one-stop pollination (OSP) and artificially-induced protogyny on yellow buds (AIP Y) pollination methods. Additional treatments included AIP on green buds (AIP G) and the use of exclusion bags for the OSP and AIP methods. Inter-specific hybrids (CT x CCV, CT x CH and CT x CCC) were successfully created using all three pollination methods. The AIP Y treatment provided the highest seed yields and achieved time savings of >41% over the conventional and OSP methods, resulting in up to five-fold increases in operator productivity. However, the AIP Y treatment also had the highest C. torelliana contamination levels (9.3-13.2%). The use of exclusion bags with the AIP method had minimal effect on contamination rates, indicating a high proportion of selfpollen contamination. Contamination rates varied between maternal parents, suggesting variation in selfcompatibility for C. torelliana individuals. AIP using semi-ripe green buds was not effective at reducing selfing and had low operator productivity. The AIP method is suitable for use in a large-scale hybrid breeding program for C. torelliana. When self-pollination effects are managed, it could greatly reduce the costs associated with the production of seed of elite family crosses for commercial forestry deployment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Conventional pollination
  • one-stop pollination
  • artificially- induced protogyny
  • self-pollination
  • spotted gum
  • Eucalyptus
  • inter-specific hybrid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Selection of Genetically Divergent Clones of Casuarina equisetifolia for Further Breeding Programmes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 242 - 248

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetic Divergence
  • Casuarina equisetifolia
  • Tree Breeding
  • Hybridization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of SCAR Markers for Species Identification in the Genus Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 249 - 257

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The development of molecular markers unambiguously distinguishing groups at different taxonomic levels has numerous forensic applications. The identification of tropical timber is of particular interest in this context. We describe the development of SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) markers for forensic applications taking the example of two closely related species of the tropical tree family Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). Two AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments have been described earlier showing strong differentiation between S. leprosula and S. parvifolia. The AFLP markers were isolated from a gel, re-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Primer sets were designed from these sequences and AFLP fragments were converted into SCAR markers. The SCAR markers and PCR-RFLP markers of the chloroplast region trnLF digested with HinfI were used to screen in total 557 samples of S. parvifolia and S. leprosula from nineteen widely separated populations in Indonesia. Complete genetic differentiation between species was observed based on the putatively nuclear SCAR marker and the PCR-RFLP of the cpDNA region. We found a good agreement between leaf morphological variation and species identification based on both marker types and no indication for interspecific hybridization.

Schlüsselwörter

  • SCAR
  • Dipterocarpaceae
  • molecular identification
  • tropical timber
  • species assignment
  • hybridization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

SSR and SNP Markers for the Identification of Clones, Hybrids and Species Within the Genus Populus

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 257 - 263

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several poplar species within a section, but also between sections, are cross-compatible, thus a high number of interspecies-hybrids occur naturally or have been artificially produced during the last 100 years. Very often, systematically kept records on the production or vegetative propagation of poplar hybrids and/or clones have not been available to date. Hence the origin of the poplar plant material used for the generation of hybrids or clones is not quite clear in many cases, thus making the differentiation between the clones a difficult task. Therefore, genetic markers are needed to clearly identify and differentiate the species and hybrids in the genus Populus, including both identification of existing clones and the breeding of new ones. One aspect of this study is therefore to develop molecular markers for the identification and differentiation of species, hybrids, and clones of the genus Populus.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Populus
  • clones
  • hybrids
  • species
  • SSRs
  • SNPs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A DNA Method to Verify the Integrity of Timber Supply Chains; Confirming the Legal Sourcing of Merbau Timber From Logging Concession to Sawmill

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 263 - 268

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several methods are employed by the timber industry to try to restrict the flow of products from illegal or unsustainable sources into timber supply chains. The most commonly applied are systems of log marking and associated documentation that accompany the logs. However this system is open to falsification, particularly between the logging concession and the timber mill, where the majority of illegally logged timber enters the supply chain. This paper describes the development of a methodology to track a unique genetic fingerprint for single logs of merbau, Intsia palembanica (Leguminosae), a high-value Indonesian timber species, from logging concession to the mill, where the DNA profile of individual logs is difficult or impossible to falsify. We find that whilst the ability to extract DNA and amplify a PCR product from logs decreases slightly between forest concession (59.2%) and mill (41.9%) samples, that overall enough samples worked across the 14 microsatellite markers to provide an exact genotype match between forest and sawmill samples for 27 out of 32 logs. Furthermore for these 27 samples, the probability that an illegal log with an exact genotype match to forest samples had been substituted was very low (less than 10-5) for 18 samples, was low (between 10-2 and 10-4) for 7 samples and was moderate (10-1) for 2 samples. Improvements to DNA extraction and amplification success are recommended to improve this protocol, and there was a negative correlation between locus size and amplification success but a positive correlation with allele number. However, overall we propose that this methodology is now suitable for broad-scale industry application to track legally harvested timber and check for illegal substitutions along supply chains.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic fingerprinting
  • illegal logging
  • merbau
  • microsatellites
  • timber certification
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Use of DNA-Fingerprints to Control the Origin of Forest Reproductive Material

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 268 - 273

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Well-adapted, high quality reproductive material is key to the success of forest plantations. Consequently in many countries the collection and trade of forest reproductive material is regulated. Paper documents are usually the only evidence for the origin of forest reproductive material. Certification schemes already established in Germany use genetic inventories to compare reference samples collected at different steps of the chain-ofcustody. A new approach using DNA-fingerprints efficiently controls the origin of seed sources without these multiple reference samples. Only a sample of adult trees within the seed stands is needed. The control is directly made for each suspicious plant or a group of suspicious plants by use of multilocus genotype assignment. We made a field test with samples of adults and seedling from 5 registered seed stands of Quercus robur in Western Germany. Eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites were used to genotype each individual. We found in total 255 different alleles at all loci in the adult populations. The observed levels of genetic variation (Ae= 9.18), genetic differentiation (delta = 0.187) and population fixation (FST = 0.01) were slightly higher than results of similar studies. Individual and group assignment tests were performed with the Bayesian multi-locus approach. The proportion of correctly assigned seedlings was 65% for individuals with completely scored genotypes. In all 5 cases the groups of seedlings were assigned to the correct seed stand and an additional sample of seedlings from another stand could be successfully excluded with a probability test. The conclusion of the field study is that a large scale application of this new approach to control of the origin of forest reproductive material is feasible.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Certification
  • forest reproductive material
  • genotype assignment
  • nSSRs
  • seed
  • tracing origin
  • Quercus robur
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Population Structure and Molecular Characterization of Nigerian Field Genebank Collections of Cacao, Theobroma cacao L.

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 273 - 285

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inadequate knowledge of the population structure and diversity present often hamper the efficient use of germplasm collections. Using a high through-put system, twelve microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure in a national field genebank repository of 243 cacao accessions grouped into 11 populations based on their known sources. Based on multi-locus profiles, the Bayesian method was used for individual assignment to verify membership in each population, determine mislabeling and ancestry of some important accessions used in breeding program. A total of 218 alleles was revealed with a mean number of 18.2 alleles per locus. Gene diversity (He = 0.70) and allelic richness (4.34 alleles per locus) were highest in the F1 hybrid population. Differential mating system was suggested as responsible for the observed deficit and excess of heterozygotes observed among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed that within-population variance accounted for 63.0% of the total variance while the rest 37% was accounted for by the among-population variance. Cluster dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed two main subsets. The first group was made up of the Amelonado/Trinitario ancestry and the other of Nanay/Parinari ancestry. We found that Nanay and Parinari populations were the major source of Upper Amazon genes utilized while a large proportion of genetic diversity in the field genebank remained under-utilized in development of improved cultivars released to farmers in Nigeria. This study showed that the presence of alleles of the Upper Amazon Forasteros (Nanay, Parinari and Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo) genetic materials in the locally available accessions predated the formal large scale introduction of Upper Amazon materials in 1944. This is the first report of population structure of field genebank collections of cacao in Nigeria since more than seven decades of formal cacao breeding research.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cacao
  • fixation index
  • germplasm
  • cultivars
  • gene diversity
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cross-amplification and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers From Acacia (Senegalia) mellifera and Acacia brevispica to Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 285 - 288

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from Acacia brevispica and Acacia mellifera were successfully cross-amplified in Acacia senegal. The loci were surveyed for polymorphism using 30 samples. Allelic diversity ranged from 4 (Ame02, Ab06 and Ab18) to 13 (Ab26) per locus. The expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.543 (Ame02) to 0.868 (Ab26) while observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.516 (Ame05) to 0.800 (Ame03). Cross-amplification of these loci represents a potential source of co-dominant markers and will be useful in the study of genetic diversity, structure, gene flow and breeding systems of this important Acacia species.

Key words

  • Acacia senegal
  • cross-amplification
  • genetic diversity
  • microsatellite
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Variation Amongst and Within the Native Provenances of Pinus radiata D. Don in South-eastern Australia. 3. Molecular and Quantitative Structure

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 289 - 298

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Patterns of differentiation between populations within a species can be examined using both molecular and quantitative data, with observed differences indicative of adaptation to local conditions. Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) is a species of commercial importance in many countries but also listed as conservation dependent in its native range on the Californian coast and two off shore islands. This paper presents a comparative analysis of existing molecular data with new quantitative data from a large provenance/progeny trial in southeastern Australia. Microsatellite data was reanalysed using a Bayesian model to test whether the a priori assumption of five natural occurrences was valid. With the validity of the geographic structure confirmed, two further approaches were used to examine genetic structure 1. a comparative study of Fst and Qst estimates to investigate the role of drift and selection in shaping the differentiation between the populations for breeding traits and 2. population clustering based on both quantitative and molecular data. Results strongly support the hypothesis that the island provenances of Pinus radiata are distinctly different to the mainland provenances. The molecular evidence also indicates the island provenances are different to each other. However, these differences were not apparent for the quantitative traits related to tree growth and form. The two island populations were however, strongly differentiated from each other for wood density and acoustic velocity. The patterns of phenotypic differentiation of the island provenances for these wood traits are both consistent with, and greater than, that observed for the molecular data, providing some evidence for directional selection on these traits. This study provides a background for the interpretation of molecular studies aimed at detecting molecular signatures of selection and associating genetic variation within genes with these traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pinus radiata
  • provenances
  • Californian collection
  • Qst
  • Fst
  • structure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Short Note: Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Castanopsis fissa in Lower Subtropical China

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 299 - 300

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We report on the development and characterization of ten microsatellite markers from repetitive DNA enriched libraries for Castanopsis fissa from lower subtropical China. The number of alleles ranged from three to thirteen. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.818, and 0.270 to 0.873, respectively. These microsatellite markers will be used to study fine-scale spatial genetic structure of C. fissa in 20 ha Dinghushan plot in lower subtropical China.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Castanopsis fissa
  • microsatellite
  • genetic marker
  • population genetics
  • lower subtropical China
  • reforestation
  • spatial genetic structure
  • marker development
  • DNA enriched libraries
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • linkage disequilibrium
  • Dinghushan
37 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Field Evaluation of Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. at Two Sites in Indo-gangetic Plains of India

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Results from clonal trials of Populus deltoides conducted in two distinct agroclimatic regions of Punjab in northwestern India are reported and discussed. Sixteen clones were evaluated at Hambran and Bathinda where commonly grown clone ‘G-48’ was considered as control. Significant differences among clones (P < 0.001) were observed for diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height and volume at the age of four and six years under both the site conditions. Clone ‘L-48’ ranked first for volume at six year age at both sites and was followed by clone ‘Ranikhet’. The respective superiority for volume of these clones over control was 44.8 and 23.2 per cent at Hambran and 72.5 and 30.7 per cent at Bathinda. All growth traits registered significantly higher values at Hambran in comparison to those at Bathinda. Clone x site interaction was also significant (P < 0.001). The clones ‘L-168’, ‘154/86’, ‘Solan-z’ and ‘170/88’ experienced huge fluctuation in ranking between sites for volume at 6-year age. The DBH and height showed significant and positive correlation with each other and with tree volume at all the age combinations. The clonal mean heritability was quite high both at Hambran (0.73-0.86) and Bathinda (0.80-0.95). The genetic advance were the highest for volume (33.34-64.26%) and the lowest (10.65-22.79%) in case of height.

Schlüsselwörter

  • clonal heritability
  • clone-site interaction
  • genetic correlation
  • clonal selection
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance of Maritime Pine Spanish Mediterranean Provenances at Young Ages in a Transitional Region Between Atlantic and Mediterranean Climates in NW Spain

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 8 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) occurs naturally in a wide variety of sites around SW Europe, from typical Mediterranean climates to areas in Northern Spain and France with a strong oceanic influence. Within its distribution range populations are strongly differentiated, showing local adaptations to environmental conditions that have been widely documented in different provenance trials both in the Atlantic region and in the Mediterranean area. In the present paper, we analyzed the performance of six Mediterranean provenances in three sites in the interior of Galicia (NW Spain), a transitional region between Atlantic and Mediterranean climates where few catalogued materials are available for reforestation. Seven year after planting, provenances coming from the mildest climates grew faster but showed inferior stem form. The provenance x site interaction was weak, although some significant provenance rank changes were observed in the driest site. Among the tested provenances, Serranía de Cuenca showed good early growth in all sites and acceptable stem form, being thus a potential recommended material for using in the area. The Albarracín origin showed also good results, with excellent stem form and acceptable growth, especially in the driest site. A combined spatial analysis allowed us to compare the tested provenances with improved materials from Coastal Galicia (NW Spain) and Western Australia planted in adjacent progeny trials. Although the differences were small, the Atlantic material of both breeding programs performed slightly better than the Mediterranean provenances, and represents another alternative material for use in reforestation in this transitional climate region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pinus pinaster
  • provenance trial
  • spatial analysis
  • seed origin
  • genetic resources
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clonal Variation and Genotype by Environment Interactions in Growth and Wood Density in Eucalyptus camaldulensis at Three Contrasting Sites in Vietnam

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 17 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A total of 172 clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were tested in three clonal tests in northern, north-central and southern Vietnam, with 32 of them planted across all three sites. At age 3-5 years, the clonal repeatabilities were 0.18-0.42 for growth traits, 0.71-0.78 for wood basic density and 0.56-0.66 for pilodyn penetration. Genotypic correlations between growth and density at the three sites were from -0.24 to 0.17, and did not differ significantly from zero. Genotypic correlations between sites were 0.32-0.56 for growth traits at age 3 years, and 0.72-0.88 for density and pilodyn penetration. Selection gains for breast height diameter at individual sites at a selection proportion of 5% were 22-32%, with minor effects on density. Selection for diameter at one site gave indirect responses in diameter at the other two sites that were only 40-60% of the gains obtainable from direct selection at those sites. This study shows that fast-growing E. camaldulensis clones can be selected in Vietnam with only minor effects on density. Selection for growth should be regionally based to maximize selection gain whereas clonal rankings for density will change little across regions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • clonal repeatability
  • correlated response
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • genotype by environment interaction
  • selection gain
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Realized Gains from Block-Plot Coastal Douglas-Fir Trials in the Northern Oregon Cascades

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite - high predicted gain; intermediate - moderate predicted gain; and unimproved - wild seedlot) were compared at two planting spacings (1.8 × 1.8 m and 3.6 × 3.6 m). The realized gains at age 15 averaged over both the elite and intermediate progeny were 17.2% for stand volume per hectare, 3.5% for mean height, and 4.3% for diameter, compared to predicted genetic gains of 16.0% for volume, 5.4% for height, and 6.4% for diameter. Realized and predicted gains correlated well at the family level, with an average correlation coefficient close to 0.80. The improved populations also had higher survival rate and lower stem sinuosity than the unimproved population. Strong genetic level × planting spacing interaction effects were revealed for the growth traits at age 15 using mixed model analyses. Realized gains for stand per-hectare volume and mean growth rate were at least twice as large in the elite population as in the intermediate population at the close spacing. By contrast, both populations performed similarly at the wide spacing. This indicates that the selected genetic materials responded differently to the changes of competitive environment, and realized gain trials should closely mimic operational plantations in order to provide valid estimates of realized gains. Realized gains in per-hectare volume varied greatly among test sites. No significant genetic level x site interactions were found for any traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Realized genetic gain
  • Douglas-fir
  • competition
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induction of Diploid Eggs With Colchicine During Embryo Sac Development in Populus

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 40 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Diploid (2n) eggs were induced by treating developing embryo sacs of Populus with colchicine solution, in order to produce triploid plants. The optimal pollinated time of female catkins was confirmed as timing point for each treatment. When female catkins of P. pseudo-simonii x P. nigra ‘Zheyin3#’ had become 5.62 ± 0.13 cm long 84 h after they emerged from their bract scales and all stigmas were exposed, pistils all over the entire catkin had optimal stigma receptivity. Observation of paraffin sections showed that embryo sac development of ‘Zheyin3#’, which initiated 12 h before pollination and finished 132 h after pollination, was a successive and asynchronous process. Generative cell division of pollen of the male parent P. x beijingensis took place 3-16 h after pollination. Catkins of 18-96 h after pollination of ‘Zheyin3#’ were treated with colchicine solution. In the progeny, twenty three triploids were detected by chromosome counting and the highest rate of triploids was 66.7% in one treatment. The rate of triploid yield was positively correlated with the frequency of four-nucleate embryo sacs (r = 0.6721, p = 0.0981) and was not significantly correlated with the percentages of uni-, twoand eight-nucleate embryo sac (r = -0.1667, p = 0.7210, r = -0.3069, p = 0.5031 and r = 0.0189, p = 0.9679, respectively), suggesting that the third mitotic division of embryo sac may be the effective stage to induce 2n eggs. Through this approach, completely homozygous 2n eggs can be produced. Its significance for plant breeding is discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • 2n egg
  • colchicine
  • embryo sac development
  • Populus
  • triploid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Variation in Cold Hardiness and Phenology Between and Within Turkish Red Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) Populations: Implications for Seed Transfer

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 49 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Wind-pollinated seeds from 40 trees (half-sib families) were collected from each of six Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) populations in southern Turkey. Two-year old seedlings were evaluated for growth, phenology and cold resistance in a common garden experiment established in Ankara, located outside the species’ natural range. Each family was represented with a six-tree row plot within each of the three replications. The below freezing temperatures (-15.2°C) observed in January and February of 2000 were sufficient to observe visually- assessable-cold damage to the seedlings. The populations significantly differed in all traits under investigation except for second flushing in 1999. Populations originating from more inland and higher elevation areas were more resistant to cold than coastal low elevation populations. Families within populations were significantly different as regards all traits except HT00. Family heritability for bud burst was 0.40, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.37 for height, and from 0.20 to 0.23 for bud set. Final height of cold damage prone seedlings was shorter than cold tolerant seedlings. Families with early bud-set, later bud-burst and shorter second flush shoots suffered less from cold damage. Considering the expected climate change in the eastern Mediterranean, there is a potential for using this species outside its natural range, especially in sites experiencing more continental climate since it will be possible to move the species 200-300 m in altitude and 2-3 degrees in latitude.

Schlüsselwörter

  • climate warming
  • cold damage
  • genetic variation
  • Pinus brutia
  • Turkish red pine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Microsatellite Based Paternity Analysis in a Clonal Eucalyptus nitens Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 57 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Microsatellite markers were used to determine paternity in 473 open-pollinated progenies from a clonal Eucalyptus nitens seed orchard of 50 trees from 12 different genotypes. The outcrossing rate in this orchard was high, averaging 0.85 (weighted by capsule crop) but variable between trees (ranging from 0.6-1.0). Paternal contribution of each genotype to the open-pollinated seed crop was predicted by the size of the flower crop of each genotype (r = 0.76), but not the number of ramets. While the detectable contamination in this orchard is relatively low (4.5%), it is atypical when compared to other published estimates in eucalypt seed orchards suggesting that with suitable buffering low levels of contamination can be achieved.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Outcrossing rate
  • selfing
  • eucalypt genetics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Use of Microsatellite Markers in an American Beech (Fagus grandifolia) Population and Paternity Testing

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 62 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech and were found to be highly polymorphic, with 4-22 alleles at each locus and an expected heterozygosity value of 0.291 to 0.913. Twenty-five trees (including two clonal clusters) from a mature stand were sampled and genotyped to compute population statistics. No linkage disequilibrium between pairs of loci was detected, and the marker loci indicated that the population is at Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The markers were also used to genotype two full-sibling families consisting of a combined total of 99 individuals and were found to contain sufficient genetic information to assign paternity using a maximum likelihood method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • beech bark disease
  • microsatellite markers
  • paternity testing
  • population genetics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Isolation, Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-encoding Disease-resistance Gene Analogues from European Aspen (Populus tremula)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 68 - 77

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The majority of verified plant disease resistance genes (R genes) isolated to date was of the nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class. The conservation between different NBS-LRR R genes opens the avenue for the use of PCR based strategies in isolating and cloning other R gene family members or analogs (resistance gene analogue, RGA) using degenerate primers for these conserved regions. In this study, to better understand the R gene in European aspen (Populus tremula), a perennial tree, we used degenerate primers to amplify RGA sequences from European aspen. Cloning and sequence characterization identified 37 European aspen RGAs, which could be phylogenetically classified into seven subfamilies. Deduced amino acid sequences of European aspen RGAs showed strong identity, ranging from 30.41 to 46.63%, to toll interleukin receptor (TIR) R gene subfamily. BLAST searches with reference to the genomic sequence of P. trichocarpa found 209 highly homologous regions distributed in 28 genomic loci, suggesting the abundance and divergence of NBS-encoding R genes in European aspen genome. Although, numerous studies have reported that plant R genes are under diversifying selection for specificity to evolving pathogens, non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) ratio were <1 for NBS domains of European aspen RGA, showing the evidence of purifying selection in this perennial tree. In further analysis, many intergenic exchanges were also detected among these RGAs, indicating a probable role in homogenising NBS domains. The present study permits insights into the origin, diversification, evolution and function of NBS-LRR R genes in perennial species like European aspen and will be useful for further R gene isolation and exploitation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Populus tremula
  • disease resistance gene
  • nucleotide binding site
  • resistance gene analogue
  • phylogenetic analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bio-economic Modelling as a Method for Determining Economic Weights for Optimal Multiple-Trait Tree Selection

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 77 - 90

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A bio-economic model provides a framework for simultaneously considering breeding, management, and production decisions. Such a model should result in optimal breeding (and silvicultural) objectives if main goals of a production system are well defined. Historically estimation of economic weights for breeding-objective traits has been based on partial regressions and profit functions relating only to certain parts of the production system. A bio-economic model includes effects of growth rate, branching, form, and wood quality on all production system components and on overall profitability of an integrated production system. However, long rotation cycles in forestry make determination of relative economic values for the breeding-objective traits particularly difficult. When modelling complex systems under uncertainty about future production goals, there are necessary trade offs between the complexity of the model and the use of simplifying assumptions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • tree improvement
  • breeding objective
  • bio-economic modelling
  • production system analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Response to Selfing in Seed Set, Seedling Establishment and Nursery Growth Based on Controlled Crosses of Abies nordmanniana Clones

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 90 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) is used for production of high value Christmas trees in short rotation. Potentially all trees are intended to be sold - no thinnings are normally applied. A high proportion of saleable trees per ha is the main key to secure economic return to the growers. Consumers demand a symmetric and rather uniform tree and, dependent on local traditions, it should be more or less dense and narrow. In Denmark, breeding of Nordmann fir and establishment of seed orchards focus on seed supply and improved Christmas tree quality - aiming at adaption and a rather uniform ideotype Christmas tree. Benefits from employing rather few clones, to maximise gain and uniformity, may potentially be counteracted by increased selfing. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of selfing on percentage of filled seed and nursery establishment of seedlings. Inbreeding depression was seen for filled seeds (40%), growth traits (5-17%), plus mortality and axial damage (5-12 percent units). Many selfed seedlings survive and develop into marketable seedlings, although with a depression in numbers of 23-37%, or 9-12 percent units. Nursery sorting procedures can only partially reduce the number of inbred seedlings in Nordmann fir. The large variation among clones in the response to selfing indicates that knowledge of the behaviour of selfed progeny from specific clones in ‘small number seed orchards’ is of practical interest. Trade-offs between increased gain by selection of few clones and a penalty paid for increased inbreeding need further studies during a full Christmas tree rotation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Seed orchard
  • selfing
  • filled seeds
  • inbreeding depression
  • nursery practice
  • Christmas tree
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Resistance to Ceratocystis Wilt (Ceratocystis fimbriata) in Parents and Progenies of Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 99 - 106

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ceratocystis wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata, is one of the most damaging diseases in eucalyptus plantations worldwide. Although there are resistant genotypes, the genetic basis of resistance is still poorly understood. In this paper we studied the resistance level by a stem inoculation experiment of genotypes of Eucalyptus grandis and E. urophylla and estimated the heritability and gains of selection in families derived from controlled interspecific crosses. In both species, highly resistant as well as highly susceptible genotypes to Ceratocystis wilt were found. Out of 21 parents assessed, twelve were resistant and nine susceptible. Estimates of individual narrow (50%) and broad (59%) sense heritability suggested a high degree of genetic control and low allelic dominance of the trait. There was great genetic variation among and within families, a fact that contributes to high heritability and genetic gain. A genetic gain in lesion size of up to -74.4% was obtained from selection of the 50 best clones in the evaluated families, i.e., the mean lesion length in the progeny population can be reduced by 74,4%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetic parameters
  • genetic resistance
  • forest pathology
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters of Somatic Clones of Coastal Douglas-fir for Growth, Stem and Wood Traits at 6½ or 7½-Years in Washington and Oregon, USA

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 107 - 113

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Five genetic tests involving 70 somatic clones of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were planted March-April 1999 in Weyerhaeuser plantations across western Washington and Oregon states, USA. Four of the tests are in the Longview and Twin Harbors regions of Washington, and one test is in Springfield, Oregon. Each test is designed as single-tree plots with 12 randomized complete-blocks. The 70 coastal Douglas-fir clones were propagated by somatic embryogenesis (SE) from two full-sib families created by crossings among three parents. Results are reported for height, diameter at breast-height (DBH) and stem volume measured at 71/2-years; and stem sinuosity, stress wave velocity (SWV) and pilodyn at 61/2-years. Withinfamily clonal heritabilities (or repeatabilities) were estimated as the ratio of the variance between-clones within- families to the overall phenotypic variance. Variance between families was not included in the numerator of the heritability equation because the 70 SE clones are from only two full-sib families. Height had a within-family clonal heritability of 0.31 ± 0.04, DBH 0.27 ± 0.04, volume 0.24 ± 0.04, stem sinuosity 0.13 ± 0.02, SWV 0.45 ± 0.04 and pilodyn 0.31 ± 0.04. The three growth traits were all closely genetically associated with clonal correlations among them of 0.86 to 0.98. Clonal performance for growth proved quite stable across tests with an overall betweentest clonal correlation of 0.80 ± 0.04 for stem volume, meaning that clone x test interactions only accounted for a minor part of the total variance. The between-test correlation was 0.79 ± 0.06 for sinuosity, 0.96 ± 0.01 SWV and 0.86 ± 0.03 for pilodyn.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Coastal Douglas-fir
  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • somatic embryogenesis
  • adaptability
  • within-family clonal heritability
  • clonal stability
  • wood properties
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters and Genotype by Environment Interaction in Radiata Pine for Growth and Wood Quality Traits in Australia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The phenotypic response of genotypes across different environments can be quantified by estimating the genotype by environment interaction (GxE). In a practical sense, GxE means that the relative performance of genotypes does not remain constant under all test conditions. Genetic parameters and genotype by environment interactions for wood density, growth, branching characteristics and stem straightness were investigated in eight radiata pine progeny trials derived from a second generation breeding population in Australia. Five trials were on the mainland, while three trials were in Tasmania. Generally, ĥ2 for density > branch angle > stem straightness > tree diameter > branch size; and significant ĥ2 was observed for all traits and at all trials with only two exceptions. Genetic correlations were estimated among the five traits, and a large negative genetic correlation observed between wood density and tree diameter indicated that a selection strategy should be developed in dealing with this adverse genetic correlation in advanced generations of breeding for radiata pine. Interactions for density, branch angle, and stem straightness were small within the two regions. Overall, branch angle had the least GxE, followed by density and stem straightness. Growth traits (tree diameter and branch size) tended to be the most interactive with substantial GxE present. Genotype by regional interactions (Mainland versus Tasmania) revealed that density and branch angle had the least interactions (ȓB = 0.98 and ȓB = 0.95, respectively). Branch size and tree diameter had the highest interactions among the two regions (ȓB = 0.55 and ȓB = 0.63, respectively). Within Tasmania, only branch size and tree diameter had a sizable interaction within the three sites. In contrast, there was little interaction for tree diameter among the Mainland trials. Branch size in the Mainland trials had a similar size of interaction as in Tasmania. Further research is recommended in identifying the cause of GxE for tree diameter and branch size in radiata pine across the entire radiata pine estate in Australia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • heritability
  • genetic correlations
  • genotype by environment interaction
  • Pinus radiata
  • growth
  • wood quality
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Growth Characteristics, Physiological and Metabolic Responses of Teak (Tectona Grandis Linn. f.) Clones Differing in Rejuvenation Capacity Subjected to Drought Stress

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 124 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Antioxidative enzymes
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence
  • Drought stress
  • Leaf oxidative damage
  • Osmolyte accumulation
  • Photosynthetic capacity
  • Teak clones
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differences Between Georgian and French Wild Cherry Populations and Consequence for Wild Cherry Breeding Programmes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 137 - 144

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

For the first time, the diversity of wild cherry in Caucasia was sampled: 5 populations of Georgia, together with 11 French populations. 23 alleles from 7 isozyme loci were scored, among them 6 new alleles in Georgia. Though the total number of alleles was higher in Georgia (A = 2.4) than in France (A = 2.0), the diversity was higher in France (He = 0.324) than in Georgia (He = 0.284). A higher level of differentiation was found in France (Fst = 0.094) than in Georgia (Fst = 0.057), and the total Fst was even higher (0.108). Mean pairwise distances inside the French group, the Georgian group and between the two groups were 0.054, 0.037 and 0.094, respectively. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between genetic and geographical distances was 0.58 (p = 0.014) between France and Georgia, which indicated a moderate pattern of isolation by distance. The number of migrants after correction of size was high among the French populations (Nm= 7.6) and even higher among the four nearby Georgian populations (Nm= 32), but it was very low between the pooled French populations and the pooled Georgian populations (Nm= 0.33). Georgia in Caucasia, as an extreme country in the distribution area, can be considered as a source of neutral gene diversity for wild cherry, and thus may also be one for adaptative gene diversity we could use to increase the genetic base of our western country wild cherry breeding populations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Prunus avium
  • isozyme
  • diversity
  • breeding
  • France
  • Georgia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clone Fertility and Genetic Diversity in a Black Pine Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 145 - 150

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Clonal variation in the number of female and male strobili was studied for three consecutive years (2002-2004) in a clonal black pine seed orchard in Turkey. The data showed large differences in female and male fertility among clones in the three years. The correlation between female and male strobilus production was negative and statistically significant in 2004, a good-flowering year. Clonal fertility and fertility variation, expressed by the sibling coefficient and coefficient of variation in strobilus production among 30 clones, were reported. Fertility varied among clones and among years, producing three-year averages of 99.3 and 801.6 for female and male strobili per ramet, respectively. Male fertility variation was higher than was female fertility variation in the three years. The status number, a measure of genetic diversity, was calculated as 26.4 (2002), 23.9 (2003), and 24.0 (2004). On average, the relative status number, estimated based on total fertility, was 86% of the census number. Sexual asymmetry calculations showed that clonal contributions would be balanced between genders. Some management activities such as adjusting ramet number to balance clone contributions and mixing of seeds from consecutive years are suggested for the black pine seed orchard.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fertility variation
  • status number
  • genetic diversity
  • sexual asymmetry
  • Pinus nigra
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Parameters for Bud Flushing and Growth Characteristics of White Spruce Seedlings

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 151 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We estimated heritabilities and correlations for bud flushing and growth traits of white spruce seedlings, and the correlations of seedling traits with 10- and 11- year height of the same families in the field. The seedling greenhouse experiment had a randomized complete block design with 30 replications, 58 open-pollinated families and single-tree plots. Individual tree heritability (hi2) was 0.78 and 0.54 for 18 (H18) and 36 (H36)-week total height, respectively. The corresponding heritabilities for family means (hf2) were 0.91 and 0.82. For root collar diameter, hi 2 were respectively, 0.61 and 0.22 at 24 and 54 weeks from germination. The corresponding hf2 were 0.87 and 0.55. Heritability for bud flushing ranged from 0.13 to 0.46 (hi2) and 0.44 to 0.83 (hf 2). The genetic correlation (ra) between H18 and H36 was 0.70 and that of D24 and D54 was 0.89, indicating a substantial change in family ranking in one growing season. The type B genetic correlation for H18 with field heights ranged from 0.22 to 0.30. Type B genetic correlations of field height with all other seedling traits were very low and largely negative. It can be concluded that: (1) age-age correlation of seedling height can be expected to decline drastically even in a stable environment of the greenhouse, (2) heritability for growth potential is meaningful when estimated on cumulative growth not on individual annual growth increments that are susceptible to short-term environmental variation, (3) dates of bud flushing did not influence variation in height and root collar diameter, and (4) field growth potential is better predicted by greenhouse growth potential than other morphological and shoot phenological traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Heritability
  • genetic correlation
  • early selection
  • bud flushing
  • progeny test
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Population Differentiation and Climatic Adaptation for Growth Potential of White Spruce (Picea glauca) in Alberta, Canada

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 158 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Genetic differentiation among white spruce populations in Alberta, Canada, was studied using time series data of height and diameter and a climatic index developed by principal component analysis. The objectives were to discern patterns of variation for growth potential and predicted optimum climate; compare optimum climate between populations, between height and diameter at the same age and between height or diameter at different ages; and to see if optimum climate differed from the climate inhabited by populations. Using cluster analysis we found that: (1) populations from mid-latitudes (54° - 57°N) and mid-elevations (600 - 800 m) were grouped together and exhibited high growth potential; populations from north of 57°N were grouped with those from elevations higher than 900m in the Rocky Mountains and exhibited low growth potential; and (2) With minor exceptions, populations from similar climates or geography were grouped together in terms of predicted optimum climate. (3) Analysis of variance showed that optimum climate differed significantly (P < 0.05) among populations; among heights at different ages; among diameters at different ages and between height and diameter at the same ages. However, there was no consistent trend in the direction of change in optimum climate with tree age. (4) The range of climate inhabited by the populations (PI₁ = -5.792 to 4.483) was much wider than the range of their predicted optimum climate (P̂Ō₁ = -1.001 to 0.842), which suggests that in terms of growth potential some populations inhabit sub-optimal climates. Implications of the results on management of white spruce in Alberta are discussed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Multivariate Climatic Index
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Genetic Variation
  • Optimum Climate
  • Principal Component
  • Response Functions
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Clonal Variation in Acorn Production and its Effect on the Effective Population Size in a Quercus acutissima Seed Orchard

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 170 - 175

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Acorn production was surveyed for eight consecutive years (2000-2007) in a 94-clone Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) seed orchard established in 1992. Acorn production commenced in 2000 and peaked in 2005 and was characterized by a 3-4 years interval. Sixty out of the orchard’s 94 clones were consistent producers across the study period. Acorn production’s Pearson productmoment and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were significant and consistently positive over the eight years study period. Parental cumulative reproductive output, represented by parental balance curves, slightly varied among mast years and showed steady improvement (less distortion) over years. Effective population size (Np) was high in moderate and good acorn production years; however, departure from clonal equal contribution was observed throughout the study period. Parental effective population size was estimated under various scenarios of male fecundity (pollen production is: 1) proportional to clone size, 2) equal to female contribution, and 3) equal across all clones) resulted in high Np and low group co-ancestry under equal male fecundity scenario while moderate Np size and group co-ancestry were observed when male fecundity was assumed to be proportional to clone size (i.e., ramet number).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Quercus acutissima
  • contribution
  • parental balance
  • fertility variation
  • gene diversity
  • effective number
  • co-ancestry
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Karyotypic Studies in Ecotypes of Hippophaë rhamnoides L. from Romania

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 175 - 182

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Sea buckthorn is a dioecious Eurasian shrub or small tree with large morphological, biochemical and physiological variability, evidenced by the great number of studies. Cytogenetically, uncertainties exist on species basic number, ploidy level, and sex chromosomes. In this study, detailed cytogenetic measurements were carried out on six Romanian ecotypes belonging to Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. carpatica Rousi, in order to establish the features and the symmetry degree of karyotypes, to evidence the sex chromosomes, and to construct the idiogram. The ecotypes have 2n = 24 metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. An intraspecific variation exists concerning the proportion of these two morphotypes. The karyotypes have similar symmetry patterns (R = 2.57-2.89; TF%= 38.54-42.70; AsI%= 57.99-61.41; A1=0.27-0.35; A2 = 0.26-0.36) and belong to 1B and 2B classes, being relatively high symmetric. Based on obtained results, we presume that the male sex chromosomes are heteromorphic, while in female plants are homomorphic. The Y chromosome is larger than X chromosome.

Key words

  • Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. carpatica Rousi
  • heterosomes
  • idiogram
  • karyotype
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Correlations Among Field Trials of Norway Spruce Clones Representing Different Propagation Cycles

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 182 - 189

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Serial cutting propagation means that clones are produced in consecutive propagation cycles, where a new round of cuttings are taken from the previously rooted cuttings, etc. The objective of this study was to judge the importance of propagation cycle on height growth in field trials. In a field trial series with Norway spruce clones, comprising nine trials in four cutting propagation cycles, propagation cycle only had a minor effect on height growth compared to the site effect. For inter-site correlation models where all trials were included, the best fit was obtained by an unstructured model, while the most parsimonious model included constraints on the correlations depending on cycle structure. Model constraints based on grouping of the trials by site productivity did not improve the fit. Testing for generally good performers over a range of different site conditions appears to be a good approach, unless drivers of genotype by environment interaction can be identified.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cuttings
  • field performance
  • genotype x environment interaction
  • Norway spruce
  • propagation effects
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Provenance Productivity of High and Low Elevation Pinus tecunumanii in Zimbabwe

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 189 - 199

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The productivity potential of provenances and families of Pinus tecunumanii were determined across a range of environments in four orthogonal field trials in Zimbabwe. Provenances of P. tecunumanii from altitudes above 1500 m (High Elevation) in natural stands in Mexico and Central America were significantly superior (P < 0.05) to provenances from altitudes below 1500 m (Low Elevation) when planted in Zimbabwe in eightyear mean individual tree volume (1729.2 versus 1588.6 dm3) at 1760 m a.s.l.; were not significantly different (1163.1 versus 1143.9 dm3) at 1450 m a.s.l.; but the latter was significantly superior (1756.4 versus 1468.6 dm3) at 1050 m a.s.l., and (720.7 versus 531.5 dm3) at 780 m a.s.l. The most productive provenances were Juquila (26.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1760 m, Yucul (17.3 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1450 m, San Francisco (24.9 m3ha-1yr-1) at 1050 m and Villa Santa (11.1 m3ha-1yr-1) at 780 m a.s.l. Improved P. patula was significantly superior to P. tecunumanii at 1760 m a.s.l but the differences were nonsignificant at 1450 m a.s.l. In the warm lower altitude sites, P. tecunumanii was not significantly different from improved P. oocarpa, the commonly planted species, although some provenances of P. tecunumanii were significantly superior by as much as 31%. The top 10 ranked families of the high elevation P. tecunumanii had an eight-year volume advantage of 1% and 23% over P. patula at Stapleford and Cashel, and 40% and 34% over P. oocarpa at Gungunyana and Maswera respectively. Genotype-environment interaction was significant by elevation group, provenance and family level. The interaction at the family level was however largely contributed by families from the high elevation P. tecunumanii. Opportunities exist for immediate deployment of seed of selected provenances of P. tecunumanii in medium and low altitude areas to improve plantation productivity. There is however, no immediate yield advantage of using P. tecunumanii seed in high potential environments currently planted to P. patula. Breeding and selection could also bring about the planting of P. tecunumanii in the higher altitudes in the near future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Low and High Elevation P. tecunumanii
  • provenance
  • productivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Different Simulated Management Intensities on The Genetic Diversity of a Heart-of-palm Tree Natural Population (Euterpe edulis Martius)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 201 - 210

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of selective logging on genetic diversity and inbreeding a heart-of-palm tree (Euterpe edulis), simulating different cutting intensities. To detect the effects of logging, we first performed the genetic characterization of the reproductive plants present in 24 plots that were allocated in Ibirama-SC, Brazil. For the genetic characterization we used allozyme markers, and for simulating the occurrence of different cutting intensities (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 150 seed-trees/ha) we performed 1000 resamplings within the total seed-tree group (599). Thus, it was possible to compare the genetic diversity among the different cutting intensities and the unmanaged population, through alterations to the allelic frequencies, heterozygosity, loss of alleles and increase in the inbreeding. The results of genetic indexes for different cutting intensity were variable, but all presented the same tendency towards genetic diversity reduction when the density of the seed-trees/ha was reduced. The results show that the density of 60 seed-trees/ha, or higher are the most indicated when the objective is to utilize this natural resource in a sustainable way as regards the management issues, because they did not present loss of alleles or reduction in the number of polymorphic loci, and also because they presented the lowest reductions in the observed and expected heterozygosity index and fixation index.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Euterpe edulis
  • natural population management
  • effective population size
  • genetic diversity
  • heart-of-palm
  • allozyme markers
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd Provenances in Dryland Savannah of Niger

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 210 - 218

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of 11 Acacia senegal provenances in Niger, West Africa, grown on 2 different soil types. Among the provenances, 6 are from Niger, 4 from Mali and 1 from Sudan. The assessment was carried out with measurements of growth parameters (survival rate, height, diameter and basal area) as well as gum and fruit production at age 15. The results showed significant differences in growth parameters between soil types and provenances. The provenances from Mali perform best, followed by the local Niger provenances. There were no significant differences in gum and fruit production between provenances, but it cannot be excluded that this was a result of limited power in the test of provenance variation in these traits. Survival of the provenances was correlated to the precipitation and the latitude of the origin, whereas basal area was correlated to latitude, and height was correlated to longitude/altitude at the origin. Recommendations could be made for genetic selection of two Mali provenances if growth is a desired character. We conclude that recommendations in terms of gum and fruit production must be based on a relative high number of sample trees as tree to tree variation within provenances may be large.

Key words

  • Acacia senegal
  • gum arabic
  • growth
  • Niger
  • Provenance trial
  • clines
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Karyotype Analysis of Alnus Mill. (Betulaceae) Species Originating From Northeastern Asia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 219 - 223

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Alnus Mill. (alder) is an ecologically valuable tree genus. It is essential to study its genetic makeup in order to use alder trees to their full potential. Five specimens from four Alnus species (A. mandshurica, A. pendula, A. sibirica, and A. sieboldiana), found in northeastern Asia, were subjected to karyotype analysis. The analysis showed that these tree samples could be divided into three categories based on chromosome numbers or ploidy levels: viz., 2n = (4x) = 28, 2n = (8x) = 56 and 2n = (16x) = 112. The differences in chromosome number and karyotype parameters among Alnus species and even within the same species possibly resulted from natural polyploidization. Comparing the chromosome numbers of Alnus species in China with those in Japan showed that there appear to be only two categories in China, whereas there are up to five categories in Japan. The earliest fossil records of Alnus pollen were also discovered in Japan. We conclude that the center origin of Alnus spp. is Japan rather than China.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alder
  • Asia
  • center of origin
  • chromosomal evolution
  • karyotype analysis
  • polyploidy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Realized Genetic Gains in Coastal Douglas-fir in British Columbia: Implications for Growth and Yield Projections

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 223 - 233

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Realized genetic gain trials for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) at five different sites with four different spacings were assessed at age 12 to compare early gain predictions in growth from small plot progeny test designs to those obtained from large block designs. Seedlings from three genetic levels, i.e., local wild-stand controls (WS), a mid-gain seedlot (MG), and a top-cross seedlot (TC) were planted in 12 × 12 tree plots with two replications at spacings of 1.6 m, 2.3 m, 2.9 m and 4.0 m. Two replications of a “single-tree plot” design at 2.9 m spacing for the three genetic levels (30 trees per genetic level) were also established, to allow for more detailed comparisons between single-tree and multiple-tree plot means. Although these trials are still relatively young, trees in the closest spacing had the highest levels of mortality with the TC trees having the highest rate of survival. Height gains in the block trials ranged from 10.4% to 16.1% for MG and TC trees, respectively, and were relatively close to the predicted values; however, volume (individual tree and volume/ha) gains exceeded expectations. Effects of genetic entry on height at age 12 were highly significant, while spacing, genetic entry by spacing, and genetic entry by test site interactions were not significant. We also compared height growth over the first 12 years to growth estimated from the “Bruce height growth model” for Douglas-fir and found that on four of the five test sites our MG and TC seedlings follow the expected height growth trajectories.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pseudotsuga menziesii
  • breeding value
  • competition
  • spacing
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Controlled Pollination Methods for Creating Corymbia Hybrids

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 233 - 241

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inter-specific Corymbia hybrids are of increasing interest to plantation forestry, yet there is little knowledge of the most suitable controlled pollination methods for this genus. Inter-specific crosses were made between C. torelliana [CT(maternal parent)] and C. citriodora subsp. variegata (CCV), C. henryi (CH) and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora (CCC) using conventional pollination, one-stop pollination (OSP) and artificially-induced protogyny on yellow buds (AIP Y) pollination methods. Additional treatments included AIP on green buds (AIP G) and the use of exclusion bags for the OSP and AIP methods. Inter-specific hybrids (CT x CCV, CT x CH and CT x CCC) were successfully created using all three pollination methods. The AIP Y treatment provided the highest seed yields and achieved time savings of >41% over the conventional and OSP methods, resulting in up to five-fold increases in operator productivity. However, the AIP Y treatment also had the highest C. torelliana contamination levels (9.3-13.2%). The use of exclusion bags with the AIP method had minimal effect on contamination rates, indicating a high proportion of selfpollen contamination. Contamination rates varied between maternal parents, suggesting variation in selfcompatibility for C. torelliana individuals. AIP using semi-ripe green buds was not effective at reducing selfing and had low operator productivity. The AIP method is suitable for use in a large-scale hybrid breeding program for C. torelliana. When self-pollination effects are managed, it could greatly reduce the costs associated with the production of seed of elite family crosses for commercial forestry deployment.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Conventional pollination
  • one-stop pollination
  • artificially- induced protogyny
  • self-pollination
  • spotted gum
  • Eucalyptus
  • inter-specific hybrid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Selection of Genetically Divergent Clones of Casuarina equisetifolia for Further Breeding Programmes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 242 - 248

Zusammenfassung

Schlüsselwörter

  • Genetic Divergence
  • Casuarina equisetifolia
  • Tree Breeding
  • Hybridization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Development of SCAR Markers for Species Identification in the Genus Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 249 - 257

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The development of molecular markers unambiguously distinguishing groups at different taxonomic levels has numerous forensic applications. The identification of tropical timber is of particular interest in this context. We describe the development of SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) markers for forensic applications taking the example of two closely related species of the tropical tree family Shorea (Dipterocarpaceae). Two AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments have been described earlier showing strong differentiation between S. leprosula and S. parvifolia. The AFLP markers were isolated from a gel, re-amplified, cloned and sequenced. Primer sets were designed from these sequences and AFLP fragments were converted into SCAR markers. The SCAR markers and PCR-RFLP markers of the chloroplast region trnLF digested with HinfI were used to screen in total 557 samples of S. parvifolia and S. leprosula from nineteen widely separated populations in Indonesia. Complete genetic differentiation between species was observed based on the putatively nuclear SCAR marker and the PCR-RFLP of the cpDNA region. We found a good agreement between leaf morphological variation and species identification based on both marker types and no indication for interspecific hybridization.

Schlüsselwörter

  • SCAR
  • Dipterocarpaceae
  • molecular identification
  • tropical timber
  • species assignment
  • hybridization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

SSR and SNP Markers for the Identification of Clones, Hybrids and Species Within the Genus Populus

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 257 - 263

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several poplar species within a section, but also between sections, are cross-compatible, thus a high number of interspecies-hybrids occur naturally or have been artificially produced during the last 100 years. Very often, systematically kept records on the production or vegetative propagation of poplar hybrids and/or clones have not been available to date. Hence the origin of the poplar plant material used for the generation of hybrids or clones is not quite clear in many cases, thus making the differentiation between the clones a difficult task. Therefore, genetic markers are needed to clearly identify and differentiate the species and hybrids in the genus Populus, including both identification of existing clones and the breeding of new ones. One aspect of this study is therefore to develop molecular markers for the identification and differentiation of species, hybrids, and clones of the genus Populus.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Populus
  • clones
  • hybrids
  • species
  • SSRs
  • SNPs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A DNA Method to Verify the Integrity of Timber Supply Chains; Confirming the Legal Sourcing of Merbau Timber From Logging Concession to Sawmill

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 263 - 268

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Several methods are employed by the timber industry to try to restrict the flow of products from illegal or unsustainable sources into timber supply chains. The most commonly applied are systems of log marking and associated documentation that accompany the logs. However this system is open to falsification, particularly between the logging concession and the timber mill, where the majority of illegally logged timber enters the supply chain. This paper describes the development of a methodology to track a unique genetic fingerprint for single logs of merbau, Intsia palembanica (Leguminosae), a high-value Indonesian timber species, from logging concession to the mill, where the DNA profile of individual logs is difficult or impossible to falsify. We find that whilst the ability to extract DNA and amplify a PCR product from logs decreases slightly between forest concession (59.2%) and mill (41.9%) samples, that overall enough samples worked across the 14 microsatellite markers to provide an exact genotype match between forest and sawmill samples for 27 out of 32 logs. Furthermore for these 27 samples, the probability that an illegal log with an exact genotype match to forest samples had been substituted was very low (less than 10-5) for 18 samples, was low (between 10-2 and 10-4) for 7 samples and was moderate (10-1) for 2 samples. Improvements to DNA extraction and amplification success are recommended to improve this protocol, and there was a negative correlation between locus size and amplification success but a positive correlation with allele number. However, overall we propose that this methodology is now suitable for broad-scale industry application to track legally harvested timber and check for illegal substitutions along supply chains.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic fingerprinting
  • illegal logging
  • merbau
  • microsatellites
  • timber certification
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Use of DNA-Fingerprints to Control the Origin of Forest Reproductive Material

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 268 - 273

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Well-adapted, high quality reproductive material is key to the success of forest plantations. Consequently in many countries the collection and trade of forest reproductive material is regulated. Paper documents are usually the only evidence for the origin of forest reproductive material. Certification schemes already established in Germany use genetic inventories to compare reference samples collected at different steps of the chain-ofcustody. A new approach using DNA-fingerprints efficiently controls the origin of seed sources without these multiple reference samples. Only a sample of adult trees within the seed stands is needed. The control is directly made for each suspicious plant or a group of suspicious plants by use of multilocus genotype assignment. We made a field test with samples of adults and seedling from 5 registered seed stands of Quercus robur in Western Germany. Eight highly variable nuclear microsatellites were used to genotype each individual. We found in total 255 different alleles at all loci in the adult populations. The observed levels of genetic variation (Ae= 9.18), genetic differentiation (delta = 0.187) and population fixation (FST = 0.01) were slightly higher than results of similar studies. Individual and group assignment tests were performed with the Bayesian multi-locus approach. The proportion of correctly assigned seedlings was 65% for individuals with completely scored genotypes. In all 5 cases the groups of seedlings were assigned to the correct seed stand and an additional sample of seedlings from another stand could be successfully excluded with a probability test. The conclusion of the field study is that a large scale application of this new approach to control of the origin of forest reproductive material is feasible.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Certification
  • forest reproductive material
  • genotype assignment
  • nSSRs
  • seed
  • tracing origin
  • Quercus robur
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Population Structure and Molecular Characterization of Nigerian Field Genebank Collections of Cacao, Theobroma cacao L.

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 273 - 285

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Inadequate knowledge of the population structure and diversity present often hamper the efficient use of germplasm collections. Using a high through-put system, twelve microsatellite loci were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure in a national field genebank repository of 243 cacao accessions grouped into 11 populations based on their known sources. Based on multi-locus profiles, the Bayesian method was used for individual assignment to verify membership in each population, determine mislabeling and ancestry of some important accessions used in breeding program. A total of 218 alleles was revealed with a mean number of 18.2 alleles per locus. Gene diversity (He = 0.70) and allelic richness (4.34 alleles per locus) were highest in the F1 hybrid population. Differential mating system was suggested as responsible for the observed deficit and excess of heterozygotes observed among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed that within-population variance accounted for 63.0% of the total variance while the rest 37% was accounted for by the among-population variance. Cluster dendrogram based on UPGMA revealed two main subsets. The first group was made up of the Amelonado/Trinitario ancestry and the other of Nanay/Parinari ancestry. We found that Nanay and Parinari populations were the major source of Upper Amazon genes utilized while a large proportion of genetic diversity in the field genebank remained under-utilized in development of improved cultivars released to farmers in Nigeria. This study showed that the presence of alleles of the Upper Amazon Forasteros (Nanay, Parinari and Iquitos Mixed Calabacillo) genetic materials in the locally available accessions predated the formal large scale introduction of Upper Amazon materials in 1944. This is the first report of population structure of field genebank collections of cacao in Nigeria since more than seven decades of formal cacao breeding research.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cacao
  • fixation index
  • germplasm
  • cultivars
  • gene diversity
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cross-amplification and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers From Acacia (Senegalia) mellifera and Acacia brevispica to Acacia senegal (L.) Willd.

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 285 - 288

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Seven polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from Acacia brevispica and Acacia mellifera were successfully cross-amplified in Acacia senegal. The loci were surveyed for polymorphism using 30 samples. Allelic diversity ranged from 4 (Ame02, Ab06 and Ab18) to 13 (Ab26) per locus. The expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.543 (Ame02) to 0.868 (Ab26) while observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.516 (Ame05) to 0.800 (Ame03). Cross-amplification of these loci represents a potential source of co-dominant markers and will be useful in the study of genetic diversity, structure, gene flow and breeding systems of this important Acacia species.

Key words

  • Acacia senegal
  • cross-amplification
  • genetic diversity
  • microsatellite
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Genetic Variation Amongst and Within the Native Provenances of Pinus radiata D. Don in South-eastern Australia. 3. Molecular and Quantitative Structure

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 289 - 298

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Patterns of differentiation between populations within a species can be examined using both molecular and quantitative data, with observed differences indicative of adaptation to local conditions. Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) is a species of commercial importance in many countries but also listed as conservation dependent in its native range on the Californian coast and two off shore islands. This paper presents a comparative analysis of existing molecular data with new quantitative data from a large provenance/progeny trial in southeastern Australia. Microsatellite data was reanalysed using a Bayesian model to test whether the a priori assumption of five natural occurrences was valid. With the validity of the geographic structure confirmed, two further approaches were used to examine genetic structure 1. a comparative study of Fst and Qst estimates to investigate the role of drift and selection in shaping the differentiation between the populations for breeding traits and 2. population clustering based on both quantitative and molecular data. Results strongly support the hypothesis that the island provenances of Pinus radiata are distinctly different to the mainland provenances. The molecular evidence also indicates the island provenances are different to each other. However, these differences were not apparent for the quantitative traits related to tree growth and form. The two island populations were however, strongly differentiated from each other for wood density and acoustic velocity. The patterns of phenotypic differentiation of the island provenances for these wood traits are both consistent with, and greater than, that observed for the molecular data, providing some evidence for directional selection on these traits. This study provides a background for the interpretation of molecular studies aimed at detecting molecular signatures of selection and associating genetic variation within genes with these traits.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pinus radiata
  • provenances
  • Californian collection
  • Qst
  • Fst
  • structure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Short Note: Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Castanopsis fissa in Lower Subtropical China

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 299 - 300

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We report on the development and characterization of ten microsatellite markers from repetitive DNA enriched libraries for Castanopsis fissa from lower subtropical China. The number of alleles ranged from three to thirteen. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.265 to 0.818, and 0.270 to 0.873, respectively. These microsatellite markers will be used to study fine-scale spatial genetic structure of C. fissa in 20 ha Dinghushan plot in lower subtropical China.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Castanopsis fissa
  • microsatellite
  • genetic marker
  • population genetics
  • lower subtropical China
  • reforestation
  • spatial genetic structure
  • marker development
  • DNA enriched libraries
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
  • linkage disequilibrium
  • Dinghushan

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