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Volumen 30 (2022): Heft 1 (June 2022)

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Volumen 28 (2020): Heft 1 (June 2020)

Volumen 27 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 27 (2019): Heft 1 (June 2019)

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Volumen 26 (2018): Heft 1 (June 2018)

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2061-9588
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Oct 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 27 (2019): Heft 1 (June 2019)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2061-9588
Erstveröffentlichung
08 Oct 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nesting success and productivity of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba: results from a nest box installation and long-term breeding monitoring program in Southern Hungary

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 1 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this study, the results of a long-term nest box installation program of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) in Southern Hungary were evaluated, which program was conducted during a 24-year period (1995–2018). The percentages of occupied nest boxes ranged from 9.72 to 73.44% in the first breeding periods while this varied between 0 and 41.46% in the case of repeated clutches in the same nest boxes with second broods. A total of 1,265 breeding attempts were recorded including 1,020 (80.63%) in the first and 245 (19.36%) in the second breeding periods, from which a total of 210 (16.6%) clutches did not produce any fledglings. The modal clutch size was 7 eggs in both first and second annual clutches. However, the value of productivity was higher in the case of larger clutch sizes and we found significant linear relationship between initial clutch size and fledgling production per nesting attempt in both breeding periods. Significant variation of reproductive parameters was observed among the years. The proportion of egg loss showed significant decline, while the change of hatching success and the variation of annual productivity showed significant slight positive linear trend during the 24 years. Our results suggested that despite the outlier values of reproduction characteristics in the extreme years with negative effect, a relatively stable Common Barn-owl population can be maintained by the placement of nest boxes in the investigated region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • nest box occupancy
  • clutch size
  • eggs and hatching losses
  • productivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigating the relationship between the prey composition of Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and the habitat structure of their hunting range in the Marcal Basin (Hungary), based on pellet analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 32 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Little was known about the small mammal fauna of the Marcal Basin to date, therefore we collected 1,144 Barn Owl pellets from 15 locations in 2017. After the analysis of the pellets, remnants of 3,063 prey items were identified, of which 97.5% were small mammals, belonging to 21 species, while the remaining 2.5% were birds, frogs and insects. Mammal prey items consisted of Cricetidae 41%, Muridae 31% and Soricidae 28%, and in some samples, we found the remnants of European Mole (Talpa europaea), Kuhl’s Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), Hazel Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) and Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis). Small mammal species were classified into four functional groups based on their preferences for urban, open, forest or wetland habitats. We investigated whether their relative abundances match with the proportions of the four habitat types in the assumed Barn Owl hunting ranges (cca. 2 km radius circle) in five sample sites. The relative abundance of small mammal species preferring urban habitats showed concordance with the proportion of the appropriate habitat types in the hunting area in two samples, while such concordance was proved for species favouring open, forest and wetland habitats just in one out of five samples. Small mammal functional groups represented in the prey composition do not directly correspond to the proportion of their typical habitats. We conclude that the abundance of various prey types is not suitable for characterising the landscape within the Barn Owl’s hunting range.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pellets
  • small mammals
  • habitat preference
  • landscape structure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Little Owl’s (Athene noctua) vertebrate food composition during breeding season with high frog dominance in grasslands

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 44 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate the feeding of the Little Owl (Athene noctua) during the breeding period in three protected sites (Upper Kiskunság Puszta, Upper Kiskunság Lakes, Peszéradacs Meadows) in an extensively managed lowland plain area (Upper Kiskunság) of the Carpathian Basin. A further objective was to provide a detailed assessment of the vertebrate prey spectrum and dominance structure based on the analyses of pellets. Little Owl pellets were collected in September 2015 and 2016 from 20 artificial nest boxes in which successful breeding occurred in both years. Mean pellet number was calculated per individuals. Distribution of individual number and biomass of vertebrate prey taxa were also examined. The number of collected and dissected owl pellets was 2,094 in 2015 and 2,024 in 2016, respectively. The average rate of pellet regurgitation was 25.57 pellets/ind. in 2015, and 27.74 pellets/ind. in 2016. From the 40 samples (4,118 owl pellets) a total of 2,017 vertebrate preys were determined. Cumulative species richness was 21, including 12 mammalian, 1 amphibian, 4 reptile and 4 bird species. Mammals were dominant in the food (average 50.83%), and the consumption of amphibians was similar (48.06%). The consumption of birds and reptiles was not significant. Amphibians were represented by a single species, the Common Spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus) in remarkably high proportions among the prey items, followed by the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) by approx. 37% proportion. The high proportion of the latter two species was also clearly reflected in the biomass amounts. Among the birds, the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) proved to be the most commonly predated species apart from other species closely related to farmland habitats (Motacilla alba, M. flava, Passer montanus).

Schlüsselwörter

  • nutrition
  • owl pellet analysis
  • Kiskunság
  • grassland
  • Strigidae
  • Amphibia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spectrum of plant and animal diet of European Great Bustard (Otis tarda tarda) – an overview

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 62 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We have pointed out 272 plant and 217 animal, altogether 489 taxa in the diet of Great Bustard on the basis of data received from 9 (10) countries for Otis tarda tarda (Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, former Soviet Union). Out of 272 plant taxa, 40 were classified as cultivated plants, 232 wild plants and weeds. From the latter, 43 taxa were monocotyledons and 189 were dicotyledons. Animal food is shared among Annelida (n = 3), Arthropoda (189) Mollusca (2) and Vertebrata (23) phyla. Arthropods are mostly represented with Insecta (181), Arachnoidea (3), Chilopoda (2), Diplopoda (2) and Crustacea (mostly Isopoda) (1) classes. The component of the diet is possibly not related to selection but to the change of the abundance and availability of food and the ever present demand for animal food needed for the organism. Owing to the high number of taxa known as food, Great Bustard is definitely a generalist species. Due to the wide spectrum of animal taxa and because of the ability to subsidize the inefficient quality of food with quantity, Great Bustards can be regarded as a species with positive adaptation ability. It can be explained with a wide plant and animal food spectrum that Great Bustards even in intensive agricultural habitats can find food with indispensable quantity and quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • European Great Bustard
  • plant diet
  • animal diet
  • spectrum of diet
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Diurnal feeding strategies of the Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) in Lake Tonga (Northeastern Algeria)

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 85 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Although the Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) has thoroughly been studied, the foraging behaviour of this species is still not completely known. In the present paper we studied the diurnal feeding behaviour of ducks. We monitored the annual cycle of birds through two fieldtrips per month. The instantaneous behaviour of birds was recorded in regular 30-minute intervals from 7 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., amounting a total of 456 observation hours. Food searching activity corresponds to a quarter of the total diurnal time budget of the Ferruginous Duck. Foraging behaviour was classified into five categories dominated by the “diving”, which is almost 45.61% of the total search time. Foraging activities at the water surface considered to be secondary activities, including feeding by “bill”, “neck and head”, and “beak and head” in a rate of 19.86%, 14.53%, and 13.98%, respectively. The “toggle” remains a minor activity and represents only 5.99% of foraging time. The feeding behaviour of this species correlated to several environmental parameters (rainfall, temperature and wind velocity), and linked to the group size of ducks visiting the lake. Regarding the food intensity, our results show the highest values for “bill and head” behaviour. “Diving” has the longest feeding interval (16.16±14.1 minutes), while foraging by “bill” has the shortest (0.69 ± 0.48 minutes).

Schlüsselwörter

  • El-kala
  • foraging behaviour
  • near threatened species
  • energy budget
  • Anatidae
  • wildfowl
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Habitat selection of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix) in an intensively managed agricultural environment

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 99 - 109

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigated the habitat selection of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix) during the breeding season of 2014 in an intensively managed agricultural environment (LAJTA Project, North-West Hungary). In order to assess the habitat preferences of the Common Quail, habitat composition around occupied plots were compared with unoccupied control plots. To characterize the habitat, a total of 11 variables related to vegetation structure and diversity, food availability and landscape were quantified. Multivariate methods (PCA and GLMs) were used to distinguish the main factors influencing habitat selection and to model the presence of the Common Quail. Based on our results, in the LAJTA Project, high probability of Common Quail presence can be predicted in plots with higher herbaceous cover and more abundant arthropod communities. The network of ecotone habitats, particularly the proximity to woody habitats, also appeared to have significant importance during the breeding season.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Common Quail
  • plant cover
  • food availability
  • field margin
  • forest belt
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of the breeding and wintering sites of Eurasian Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) occurring in Hungary based on ringing recovery data

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 110 - 116

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using the latest dataset of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, the aims of this study were to describe the monthly spatial pattern of woodcock occurrence and to assess the main wintering and breeding areas of the birds associated with Hungary in the last decade. Descriptive analyses were performed regarding the annual number of detections (ringing, recaptures and recoveries), and the relation between the annual number of woodcock ringers and the number of ringed birds was tested. Minimum convex polygons (MCP) were calculated for the detections of each month, and the variation of the monthly MCP size was evaluated. Distances of all detection locations were measured from the geographical central point of Hungary, and the distributions of these distances were compared among the months. The annual number of ringed birds increased, however it was not in relation with the number of people involved in ringing. The rate of recoveries was 7.5%. Two types of the reco very circumstances were registered: 89.9% by hunting, 10.1% found dead. MCPs were calculated for eight months. Each MCP overlapped with Hungary, to varying degrees, however remarkable differences were found in the MCP sizes among the different months. The largest areas were covered in December, January and February, while the areas in September and October were less than half of that size. The shortest distances to the country were registered in March, April, October, and November. Moderate distances were recorded in May and September, and the longest distances were found in December, January and February. Large amount of data is available about the wintering areas, and a wide wintering zone can be estimated. In contrast, there is no or only very little information about the areas covered in summer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eurasian Woodcock
  • migration
  • ringing
  • recoveries
  • spatial analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of skull morphometric characters in diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes)

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 117 - 131

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Diurnal birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) has traditionally been known as comprising a single order. Recently, this classification has been used in the non-taxonomic sense as referring to a convergent group of birds that are largely classified as predatory birds. Although these birds are similar in their morphology, the species differ in their foraging methods and prey preference. The cranial shape and the physical attributes determine the efficiency of the resource use. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape, prey preference, and foraging habits. A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyse two-dimensional cranial landmarks. We used principal component (PC) analyses on measurements that may be related to prey preference and foraging habits. The PCs are resulted described the relative height of the skull and beak, the variation in the relative size, the orientation and robustness of the lacrimal bone, the variation in the relative size of the neurocranium compared to the viscerocranium, and the orientation of the palatine bone. The dietary categories significantly overlap. The skull morphology reflects more on foraging habits than diet or prey preference.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cranial morphology
  • morphometric
  • anatomy
  • jaw
  • skull
  • shape
  • convergent evolution
  • diurnal predator
  • prey preference
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pigeons, sandgrouse, cuckoos, nightjars, rollers, bee-eaters, kingfishers and swifts in the European fossil avifauna and their osteological characteristics

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 132 - 165

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the article, the author describes the presence of fossil records of the pigeons (Ord. Columbiformes, Fam. Columbidae), sandgrouse (Ord. Pteroclidiformes, Fam. Pteroclididae), cuckoos (Ord. Cuculiformes, Fam. Cuculidae), nightjars (Ord. Caprimulgiformes, Fam. Caprimulgidae), rollers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Coraciidae), bee-eaters (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Meropidae), (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Upupidae), kingfishers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Alcedinidae) and swifts (Ord. Apodiformes, Fam. Apodidae) in Europe, particularly the Carpathian Basin, during the Tertiary and Quaternary, as well as their osteological characteristics. These orders generally contain a small number of species in Europe, most of them consisting of thermophilic, migratory species. Their fossil and subfossil remains provide precious information about the climatic conditions of their respective areas of origin.

The text is supplemented by 15 figures and 2 tables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carpathian Basin
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary
  • avian fauna
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

New species on the list of species with intraspecific nest parasitism

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 166 - 206

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Intraspecific nest parasitism has only recently received more attention from ornithologists. In 2001, Yom-Tov published a list of 234 species that had exhibited this behaviour. I have since found literature data on four additional species in which intraspecific nest parasitism has been observed. No such record has so far been published from Hungary. This study presents records on 25 species from Hungary and on one species from Croatia, out of which I have not found any reference for intraspecific nest parasitism in the literature for Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Eurasian Thick-knee (Burhinus oedicnemus), Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola), Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus), Little Tern (Sternula albifrons), Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybrida), Eurasian Roller (Coracias garrulus) and Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula). In addition to records from Hungary, for Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Mediterranean Gull I also present observations from Slovakia, and for Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) from Germany.

Schlüsselwörter

  • intraspecific nest parasitism
  • new species on the list: Cattle Egrett
  • Eurasian Thick-knee
  • Black-winged Stilt
  • Collared Pratincole
  • Mediterranean Gull
  • Little Tern
  • Whiskered Tern
  • Eurasian Roller
  • Eurasian Jackdaw
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of urbanization on population densities of forest passerine species in a Central European city

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 207 - 220

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Typical, but less common, passerine forest species were selected for this study, such as Lullula arborea, Anthus trivialis, Troglodytes troglodytes, Prunella modularis, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Regulus regulus, Regulus ignicapillus, Muscicapa striata, Ficedula albicollis, Ficedula hypoleuca, Parus cristatus, Parus palustris, Parus ater, Certhia familiaris, Certhia brachydactyla, Oriolus oriolus, Garrulus glandarius, and Corvus corax. M. striata and T. philomelos were the most numerous among the 20 investigated species, the former one nested in a density of 6.7 pairs per 100 ha of wooded area, while the later one at 5.1 pairs per 100 ha. Density of most other species was below 3 pairs per 100 ha of wooded area. A. trivialis, P. cristatus and P. modularis were unexpectedly rare (< 1 pair per 100 ha). Otherwise, relatively numerous were T. troglodytes (1.8 p./100 ha), R. regulus (1.8 p./100 ha) and P. palustris (1.4 p./100 ha). P. cristatus, L. arborea, and T. viscivorus were the rarest species investigated (below 0.1 p./100 ha). Several bird species nested in wooded areas only in the outer zone of the city. This group included A. trivialis, R. regulus, P. ater, and C. corax. Population density of T. troglodytes, T. philomelos and O. oriolus were significantly higher in outer than in inner zone, while the reverse was true in the case of M. striata and F. hypoleuca.

Schlüsselwörter

  • urban ornithology
  • urban ecology
  • urban forestry
  • population densities
  • Wroclaw
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preliminary results on bird collision with overhead power lines in Hungary: a case study around Pusztaszer Landscape Protection Area

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 221 - 238

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The literature on bird collision with power lines in Hungary is rather limited. We collected published records and carried out research on birds that collided with overhead wires, and we made a list of species, and the number of individuals recorded, around Pusztaszer Landscape Protection Area. The quality of data did not allow us to do robust statistical tests, and a large amount of collected data was not used in this paper, because of uncertainty. Finally, we used the records of 519 individuals of 63 species that got injured or died during collision with overhead wires. We found evidence, that low-, middle- and high-voltage power lines were all responsible for the collision accidents of birds. Birds that use wetlands or both wetlands and farmlands are the most threatened to collide with overhead electric wires. Most victims of collision accidents belong to Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes and Anseriformes orders. Our preliminary results suggest that the bigger the rate of weight and wingspan (wing-loading proxy) is, the greater the risk of birds colliding with power lines, probably because of poor manoeuvrability. Birds that move regularly, on a daily basis between their nests/roost sites and foraging areas are at higher risk to collide with electric wires. Our preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that birds which sit on power lines collide more frequently than birds that do not use wires. It seems that foggy weather circumstances increase the probability of collision events particularly in case of Common Cranes. Some large birds were found with burnt feathers after collision with middle-voltage power lines. A sizeable part of collided birds were protected or strictly protected. Bird collision with overhead wires is a serious problem in Hungary. Collision can be stopped on most dangerous part of overhead wires by converting to underground cabling. It is possible to reduce the number of collision events in case of high-voltage power lines by increasing their visibility. We always recommend underground cabling in case of wetlands, if new segments of electric wires would be carried out.

Schlüsselwörter

  • birds
  • collision risk
  • collision accident
  • electric overhead power line
  • habitat use
  • waterbird
12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nesting success and productivity of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba: results from a nest box installation and long-term breeding monitoring program in Southern Hungary

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 1 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this study, the results of a long-term nest box installation program of the Common Barn-owl Tyto alba (Scopoli, 1769) in Southern Hungary were evaluated, which program was conducted during a 24-year period (1995–2018). The percentages of occupied nest boxes ranged from 9.72 to 73.44% in the first breeding periods while this varied between 0 and 41.46% in the case of repeated clutches in the same nest boxes with second broods. A total of 1,265 breeding attempts were recorded including 1,020 (80.63%) in the first and 245 (19.36%) in the second breeding periods, from which a total of 210 (16.6%) clutches did not produce any fledglings. The modal clutch size was 7 eggs in both first and second annual clutches. However, the value of productivity was higher in the case of larger clutch sizes and we found significant linear relationship between initial clutch size and fledgling production per nesting attempt in both breeding periods. Significant variation of reproductive parameters was observed among the years. The proportion of egg loss showed significant decline, while the change of hatching success and the variation of annual productivity showed significant slight positive linear trend during the 24 years. Our results suggested that despite the outlier values of reproduction characteristics in the extreme years with negative effect, a relatively stable Common Barn-owl population can be maintained by the placement of nest boxes in the investigated region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • nest box occupancy
  • clutch size
  • eggs and hatching losses
  • productivity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigating the relationship between the prey composition of Barn Owls (Tyto alba) and the habitat structure of their hunting range in the Marcal Basin (Hungary), based on pellet analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 32 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Little was known about the small mammal fauna of the Marcal Basin to date, therefore we collected 1,144 Barn Owl pellets from 15 locations in 2017. After the analysis of the pellets, remnants of 3,063 prey items were identified, of which 97.5% were small mammals, belonging to 21 species, while the remaining 2.5% were birds, frogs and insects. Mammal prey items consisted of Cricetidae 41%, Muridae 31% and Soricidae 28%, and in some samples, we found the remnants of European Mole (Talpa europaea), Kuhl’s Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), Hazel Dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) and Least Weasel (Mustela nivalis). Small mammal species were classified into four functional groups based on their preferences for urban, open, forest or wetland habitats. We investigated whether their relative abundances match with the proportions of the four habitat types in the assumed Barn Owl hunting ranges (cca. 2 km radius circle) in five sample sites. The relative abundance of small mammal species preferring urban habitats showed concordance with the proportion of the appropriate habitat types in the hunting area in two samples, while such concordance was proved for species favouring open, forest and wetland habitats just in one out of five samples. Small mammal functional groups represented in the prey composition do not directly correspond to the proportion of their typical habitats. We conclude that the abundance of various prey types is not suitable for characterising the landscape within the Barn Owl’s hunting range.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pellets
  • small mammals
  • habitat preference
  • landscape structure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Little Owl’s (Athene noctua) vertebrate food composition during breeding season with high frog dominance in grasslands

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 44 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate the feeding of the Little Owl (Athene noctua) during the breeding period in three protected sites (Upper Kiskunság Puszta, Upper Kiskunság Lakes, Peszéradacs Meadows) in an extensively managed lowland plain area (Upper Kiskunság) of the Carpathian Basin. A further objective was to provide a detailed assessment of the vertebrate prey spectrum and dominance structure based on the analyses of pellets. Little Owl pellets were collected in September 2015 and 2016 from 20 artificial nest boxes in which successful breeding occurred in both years. Mean pellet number was calculated per individuals. Distribution of individual number and biomass of vertebrate prey taxa were also examined. The number of collected and dissected owl pellets was 2,094 in 2015 and 2,024 in 2016, respectively. The average rate of pellet regurgitation was 25.57 pellets/ind. in 2015, and 27.74 pellets/ind. in 2016. From the 40 samples (4,118 owl pellets) a total of 2,017 vertebrate preys were determined. Cumulative species richness was 21, including 12 mammalian, 1 amphibian, 4 reptile and 4 bird species. Mammals were dominant in the food (average 50.83%), and the consumption of amphibians was similar (48.06%). The consumption of birds and reptiles was not significant. Amphibians were represented by a single species, the Common Spadefoot (Pelobates fuscus) in remarkably high proportions among the prey items, followed by the Common Vole (Microtus arvalis) by approx. 37% proportion. The high proportion of the latter two species was also clearly reflected in the biomass amounts. Among the birds, the Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) proved to be the most commonly predated species apart from other species closely related to farmland habitats (Motacilla alba, M. flava, Passer montanus).

Schlüsselwörter

  • nutrition
  • owl pellet analysis
  • Kiskunság
  • grassland
  • Strigidae
  • Amphibia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spectrum of plant and animal diet of European Great Bustard (Otis tarda tarda) – an overview

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 62 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We have pointed out 272 plant and 217 animal, altogether 489 taxa in the diet of Great Bustard on the basis of data received from 9 (10) countries for Otis tarda tarda (Portugal, Spain, United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, former Soviet Union). Out of 272 plant taxa, 40 were classified as cultivated plants, 232 wild plants and weeds. From the latter, 43 taxa were monocotyledons and 189 were dicotyledons. Animal food is shared among Annelida (n = 3), Arthropoda (189) Mollusca (2) and Vertebrata (23) phyla. Arthropods are mostly represented with Insecta (181), Arachnoidea (3), Chilopoda (2), Diplopoda (2) and Crustacea (mostly Isopoda) (1) classes. The component of the diet is possibly not related to selection but to the change of the abundance and availability of food and the ever present demand for animal food needed for the organism. Owing to the high number of taxa known as food, Great Bustard is definitely a generalist species. Due to the wide spectrum of animal taxa and because of the ability to subsidize the inefficient quality of food with quantity, Great Bustards can be regarded as a species with positive adaptation ability. It can be explained with a wide plant and animal food spectrum that Great Bustards even in intensive agricultural habitats can find food with indispensable quantity and quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • European Great Bustard
  • plant diet
  • animal diet
  • spectrum of diet
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Diurnal feeding strategies of the Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) in Lake Tonga (Northeastern Algeria)

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 85 - 98

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Although the Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) has thoroughly been studied, the foraging behaviour of this species is still not completely known. In the present paper we studied the diurnal feeding behaviour of ducks. We monitored the annual cycle of birds through two fieldtrips per month. The instantaneous behaviour of birds was recorded in regular 30-minute intervals from 7 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., amounting a total of 456 observation hours. Food searching activity corresponds to a quarter of the total diurnal time budget of the Ferruginous Duck. Foraging behaviour was classified into five categories dominated by the “diving”, which is almost 45.61% of the total search time. Foraging activities at the water surface considered to be secondary activities, including feeding by “bill”, “neck and head”, and “beak and head” in a rate of 19.86%, 14.53%, and 13.98%, respectively. The “toggle” remains a minor activity and represents only 5.99% of foraging time. The feeding behaviour of this species correlated to several environmental parameters (rainfall, temperature and wind velocity), and linked to the group size of ducks visiting the lake. Regarding the food intensity, our results show the highest values for “bill and head” behaviour. “Diving” has the longest feeding interval (16.16±14.1 minutes), while foraging by “bill” has the shortest (0.69 ± 0.48 minutes).

Schlüsselwörter

  • El-kala
  • foraging behaviour
  • near threatened species
  • energy budget
  • Anatidae
  • wildfowl
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Habitat selection of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix) in an intensively managed agricultural environment

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 99 - 109

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigated the habitat selection of the Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix) during the breeding season of 2014 in an intensively managed agricultural environment (LAJTA Project, North-West Hungary). In order to assess the habitat preferences of the Common Quail, habitat composition around occupied plots were compared with unoccupied control plots. To characterize the habitat, a total of 11 variables related to vegetation structure and diversity, food availability and landscape were quantified. Multivariate methods (PCA and GLMs) were used to distinguish the main factors influencing habitat selection and to model the presence of the Common Quail. Based on our results, in the LAJTA Project, high probability of Common Quail presence can be predicted in plots with higher herbaceous cover and more abundant arthropod communities. The network of ecotone habitats, particularly the proximity to woody habitats, also appeared to have significant importance during the breeding season.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Common Quail
  • plant cover
  • food availability
  • field margin
  • forest belt
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of the breeding and wintering sites of Eurasian Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) occurring in Hungary based on ringing recovery data

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 110 - 116

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using the latest dataset of the Hungarian Bird Ringing Centre, the aims of this study were to describe the monthly spatial pattern of woodcock occurrence and to assess the main wintering and breeding areas of the birds associated with Hungary in the last decade. Descriptive analyses were performed regarding the annual number of detections (ringing, recaptures and recoveries), and the relation between the annual number of woodcock ringers and the number of ringed birds was tested. Minimum convex polygons (MCP) were calculated for the detections of each month, and the variation of the monthly MCP size was evaluated. Distances of all detection locations were measured from the geographical central point of Hungary, and the distributions of these distances were compared among the months. The annual number of ringed birds increased, however it was not in relation with the number of people involved in ringing. The rate of recoveries was 7.5%. Two types of the reco very circumstances were registered: 89.9% by hunting, 10.1% found dead. MCPs were calculated for eight months. Each MCP overlapped with Hungary, to varying degrees, however remarkable differences were found in the MCP sizes among the different months. The largest areas were covered in December, January and February, while the areas in September and October were less than half of that size. The shortest distances to the country were registered in March, April, October, and November. Moderate distances were recorded in May and September, and the longest distances were found in December, January and February. Large amount of data is available about the wintering areas, and a wide wintering zone can be estimated. In contrast, there is no or only very little information about the areas covered in summer.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eurasian Woodcock
  • migration
  • ringing
  • recoveries
  • spatial analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of skull morphometric characters in diurnal raptors (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes)

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 117 - 131

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Diurnal birds of prey (Accipitriformes and Falconiformes) has traditionally been known as comprising a single order. Recently, this classification has been used in the non-taxonomic sense as referring to a convergent group of birds that are largely classified as predatory birds. Although these birds are similar in their morphology, the species differ in their foraging methods and prey preference. The cranial shape and the physical attributes determine the efficiency of the resource use. The aim of this study is to increase our knowledge of the relationship between skull shape, prey preference, and foraging habits. A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyse two-dimensional cranial landmarks. We used principal component (PC) analyses on measurements that may be related to prey preference and foraging habits. The PCs are resulted described the relative height of the skull and beak, the variation in the relative size, the orientation and robustness of the lacrimal bone, the variation in the relative size of the neurocranium compared to the viscerocranium, and the orientation of the palatine bone. The dietary categories significantly overlap. The skull morphology reflects more on foraging habits than diet or prey preference.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cranial morphology
  • morphometric
  • anatomy
  • jaw
  • skull
  • shape
  • convergent evolution
  • diurnal predator
  • prey preference
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pigeons, sandgrouse, cuckoos, nightjars, rollers, bee-eaters, kingfishers and swifts in the European fossil avifauna and their osteological characteristics

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 132 - 165

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the article, the author describes the presence of fossil records of the pigeons (Ord. Columbiformes, Fam. Columbidae), sandgrouse (Ord. Pteroclidiformes, Fam. Pteroclididae), cuckoos (Ord. Cuculiformes, Fam. Cuculidae), nightjars (Ord. Caprimulgiformes, Fam. Caprimulgidae), rollers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Coraciidae), bee-eaters (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Meropidae), (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Upupidae), kingfishers (Ord. Coraciiformes, Fam. Alcedinidae) and swifts (Ord. Apodiformes, Fam. Apodidae) in Europe, particularly the Carpathian Basin, during the Tertiary and Quaternary, as well as their osteological characteristics. These orders generally contain a small number of species in Europe, most of them consisting of thermophilic, migratory species. Their fossil and subfossil remains provide precious information about the climatic conditions of their respective areas of origin.

The text is supplemented by 15 figures and 2 tables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Carpathian Basin
  • Tertiary
  • Quaternary
  • avian fauna
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

New species on the list of species with intraspecific nest parasitism

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 166 - 206

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Intraspecific nest parasitism has only recently received more attention from ornithologists. In 2001, Yom-Tov published a list of 234 species that had exhibited this behaviour. I have since found literature data on four additional species in which intraspecific nest parasitism has been observed. No such record has so far been published from Hungary. This study presents records on 25 species from Hungary and on one species from Croatia, out of which I have not found any reference for intraspecific nest parasitism in the literature for Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), Eurasian Thick-knee (Burhinus oedicnemus), Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus), Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola), Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus), Little Tern (Sternula albifrons), Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybrida), Eurasian Roller (Coracias garrulus) and Eurasian Jackdaw (Corvus monedula). In addition to records from Hungary, for Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Mediterranean Gull I also present observations from Slovakia, and for Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) from Germany.

Schlüsselwörter

  • intraspecific nest parasitism
  • new species on the list: Cattle Egrett
  • Eurasian Thick-knee
  • Black-winged Stilt
  • Collared Pratincole
  • Mediterranean Gull
  • Little Tern
  • Whiskered Tern
  • Eurasian Roller
  • Eurasian Jackdaw
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of urbanization on population densities of forest passerine species in a Central European city

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 207 - 220

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Typical, but less common, passerine forest species were selected for this study, such as Lullula arborea, Anthus trivialis, Troglodytes troglodytes, Prunella modularis, Turdus philomelos, Turdus viscivorus, Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Regulus regulus, Regulus ignicapillus, Muscicapa striata, Ficedula albicollis, Ficedula hypoleuca, Parus cristatus, Parus palustris, Parus ater, Certhia familiaris, Certhia brachydactyla, Oriolus oriolus, Garrulus glandarius, and Corvus corax. M. striata and T. philomelos were the most numerous among the 20 investigated species, the former one nested in a density of 6.7 pairs per 100 ha of wooded area, while the later one at 5.1 pairs per 100 ha. Density of most other species was below 3 pairs per 100 ha of wooded area. A. trivialis, P. cristatus and P. modularis were unexpectedly rare (< 1 pair per 100 ha). Otherwise, relatively numerous were T. troglodytes (1.8 p./100 ha), R. regulus (1.8 p./100 ha) and P. palustris (1.4 p./100 ha). P. cristatus, L. arborea, and T. viscivorus were the rarest species investigated (below 0.1 p./100 ha). Several bird species nested in wooded areas only in the outer zone of the city. This group included A. trivialis, R. regulus, P. ater, and C. corax. Population density of T. troglodytes, T. philomelos and O. oriolus were significantly higher in outer than in inner zone, while the reverse was true in the case of M. striata and F. hypoleuca.

Schlüsselwörter

  • urban ornithology
  • urban ecology
  • urban forestry
  • population densities
  • Wroclaw
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Preliminary results on bird collision with overhead power lines in Hungary: a case study around Pusztaszer Landscape Protection Area

Online veröffentlicht: 27 Jul 2019
Seitenbereich: 221 - 238

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The literature on bird collision with power lines in Hungary is rather limited. We collected published records and carried out research on birds that collided with overhead wires, and we made a list of species, and the number of individuals recorded, around Pusztaszer Landscape Protection Area. The quality of data did not allow us to do robust statistical tests, and a large amount of collected data was not used in this paper, because of uncertainty. Finally, we used the records of 519 individuals of 63 species that got injured or died during collision with overhead wires. We found evidence, that low-, middle- and high-voltage power lines were all responsible for the collision accidents of birds. Birds that use wetlands or both wetlands and farmlands are the most threatened to collide with overhead electric wires. Most victims of collision accidents belong to Gruiformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes and Anseriformes orders. Our preliminary results suggest that the bigger the rate of weight and wingspan (wing-loading proxy) is, the greater the risk of birds colliding with power lines, probably because of poor manoeuvrability. Birds that move regularly, on a daily basis between their nests/roost sites and foraging areas are at higher risk to collide with electric wires. Our preliminary results do not support the hypothesis that birds which sit on power lines collide more frequently than birds that do not use wires. It seems that foggy weather circumstances increase the probability of collision events particularly in case of Common Cranes. Some large birds were found with burnt feathers after collision with middle-voltage power lines. A sizeable part of collided birds were protected or strictly protected. Bird collision with overhead wires is a serious problem in Hungary. Collision can be stopped on most dangerous part of overhead wires by converting to underground cabling. It is possible to reduce the number of collision events in case of high-voltage power lines by increasing their visibility. We always recommend underground cabling in case of wetlands, if new segments of electric wires would be carried out.

Schlüsselwörter

  • birds
  • collision risk
  • collision accident
  • electric overhead power line
  • habitat use
  • waterbird

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