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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2449-6499
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Dec 2014
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 12 (2022): Heft 1 (January 2022)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2449-6499
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Dec 2014
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance Analysis of Data Fusion Methods Applied to Epileptic Seizure Recognition

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 5 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is caused by unprovoked recurrent seizures. The most commonly used tool for the diagnosis of epilepsy is the electroencephalogram (EEG) whereby the electrical activity of the brain is measured. In order to prevent potential risks, the patients have to be monitored as to detect an epileptic episode early on and to provide prevention measures. Many different research studies have used a combination of time and frequency features for the automatic recognition of epileptic seizures. In this paper, two fusion methods are compared. The first is based on an ensemble method and the second uses the Choquet fuzzy integral method. In particular, three different machine learning approaches namely RNN, ML and DNN are used as inputs for the ensemble method and the Choquet fuzzy integral fusion method. Evaluation measures such as confusion matrix, AUC and accuracy are compared as well as MSE and RMSE are provided. The results show that the Choquet fuzzy integral fusion method outperforms the ensemble method as well as other state-of-the-art classification methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • epilepsy
  • ensemble method
  • Choquet fuzzy integral fusion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Anomaly Pattern Detection in Streaming Data Based on the Transformation to Multiple Binary-Valued Data Streams

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 19 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Anomaly pattern detection in a data stream aims to detect a time point where outliers begin to occur abnormally. Recently, a method for anomaly pattern detection has been proposed based on binary classification for outliers and statistical tests in the data stream of binary labels of normal or an outlier. It showed that an anomaly pattern can be detected accurately even when outlier detection performance is relatively low. However, since the anomaly pattern detection method is based on the binary classification for outliers, most well-known outlier detection methods, with the output of real-valued outlier scores, can not be used directly. In this paper, we propose an anomaly pattern detection method in a data stream using the transformation to multiple binary-valued data streams from real-valued outlier scores. By using three outlier detection methods, Isolation Forest(IF), Autoencoder-based outlier detection, and Local outlier factor(LOF), the proposed anomaly pattern detection method is tested using artificial and real data sets. The experimental results show that anomaly pattern detection using Isolation Forest gives the best performance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anomaly pattern detection
  • multiple binary-valued streams
  • outlier detection
  • outlier score
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mixup (Sample Pairing) Can Improve the Performance of Deep Segmentation Networks

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Researchers address the generalization problem of deep image processing networks mainly through extensive use of data augmentation techniques such as random flips, rotations, and deformations. A data augmentation technique called mixup, which constructs virtual training samples from convex combinations of inputs, was recently proposed for deep classification networks. The algorithm contributed to increased performance on classification in a variety of datasets, but so far has not been evaluated for image segmentation tasks. In this paper, we tested whether the mixup algorithm can improve the generalization performance of deep segmentation networks for medical image data. We trained a standard U-net architecture to segment the prostate in 100 T2-weighted 3D magnetic resonance images from prostate cancer patients, and compared the results with and without mixup in terms of Dice similarity coefficient and mean surface distance from a reference segmentation made by an experienced radiologist. Our results suggest that mixup offers a statistically significant boost in performance compared to non-mixup training, leading to up to 1.9% increase in Dice and a 10.9% decrease in surface distance. The mixup algorithm may thus offer an important aid for medical image segmentation applications, which are typically limited by severe data scarcity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • segmentation
  • prostate
  • data augmentation
  • mixup
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A New Hand-Movement-Based Authentication Method Using Feature Importance Selection with the Hotelling’s Statistic

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 41 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The growing amount of collected and processed data means that there is a need to control access to these resources. Very often, this type of control is carried out on the basis of bio-metric analysis. The article proposes a new user authentication method based on a spatial analysis of the movement of the finger’s position. This movement creates a sequence of data that is registered by a motion recording device. The presented approach combines spatial analysis of the position of all fingers at the time. The proposed method is able to use the specific, often different movements of fingers of each user. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the method in biometric applications. In this paper, we also introduce an effective method of feature selection, based on the Hotelling T2 statistic. This approach allows selecting the best distinctive features of each object from a set of all objects in the database. It is possible thanks to the appropriate preparation of the input data.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biometrics
  • person authentication
  • feature selection
  • Hotelling’s statistic
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluating Dropout Placements in Bayesian Regression Resnet

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 61 - 73

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have shown great success in many fields. Various network architectures have been developed for different applications. Regardless of the complexities of the networks, DNNs do not provide model uncertainty. Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs), on the other hand, is able to make probabilistic inference. Among various types of BNNs, Dropout as a Bayesian Approximation converts a Neural Network (NN) to a BNN by adding a dropout layer after each weight layer in the NN. This technique provides a simple transformation from a NN to a BNN. However, for DNNs, adding a dropout layer to each weight layer would lead to a strong regularization due to the deep architecture. Previous researches [1, 2, 3] have shown that adding a dropout layer after each weight layer in a DNN is unnecessary. However, how to place dropout layers in a ResNet for regression tasks are less explored. In this work, we perform an empirical study on how different dropout placements would affect the performance of a Bayesian DNN. We use a regression model modified from ResNet as the DNN and place the dropout layers at different places in the regression ResNet. Our experimental results show that it is not necessary to add a dropout layer after every weight layer in the Regression ResNet to let it be able to make Bayesian Inference. Placing Dropout layers between the stacked blocks i.e. Dense+Identity+Identity blocks has the best performance in Predictive Interval Coverage Probability (PICP). Placing a dropout layer after each stacked block has the best performance in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Regression
  • Bayesian Neural Network
  • MC Dropout
5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Performance Analysis of Data Fusion Methods Applied to Epileptic Seizure Recognition

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 5 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is caused by unprovoked recurrent seizures. The most commonly used tool for the diagnosis of epilepsy is the electroencephalogram (EEG) whereby the electrical activity of the brain is measured. In order to prevent potential risks, the patients have to be monitored as to detect an epileptic episode early on and to provide prevention measures. Many different research studies have used a combination of time and frequency features for the automatic recognition of epileptic seizures. In this paper, two fusion methods are compared. The first is based on an ensemble method and the second uses the Choquet fuzzy integral method. In particular, three different machine learning approaches namely RNN, ML and DNN are used as inputs for the ensemble method and the Choquet fuzzy integral fusion method. Evaluation measures such as confusion matrix, AUC and accuracy are compared as well as MSE and RMSE are provided. The results show that the Choquet fuzzy integral fusion method outperforms the ensemble method as well as other state-of-the-art classification methods.

Schlüsselwörter

  • epilepsy
  • ensemble method
  • Choquet fuzzy integral fusion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Anomaly Pattern Detection in Streaming Data Based on the Transformation to Multiple Binary-Valued Data Streams

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 19 - 27

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Anomaly pattern detection in a data stream aims to detect a time point where outliers begin to occur abnormally. Recently, a method for anomaly pattern detection has been proposed based on binary classification for outliers and statistical tests in the data stream of binary labels of normal or an outlier. It showed that an anomaly pattern can be detected accurately even when outlier detection performance is relatively low. However, since the anomaly pattern detection method is based on the binary classification for outliers, most well-known outlier detection methods, with the output of real-valued outlier scores, can not be used directly. In this paper, we propose an anomaly pattern detection method in a data stream using the transformation to multiple binary-valued data streams from real-valued outlier scores. By using three outlier detection methods, Isolation Forest(IF), Autoencoder-based outlier detection, and Local outlier factor(LOF), the proposed anomaly pattern detection method is tested using artificial and real data sets. The experimental results show that anomaly pattern detection using Isolation Forest gives the best performance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anomaly pattern detection
  • multiple binary-valued streams
  • outlier detection
  • outlier score
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mixup (Sample Pairing) Can Improve the Performance of Deep Segmentation Networks

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Researchers address the generalization problem of deep image processing networks mainly through extensive use of data augmentation techniques such as random flips, rotations, and deformations. A data augmentation technique called mixup, which constructs virtual training samples from convex combinations of inputs, was recently proposed for deep classification networks. The algorithm contributed to increased performance on classification in a variety of datasets, but so far has not been evaluated for image segmentation tasks. In this paper, we tested whether the mixup algorithm can improve the generalization performance of deep segmentation networks for medical image data. We trained a standard U-net architecture to segment the prostate in 100 T2-weighted 3D magnetic resonance images from prostate cancer patients, and compared the results with and without mixup in terms of Dice similarity coefficient and mean surface distance from a reference segmentation made by an experienced radiologist. Our results suggest that mixup offers a statistically significant boost in performance compared to non-mixup training, leading to up to 1.9% increase in Dice and a 10.9% decrease in surface distance. The mixup algorithm may thus offer an important aid for medical image segmentation applications, which are typically limited by severe data scarcity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • segmentation
  • prostate
  • data augmentation
  • mixup
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A New Hand-Movement-Based Authentication Method Using Feature Importance Selection with the Hotelling’s Statistic

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 41 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The growing amount of collected and processed data means that there is a need to control access to these resources. Very often, this type of control is carried out on the basis of bio-metric analysis. The article proposes a new user authentication method based on a spatial analysis of the movement of the finger’s position. This movement creates a sequence of data that is registered by a motion recording device. The presented approach combines spatial analysis of the position of all fingers at the time. The proposed method is able to use the specific, often different movements of fingers of each user. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the method in biometric applications. In this paper, we also introduce an effective method of feature selection, based on the Hotelling T2 statistic. This approach allows selecting the best distinctive features of each object from a set of all objects in the database. It is possible thanks to the appropriate preparation of the input data.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biometrics
  • person authentication
  • feature selection
  • Hotelling’s statistic
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluating Dropout Placements in Bayesian Regression Resnet

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2021
Seitenbereich: 61 - 73

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have shown great success in many fields. Various network architectures have been developed for different applications. Regardless of the complexities of the networks, DNNs do not provide model uncertainty. Bayesian Neural Networks (BNNs), on the other hand, is able to make probabilistic inference. Among various types of BNNs, Dropout as a Bayesian Approximation converts a Neural Network (NN) to a BNN by adding a dropout layer after each weight layer in the NN. This technique provides a simple transformation from a NN to a BNN. However, for DNNs, adding a dropout layer to each weight layer would lead to a strong regularization due to the deep architecture. Previous researches [1, 2, 3] have shown that adding a dropout layer after each weight layer in a DNN is unnecessary. However, how to place dropout layers in a ResNet for regression tasks are less explored. In this work, we perform an empirical study on how different dropout placements would affect the performance of a Bayesian DNN. We use a regression model modified from ResNet as the DNN and place the dropout layers at different places in the regression ResNet. Our experimental results show that it is not necessary to add a dropout layer after every weight layer in the Regression ResNet to let it be able to make Bayesian Inference. Placing Dropout layers between the stacked blocks i.e. Dense+Identity+Identity blocks has the best performance in Predictive Interval Coverage Probability (PICP). Placing a dropout layer after each stacked block has the best performance in Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).

Schlüsselwörter

  • Regression
  • Bayesian Neural Network
  • MC Dropout

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