Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 113 (2022): Heft 1 (June 2022)

Volumen 112 (2021): Heft 1 (December 2021)

Volumen 111 (2021): Heft 1 (June 2021)

Volumen 110 (2020): Heft 1 (December 2020)

Volumen 109 (2020): Heft 1 (June 2020)

Volumen 108 (2019): Heft 1 (December 2019)

Volumen 107 (2019): Heft 1 (June 2019)

Volumen 106 (2018): Heft 1 (December 2018)

Volumen 105 (2018): Heft 1 (June 2018)

Volumen 104 (2017): Heft 1 (December 2017)

Volumen 103 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Volumen 102 (2016): Heft 1 (December 2016)

Volumen 101 (2016): Heft 1 (June 2016)

Volumen 100 (2016): Heft 1 (May 2016)

Volumen 99 (2015): Heft 1 (December 2015)

Volumen 98 (2015): Heft 1 (July 2015)

Volumen 97 (2014): Heft 1 (December 2014)

Volumen 96 (2014): Heft 1 (June 2014)

Volumen 95 (2013): Heft 1 (December 2013)

Volumen 94 (2013): Heft 1 (October 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2391-8152
Erstveröffentlichung
20 Oct 2013
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 112 (2021): Heft 1 (December 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2391-8152
Erstveröffentlichung
20 Oct 2013
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel

Original Article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Possibility of applying geoinformation multiagent optimisation for planning the development of road networks

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 1 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, computational intelligence has been used to solve optimisation problems. An innovative direction in the development of artificial intelligence methods is multiagent methods of intellectual optimisation, which simulate the collective behaviour of insects, animals and other living beings. It indicates the effectiveness of their behaviour, and hence the effectiveness of these methods, and the ability to be involved in solving applied problems. This article is devoted to the study of the development of road transport networks using the metaheuristic ant method of optimisation based on a number of data. The initial data were geospatial layers of information on slope steepness, engineering structures, forests, perennials, land development and hydrographic objects. The parameters of the behaviour of the studied method under different conditions and volumes of input geospatial data are experimentally established. The Max–Min method of multiagent optimisation is modified. The proposed modification takes into account the functional distance – the coefficient of the complexity of the route, which affects its length. This modification had an effective influence on the behaviour of ants and the choice of optimal routes, taking into account the terrain as one of the factors. The result of the advancement is an informational system, which is capable of formulating flexible options for passing optimal alternative routes between specified settlements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • geographic information system (GIS)
  • road design route
  • ant method optimisation
  • transport network
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determining the area corrections affecting the map areas in GIS applications

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 9 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, there are many area-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as real estate valuation, land tax, farming support and cost–benefit analysis. Areas used in such applications are calculated by means of two-dimensional plane geometry. However, the computed area value is not the exact area value in the terrain. In order to calculate the exact area value of a parcel, area corrections due to various factors must be taken into account. These factors are selection of projection, slope of the terrain, elevation of the terrain and scale of the map. Selection of projection and slope of terrain are available; elevation of the terrain and scale of map are not available in all GIS software. In this study, the effect of area corrections on the area value calculated from the map is examined with sample applications and the results are presented to the GIS users. According to the results, GIS users should select the equal area projection. In addition, scale of map, elevation and slope of terrain should be taken into account in the area calculation where land measurements are not possible.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Area-based GIS applications
  • area correction
  • exact area value
  • equal area projection
  • GIS software
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The method of detection and localization of configuration defects in geodetic networks by means of Tikhonov regularization

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In adjusted geodetic networks, cases of local configuration defects (defects in the geometric structure of the network due to missing data or errors in point numbering) can be encountered, which lead to the singularity of the normal equation system in the least-squares procedure. Numbering errors in observation sets cause the computer program to define the network geometry incorrectly. Another cause of a defect may be accidental omission of certain data records, causing local indeterminacy or lowering of local reliability rates in a network. Obviously, the problem of a configuration defect may be easily detectable in networks with a small number of points. However, it becomes a real problem in large networks, where manual checking of all data becomes a very expensive task. The paper presents a new strategy for the detection of configuration defects with the use of the Tikhonov regularization method. The method was implemented in 1992 in the GEONET system (www.geonet.net.pl).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Tikhonov regularization
  • geodetic network
  • configuration defects
  • generalized matrix inversion
  • outliers phenomena
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of periodic displacements of shell structures with edges using spline surfaces, meshes and point clouds

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 27 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This research paper tackles the problem of determining displacements of complex-shaped shell structures, measured periodically using laser scanning. Point clouds obtained during different measurement epochs can be compared with each other directly or they can be converted into continuous models in the form of a triangle mesh or smooth patches (spline functions). The accuracy of the direct comparison of point clouds depends on the scanning density, while the accuracy of comparing the point cloud to the model depends on approximation errors that are formed during its creation. Modelling using triangle meshes flattens the local structure of the object compared to the spline model. However, if the shell has edges in its structure, their exact representation by spline models is impossible due to the undulations of functions along them. Edges can also be distorted by the mesh model by their chamfering with transverse triangles. These types of surface modelling errors can lead to the generation of pseudo-deformation of the structure, which is difficult to distinguish from real deformation. In order to assess the possibility of correct determination of deformation using the above-mentioned methods, laser scanning of a complex shell structure in two epochs was performed. Then, modelling and comparison of the results of periodic measurements were carried out. As a result of the research, advantages and disadvantages of each method were identified. It was noticed that none of the methods made it possible to correctly represent all deformations while suppressing pseudo-deformation. However, the combination of their best qualities made it possible to determine the actual deformation of the structure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • periodic measurements
  • deformations
  • point clouds
  • mesh
  • spline
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Proposed single-zone map projection system for Turkey

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: 35 - 45

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The coordinate base of the maps or sheets produced is the Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM) conformal projection, and it is not possible to work in a single coordinate system in Turkey. Therefore, a transition from UTM to other conformal projections is required. For the countries extending in an east–west UTM zone width like Turkey, composite projection (CP), a double standard paralleling Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) and double map projections (DP) are used widely. However, this process causes increase in working load and processing errors by users. This study aims to determine a common projection system that can be used in the whole country. In this context, a composite projection from UTM and LCC projection has been defined for the first time. According to the results obtained, map projection CP with the least distortion values in both east–west and north–south directions has been chosen. With the CP selection, a single coordinate system has been determined for medium- and large-scale maps. Projection correction formulas, scale factor and false origin have been determined for map coordinates in CP. These distortions are obtained with a difference of less than 1 cm for 1 km long sides and less than 0.003″ for the azimuth value of this side, when the correction formulas are used.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
  • Lambert conformal conic (LCC)
  • composite projection
  • distortion
  • scale
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Validation of the accuracy of geodetic automated measurement system based on GNSS platform for continuous monitoring of surface movements in post-mining areas

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 47 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problem involving the monitoring of surface ground movements in post-mining areas is particularly important during the period of mine closures. During or after flooding of a mine, mechanical properties of the rock mass may be impaired, and this may trigger subsidence, surface landslides, uplift, sinkholes or seismic activity. It is, therefore, important to examine and select updating methods and plans for long-term monitoring of post-mining areas to mitigate seismic hazards or surface deformation during and after mine closure. The research assumed the implementation of continuous monitoring of surface movements using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in the area of a closed hard coal mine ‘Kazimierz-Juliusz’, located in Poland. In order to ensure displacement measurement results with the accuracy of several millimetres, the accuracy of multi-GNSS observations carried out in real time as a combination of four global navigation systems, Global Positioning System (GPS), Globalnaja Navigacionnaja Sputnikova Sistema (GLONASS), Galileo and BeiDou, was determined. The article presents the results of empirical research conducted at four reference points. The test observations were made in variants comprising measurements based on: GPS, GPS and GLONASS systems, GPS, GLONASS and Galileo systems, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems. For each adopted solution, daily measurement sessions were performed using the RTK technique. The test results were subjected to accuracy analyses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that GNSS measurements should be carried out with the use of three navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo), as an optimal solution for the needs of continuous geodetic monitoring in the area of the study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RTK
  • seismic activity
  • GNSS monitoring
  • Galileo
  • BeiDou
6 Artikel

Original Article

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Possibility of applying geoinformation multiagent optimisation for planning the development of road networks

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 1 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In recent years, computational intelligence has been used to solve optimisation problems. An innovative direction in the development of artificial intelligence methods is multiagent methods of intellectual optimisation, which simulate the collective behaviour of insects, animals and other living beings. It indicates the effectiveness of their behaviour, and hence the effectiveness of these methods, and the ability to be involved in solving applied problems. This article is devoted to the study of the development of road transport networks using the metaheuristic ant method of optimisation based on a number of data. The initial data were geospatial layers of information on slope steepness, engineering structures, forests, perennials, land development and hydrographic objects. The parameters of the behaviour of the studied method under different conditions and volumes of input geospatial data are experimentally established. The Max–Min method of multiagent optimisation is modified. The proposed modification takes into account the functional distance – the coefficient of the complexity of the route, which affects its length. This modification had an effective influence on the behaviour of ants and the choice of optimal routes, taking into account the terrain as one of the factors. The result of the advancement is an informational system, which is capable of formulating flexible options for passing optimal alternative routes between specified settlements.

Schlüsselwörter

  • geographic information system (GIS)
  • road design route
  • ant method optimisation
  • transport network
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Determining the area corrections affecting the map areas in GIS applications

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 9 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Nowadays, there are many area-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications such as real estate valuation, land tax, farming support and cost–benefit analysis. Areas used in such applications are calculated by means of two-dimensional plane geometry. However, the computed area value is not the exact area value in the terrain. In order to calculate the exact area value of a parcel, area corrections due to various factors must be taken into account. These factors are selection of projection, slope of the terrain, elevation of the terrain and scale of the map. Selection of projection and slope of terrain are available; elevation of the terrain and scale of map are not available in all GIS software. In this study, the effect of area corrections on the area value calculated from the map is examined with sample applications and the results are presented to the GIS users. According to the results, GIS users should select the equal area projection. In addition, scale of map, elevation and slope of terrain should be taken into account in the area calculation where land measurements are not possible.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Area-based GIS applications
  • area correction
  • exact area value
  • equal area projection
  • GIS software
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The method of detection and localization of configuration defects in geodetic networks by means of Tikhonov regularization

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In adjusted geodetic networks, cases of local configuration defects (defects in the geometric structure of the network due to missing data or errors in point numbering) can be encountered, which lead to the singularity of the normal equation system in the least-squares procedure. Numbering errors in observation sets cause the computer program to define the network geometry incorrectly. Another cause of a defect may be accidental omission of certain data records, causing local indeterminacy or lowering of local reliability rates in a network. Obviously, the problem of a configuration defect may be easily detectable in networks with a small number of points. However, it becomes a real problem in large networks, where manual checking of all data becomes a very expensive task. The paper presents a new strategy for the detection of configuration defects with the use of the Tikhonov regularization method. The method was implemented in 1992 in the GEONET system (www.geonet.net.pl).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Tikhonov regularization
  • geodetic network
  • configuration defects
  • generalized matrix inversion
  • outliers phenomena
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of periodic displacements of shell structures with edges using spline surfaces, meshes and point clouds

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 27 - 33

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This research paper tackles the problem of determining displacements of complex-shaped shell structures, measured periodically using laser scanning. Point clouds obtained during different measurement epochs can be compared with each other directly or they can be converted into continuous models in the form of a triangle mesh or smooth patches (spline functions). The accuracy of the direct comparison of point clouds depends on the scanning density, while the accuracy of comparing the point cloud to the model depends on approximation errors that are formed during its creation. Modelling using triangle meshes flattens the local structure of the object compared to the spline model. However, if the shell has edges in its structure, their exact representation by spline models is impossible due to the undulations of functions along them. Edges can also be distorted by the mesh model by their chamfering with transverse triangles. These types of surface modelling errors can lead to the generation of pseudo-deformation of the structure, which is difficult to distinguish from real deformation. In order to assess the possibility of correct determination of deformation using the above-mentioned methods, laser scanning of a complex shell structure in two epochs was performed. Then, modelling and comparison of the results of periodic measurements were carried out. As a result of the research, advantages and disadvantages of each method were identified. It was noticed that none of the methods made it possible to correctly represent all deformations while suppressing pseudo-deformation. However, the combination of their best qualities made it possible to determine the actual deformation of the structure.

Schlüsselwörter

  • periodic measurements
  • deformations
  • point clouds
  • mesh
  • spline
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Proposed single-zone map projection system for Turkey

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Jan 2022
Seitenbereich: 35 - 45

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The coordinate base of the maps or sheets produced is the Universal Transversal Mercator (UTM) conformal projection, and it is not possible to work in a single coordinate system in Turkey. Therefore, a transition from UTM to other conformal projections is required. For the countries extending in an east–west UTM zone width like Turkey, composite projection (CP), a double standard paralleling Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) and double map projections (DP) are used widely. However, this process causes increase in working load and processing errors by users. This study aims to determine a common projection system that can be used in the whole country. In this context, a composite projection from UTM and LCC projection has been defined for the first time. According to the results obtained, map projection CP with the least distortion values in both east–west and north–south directions has been chosen. With the CP selection, a single coordinate system has been determined for medium- and large-scale maps. Projection correction formulas, scale factor and false origin have been determined for map coordinates in CP. These distortions are obtained with a difference of less than 1 cm for 1 km long sides and less than 0.003″ for the azimuth value of this side, when the correction formulas are used.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
  • Lambert conformal conic (LCC)
  • composite projection
  • distortion
  • scale
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Validation of the accuracy of geodetic automated measurement system based on GNSS platform for continuous monitoring of surface movements in post-mining areas

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Dec 2021
Seitenbereich: 47 - 57

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problem involving the monitoring of surface ground movements in post-mining areas is particularly important during the period of mine closures. During or after flooding of a mine, mechanical properties of the rock mass may be impaired, and this may trigger subsidence, surface landslides, uplift, sinkholes or seismic activity. It is, therefore, important to examine and select updating methods and plans for long-term monitoring of post-mining areas to mitigate seismic hazards or surface deformation during and after mine closure. The research assumed the implementation of continuous monitoring of surface movements using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in the area of a closed hard coal mine ‘Kazimierz-Juliusz’, located in Poland. In order to ensure displacement measurement results with the accuracy of several millimetres, the accuracy of multi-GNSS observations carried out in real time as a combination of four global navigation systems, Global Positioning System (GPS), Globalnaja Navigacionnaja Sputnikova Sistema (GLONASS), Galileo and BeiDou, was determined. The article presents the results of empirical research conducted at four reference points. The test observations were made in variants comprising measurements based on: GPS, GPS and GLONASS systems, GPS, GLONASS and Galileo systems, GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems. For each adopted solution, daily measurement sessions were performed using the RTK technique. The test results were subjected to accuracy analyses. Based on the obtained results, it was found that GNSS measurements should be carried out with the use of three navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo), as an optimal solution for the needs of continuous geodetic monitoring in the area of the study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RTK
  • seismic activity
  • GNSS monitoring
  • Galileo
  • BeiDou

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo