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4th International Conference “Advances in Surgical Oncology”: Cytoreductive Surgery & Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Lublin

Volumen 30 (2017): Heft 3 (December 2017)

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Volumen 30 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

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Volumen 28 (2015): Heft 4 (December 2015)

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Volumen 28 (2015): Heft 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 28 (2015): Heft 1 (March 2015)

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Volumen 27 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 27 (2014): Heft 1 (June 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-6676
ISSN
2084-980X
Erstveröffentlichung
30 May 2014
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 28 (2015): Heft 2 (June 2015)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2300-6676
ISSN
2084-980X
Erstveröffentlichung
30 May 2014
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

15 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effectiveness of psychopharmacology in Anorexia Nervosa treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 69 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The eating disorder that generates the highest death rate is that of anorexia nervosa, and current treatment is a combination of equalization of somatic state and patient education. Moreover, psychical symptoms occurring in the course of anorexia nervosa are thought to have a crucial influence on the course of the disease. Hence, in medical literature, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions is also widely described. Still, the implementation of appropriate psychopharmacology is now considered an additional method of treatment, rather than a therapy of choice. Yet, in spite of many years of research, there are no absolute recommendations given, nor are instructions within the scope of psychopharmacological treatment proffered, although the selection of psychopharmacological items must respect both the patient’s psychic and somatic states. In recent years, the popularity of psychopharmacological treatment has increased; therefore, we feel that it is justified to present the latest scientific information in this respect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anorexia nervosa
  • treatment
  • psychopharmacology
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An alternative synthesis of Azilsartan: an angiotensin II receptor blocker

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 72 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper provides a description of an alternative, novel and commercially viable process which has been developed for the preparation of Azilsartan, a pro-drug of Azilsartan medoxomil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. The present work also provides a primary account of the synthesis and characterization of the novel intermediates (6, 7 & 10) of Azilsartan, with their spectral data.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Azilsartan
  • novel intermediates
  • synthesis and characterization
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of a combined choline salicylate and cetalkonium chloride gel on particular strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 77 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ongoing control of virulent bacteria strains is a challenge for today’s medicine. An example of this, is one widely used drug employed in treating less serious external oral and ocular bacterial infections. This is a gel containing both cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate. However, whether in the era of expanding bacterial resistance this gel is still effective, is not clear. Hence, in our work, its antibacterial effect was studied against 13 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 strains of Staphylococcus spp. and 6 strains of Streptococcus spp. drawn from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Kazakh National Medical University, as well as against 30 strains of Staphylococcus spp. recently isolated from Kazakh medical students. This work demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to this preparation in all samples, while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. was almost halved, compared to untreated samples. An interesting discovery was the greater resistance of strains obtained from student volunteers than from the collection. However, despite the evident resistance of some strains to the combined cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate gel, we put forward that it can still be used in less serious external bacterial infections.

Schlüsselwörter

  • choline salicylate
  • cetalkonium chloride
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Streptococcus spp.
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The inflluence of emulsifiers on physical properties and release parameters of creams with caffeine

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 81 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Caffeine is well known alkaloid chemical compound belonging to the methyl-xanthines group. It is an active substance that is found in many cosmetic products, as it has a stimulating action on both the central nervous system and the metabolism. Commercially available topical formulations normally contain 3% of caffeine and 7% anticellulite products.

The aim of our work was to investigate the properties of four cream preparations. These consisted of 5% of caffeine and one of four different emulsifiers (GSC, Sodium polyacrylate, Emulsifying Base, MDS). In our work, we compared the physical properties (spreadability, slip and tenacity), the rheological structure of the resulting creams and the caffeine release from the obtained preparations. The results showed that the properties of these creams and their drug release depended upon the kind of the emulsifiers utilised. What is more, all preparations have a pseudoplastic character of flow and most of them have significant thixotropy. Furthermore, the amount of released caffeine is the largest from the MDS cream, and this emulsifier seems to be the most optimal in all the examined items.

Schlüsselwörter

  • caffeine release
  • creams
  • emulsifiers
  • rheology
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The knowledge of pregnant women regarding appropriate oral hygiene practices of young children – a questionnaire survey

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft). The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes) - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82%) would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pregnant women
  • early childhood caries
  • caries prophylaxis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A chemical activity evaluation of two dental calcium silicate-based materials

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 89 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Calcium silicate-based materials are interesting products widely used in dentistry. The study was designed to compare the chemical reaction between analyzed two preparates and dentin during cavity lining. In our work, dentinal discs were prepared from human extracted teeth filled with Biodentine and MTA+. The samples were then analyzed by way of SEM, EDS and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed differences in elemental composition between both materials. Biodentine showed higher activity in contact with dentine. Moreover, the interfacial layer in the tooth filled by Biodentine was wider than that in the tooth filled with MTA+. The applied methods of analysis confirmed that both materials have a bioactive potential which is a promising ability.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cavity lining
  • Biodentine
  • mineral trioxide aggregate
  • MTA+
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 92 - 96

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

Schlüsselwörter

  • posterior teeth
  • approximal surfaces
  • caries
  • diagnostic methods
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Eudragit FS 30D as a potential polymer for use in the technology of preparing matrix tablets contain metronidazole – an experimental and mathematical modeling study

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 97 - 104

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of a pH-dependent copolymer - Eudragit FS - for employment in the technology of preparing modified release metronidazole matrix tablets. In addition, in our work, Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS were included in the composition of some formulations, as well as sodium lauryl sulfate and polysorbate 80. As part of the study of the dissolution test, the similarity coefficient (f2) for the obtained profiles was calculated, and mathematic models were used to estimate the kinetics and mechanism of active substance release. In our work, it was observed that the inclusion of polymer Eudragit FS alone in the tablet composition ensured a modified release of the active substance for 10 h. After this time period, the amount of metronidazole determined in the acceptor fluid was 71% - 81% of the declared dose. Modification of the composition by the addition of surfactants resulted in an increased release of the active substance of up to 98%. This effect was dependent on the type of surfactant and its quantitative ratio to the Eudragit FS. Similar release profiles were obtained for tablets containing Eudragit RS and sodium lauryl sulfate, as well as Eudragit RS and polysorbate 80. Depending on the composition of tablets, metronidazole release proceeded in accordance with either first or second-order kinetics. We calculated as well, that the differing masses of Eudragit FS in the studied formulations correlates with the order of release kinetics (p < 0.002). Such an effect was validated using the Weibull model, wherein, in all the studied formulations, the release rate was seen as a decreasing function of time. An analysis of data according to the Ritger-Peppas model and the Peppas-Sahlin model for some formulations, indicated that the mechanism of active substance release from matrix tablets is diffusion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eudragit FS
  • matrix tablets
  • metronidazole
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 105 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a supporting agent in the pharmacotherapy of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, substantially accelerates mood stabilization in patients. In turn, memantine, known for its procognitive effect, not only has antimanic and normothymic properties, but also boosts the neuroprotective action of traditional lithium therapy.

In view of the latest opinions, the subtle pro-inflammatory process is typical for the pathophysiology of bipolar disease. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (a popular analgesic, antipyretic and antiphlogistic agent) may be useful in BD therapy. This is because that, via its effect upon cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), ASA modulates leukocyte recruitment in neuro-inflammation.

Apart from the above-mentioned medications, this article introduces the results of recent investigations of ketamine, modafinil and tamoxifen, including their receptor mechanisms, as well as certain genetic aspects or elements of their pharmacodynamics, for use in BD therapy. We put forward that, possibly, more insightful cognition of these drugs will allow significant enrichment in the range of pharmacotherapy for BD in the near future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • allopurinol
  • N-acetylcysteine
  • memantine
  • acetylsalicylic acid
  • ketamine
  • modafinil
  • tamoxifen
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The blood resistin level in patients with DM2, depending on the duration of the disease

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 111 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Resistin is still a little known hormone of the adipose tissue. The potential role of resistin in the development of DM2 has been currently investigated. The aim of our study was to detect the resistin blood level in patients with DM2, depending on the duration of the disease. In so doing, a determination of resistin and insulin blood level was conducted in 305 patients with DM2, and in a control group of 32 persons. Before testing, the patients were placed into four groups, depending on the duration of type 2 diabetes. Our results indicate that the resistin level was significantly lower in the control group of patients, in comparison with the DM2 patients groups. Moreover, a significantly lower resistin level was found in group I (firstly diagnosed DM2), in comparison with the groups of patients with a different duration of DM2. No correlation between resistin level and BMI, and between resistin and insulin blood level was found. However, a tendency towards increase of resistin blood level is noticeably evident in co-relation with increment of DM2 duration. In addition, the resistin level was considerably lower in patients with no DM2, when compared with patients with diagnosed DM2. Yet, there was no significant difference in the resistin blood level depending on the sex of the patients at the same duration of DM2

Schlüsselwörter

  • resistin
  • diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2)
  • insulin
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Regulation of the genes involved in neurotransmission in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 115 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the full name of the disease commonly deemed ADHD. This disease is most frequently diagnosed in childhood, and it affects up to 12 % of all children world-wide. The current clinical criteria (the base for diagnosis) can be found in DSM -V. The core symptoms are divided in three groups: hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired attention. The aetiology of the disorder is combined, including a wide range of factors, and the genetic, environmental, toxic, perinatal background is taken into account. Because, currently, more and more studies are seeking to explore the heritability of the disorder, the aim of this study is to review the information provided by different research centres which discuss the genetic background of the disease. Herein, we present the results of different studies gathered from the online database. Our findings indicate that the participation of genetic factors within this disorder is supported by family, twin and adoption studies. Indeed, in current literature, researchers estimate that there is a higher risk of developing ADHD among children from families with an ADHD history. Of particular note is that there are some studies indicating particular genes that determine the susceptibility to ADHD. Such studies make mention that most of these genes encode components of the dompaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission systems. Researchers in the field, thus, are attempting to link the presence of certain alleles in affected children with their response to treatment. Yet, while ADHD is now considered as being a disorder of genetic background, we cannot indicate a single gene or its mutation that would be crucial in the aetiology and diagnosis. Still, a number of candidate genes have been reported so far.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetics
  • ADHD
  • candidate gene studies
  • pharmacogenetics
  • methylophenidate
  • serotonin
  • dopamine
  • DRD
  • DAT
  • 5HT2A.
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of compression pressure on mechanical and release properties of tramadol matrix tablets

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 120 - 125

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Drug delivery to the proper site of action in the body is greatly influenced by the excipients used and some processing variables such as changes in compression force.

The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of changes in compression forces during tablet manufacturing on the mechanical and release properties of Tramadol matrix tablet. Hardness and friability were used as assessment parameters for mechanical properties while release properties were analysed using dissolution test. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA at p < 0.05.

Tablet hardness and friability were typically compression pressure-dependent with a significant difference in tablet hardness and friability with increase in compression pressure (p < 0.001).

Drug release was best expressed by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation as the plots showed high linearity (r2) of 0.998 and 0.988 for formulations containing Xanthan gum and Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, respectively. Drug release from formulations containing Xanthan gum was mainly by diffusion while a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation was the mechanism of drug release from formulation containing Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose.

The release properties of tramadol matrix tablet were not significantly influenced by compression pressure but rather by the polymer and the material properties of the drug.

Schlüsselwörter

  • compression pressure
  • matrix tablet
  • mechanical properties
  • release properties
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Retention behavior of selected alkaloids in Reversed Phase micellar chromatographic systems

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 126 - 130

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this work, the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations on retention, separation selectivity, peak shapes and systems efficiency were investigated. Herein, the retention data for 11 alkaloids were determined on an RP18 silica column with mobile phases containing methanol as organic modifier, with acetate buffer at pH 3.5, and, subsequently, with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results of this study indicate that the retention of alkaloids decreases with the increase of SDS concentration in the mobile phase. The increase of SDS concentration, however, leads to the significantly improvement of peak symmetry and the increase of theoretical plate number in all cases. The best system efficiency for most of the investigated alkaloids was obtained in a mobile phase containing 0.1 M SDS, while most symmetrical peaks were obtained through the addition of 0.3 M of SDS to the mobile phase.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alkaloids
  • HPLC
  • micellar chromatography
  • SDS
  • system efficiency
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evidence of use: A selective COX-2 inhibitor in the treatment of experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by Dibutyltin dichloride

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 131 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The search for new prophylactic and therapeutic drugs for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an urgent problem in current pancreatology. A promising direction in CP therapy may be the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the selective inhibition properties of COX-2 rofecoxib on the development of pancreas fibrosis in rats with experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). The 60 male albino Wistar rats of our study were placed into three groups of 20 animals in each: I - the intact control; II - that which received an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of DBTC (6 mg/g); III - those which, 28 days after administration of DBTC (6 mg/g, i.p.), received a two-week course of treatment of rofecoxib (5 mg/kg, i.p). One day after rofecoxib treatment was completed, analysis was undertaken regarding the level of amylase, as well as the pancreatic amylase and lipase in the blood serum and the prostaglandin E2 in the pancreatic tissue. In addition, the morphological condition of the pancreas was ascertained. The obtained data suggest that administration of Rofecoxib reduces the development of fibrosis and improves the morpho-functional state of the pancreas in rats with chronic pancreatitis induced by DBTC. Thus, treatment with a selective COX-2 inhibitor could be a possible strategy for improving the clinical outcome of patients with CP.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chronic pancreatitis
  • selective COX-2 inhibitor
  • Dibutyltin dichloride
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of standard and reversible arrangements of Ph.Eur./USP extraction cells during dissolution tests of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 136 - 142

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate, in comparison to the reference product, the effect of the hydrophilic nonionic polymers: methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), as well as the anionic polymers - copolymers of acrylic acid, on the release kinetics of a calcium dobesilate hydrogel formulation intended for application on the skin. In this work, we used an ointment cell for the release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from the formulations. This release was performed by employing the paddle method at 100 rpm, with the extraction cells placed in the release vessels in two different positions: with the semipermeable membrane faced to the top, or to the bottom of the vessel. Released API percentage was assessed via the validated spectrophotometric method. In the study with standard placement of the ointment cell, the release rates ranged from 4.45×10-3 min-1 for a formulation containing polyacrylic acid (PA), to 6.96 × 10-3 min-1 for a formulation based on HPMC. In the group of nonionic polymers, the release rate is higher in the case of HPMC, and lower in the case of MC. In the group of anionic polymers, the release rate is higher with the formulation of a modified copolymer of acrylic acid 11 (PC11), while release from a formulation comprising a polymer PA is rather prolonged. We found that the placement of the extraction cell does not affect the alignment of the formulations investigated in terms of the release rates in the group of non-ionic formulations: HPMC > MC, and in the group of preparation of ionic polymers: PC11 > PA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • release rate
  • paddle method
  • extraction cell
  • calcium dobesilate
  • non-ionic polymers
  • anionic polymers
15 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effectiveness of psychopharmacology in Anorexia Nervosa treatment

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 69 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The eating disorder that generates the highest death rate is that of anorexia nervosa, and current treatment is a combination of equalization of somatic state and patient education. Moreover, psychical symptoms occurring in the course of anorexia nervosa are thought to have a crucial influence on the course of the disease. Hence, in medical literature, the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions is also widely described. Still, the implementation of appropriate psychopharmacology is now considered an additional method of treatment, rather than a therapy of choice. Yet, in spite of many years of research, there are no absolute recommendations given, nor are instructions within the scope of psychopharmacological treatment proffered, although the selection of psychopharmacological items must respect both the patient’s psychic and somatic states. In recent years, the popularity of psychopharmacological treatment has increased; therefore, we feel that it is justified to present the latest scientific information in this respect.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anorexia nervosa
  • treatment
  • psychopharmacology
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An alternative synthesis of Azilsartan: an angiotensin II receptor blocker

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 72 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper provides a description of an alternative, novel and commercially viable process which has been developed for the preparation of Azilsartan, a pro-drug of Azilsartan medoxomil, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. The present work also provides a primary account of the synthesis and characterization of the novel intermediates (6, 7 & 10) of Azilsartan, with their spectral data.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Azilsartan
  • novel intermediates
  • synthesis and characterization
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of a combined choline salicylate and cetalkonium chloride gel on particular strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp.

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 77 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ongoing control of virulent bacteria strains is a challenge for today’s medicine. An example of this, is one widely used drug employed in treating less serious external oral and ocular bacterial infections. This is a gel containing both cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate. However, whether in the era of expanding bacterial resistance this gel is still effective, is not clear. Hence, in our work, its antibacterial effect was studied against 13 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 strains of Staphylococcus spp. and 6 strains of Streptococcus spp. drawn from the collection of the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology, Kazakh National Medical University, as well as against 30 strains of Staphylococcus spp. recently isolated from Kazakh medical students. This work demonstrated that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to this preparation in all samples, while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. was almost halved, compared to untreated samples. An interesting discovery was the greater resistance of strains obtained from student volunteers than from the collection. However, despite the evident resistance of some strains to the combined cetalkonium chloride and choline salicylate gel, we put forward that it can still be used in less serious external bacterial infections.

Schlüsselwörter

  • choline salicylate
  • cetalkonium chloride
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Streptococcus spp.
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The inflluence of emulsifiers on physical properties and release parameters of creams with caffeine

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 81 - 84

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Caffeine is well known alkaloid chemical compound belonging to the methyl-xanthines group. It is an active substance that is found in many cosmetic products, as it has a stimulating action on both the central nervous system and the metabolism. Commercially available topical formulations normally contain 3% of caffeine and 7% anticellulite products.

The aim of our work was to investigate the properties of four cream preparations. These consisted of 5% of caffeine and one of four different emulsifiers (GSC, Sodium polyacrylate, Emulsifying Base, MDS). In our work, we compared the physical properties (spreadability, slip and tenacity), the rheological structure of the resulting creams and the caffeine release from the obtained preparations. The results showed that the properties of these creams and their drug release depended upon the kind of the emulsifiers utilised. What is more, all preparations have a pseudoplastic character of flow and most of them have significant thixotropy. Furthermore, the amount of released caffeine is the largest from the MDS cream, and this emulsifier seems to be the most optimal in all the examined items.

Schlüsselwörter

  • caffeine release
  • creams
  • emulsifiers
  • rheology
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The knowledge of pregnant women regarding appropriate oral hygiene practices of young children – a questionnaire survey

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 85 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Maintaining appropriate oral cavity hygiene in a young child is closely related to the health awareness and health-promoting behaviours of their parents/guardians, and especially that of the child’s mother. The aim of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pregnant women regarding best practice oral hygiene procedures in young children. The survey involved 327 pregnant women aged 16-49 years, and the tool utilized was an anonymous questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included seven one-choice questions concerning basic information on proper oral hygiene procedures as should be practiced by young children. The statistical analysis was performed using Statistica PROGRAM 10 (StatSoft). The results of the survey reveal 60.55% of all surveyed had correct knowledge with regard to appropriate cleaning practices for the toothless oral cavity of an infant, that concerning the beginning of tooth brushing - 70.03%, tooth cleaning after night feeding - 39.76%, the duration of tooth brushing (at least 3-4 minutes) - 43.12%. What is more, the result of the survey demonstrate that slightly more than a half of the surveyed mothers (53.82%) would encourage their children to brush their teeth on their own from the first year of age, while 18.35% believe that children should be assisted in tooth brushing at least to their eighth year of age, and 59.63% would use fluoride toothpaste to brush their child’s teeth before he or she is one year old. Of the participants in this survey, pregnant women with university education, those living in large cities, or who are older, and those who had had previous pregnancies, show greater knowledge regarding suitable oral hygiene practices among young children. Our results reveal that extensive application of modern information technologies can be a means of preventing early childhood caries by facilitating the transmission of knowledge on proper nutrition and oral hygiene practices among young children.

Schlüsselwörter

  • pregnant women
  • early childhood caries
  • caries prophylaxis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A chemical activity evaluation of two dental calcium silicate-based materials

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 89 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Calcium silicate-based materials are interesting products widely used in dentistry. The study was designed to compare the chemical reaction between analyzed two preparates and dentin during cavity lining. In our work, dentinal discs were prepared from human extracted teeth filled with Biodentine and MTA+. The samples were then analyzed by way of SEM, EDS and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results revealed differences in elemental composition between both materials. Biodentine showed higher activity in contact with dentine. Moreover, the interfacial layer in the tooth filled by Biodentine was wider than that in the tooth filled with MTA+. The applied methods of analysis confirmed that both materials have a bioactive potential which is a promising ability.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cavity lining
  • Biodentine
  • mineral trioxide aggregate
  • MTA+
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Specifics of proximal caries and their diagnostics in posterior teeth

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 92 - 96

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Proximal surfaces are the second in turn after the occlusal surfaces, as being the most exposed places to the carious process. The specificity of changes and location makes the diagnostic of approximal cavities difficult. The aim of the study was to collect information on possibilities of detection, monitoring and assessment of carious lesions located on proximal surfaces, starting from the early stage. On the base of current literature, chosen methods of diagnosis, from conventional, to advanced technologies were presented. Current literature also suggests that none of the diagnostic methods exclude the possibility of misdiagnosis of proximal caries. Therefore, during the diagnosing of doubtful cases, it is advisable to employ several methods of assessment, with simultaneous individual appraisal of caries risk factors, such as oral hygiene, frequency of eating sweets or the number of active caries foci.

Schlüsselwörter

  • posterior teeth
  • approximal surfaces
  • caries
  • diagnostic methods
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Eudragit FS 30D as a potential polymer for use in the technology of preparing matrix tablets contain metronidazole – an experimental and mathematical modeling study

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 97 - 104

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of a pH-dependent copolymer - Eudragit FS - for employment in the technology of preparing modified release metronidazole matrix tablets. In addition, in our work, Eudragit RL and Eudragit RS were included in the composition of some formulations, as well as sodium lauryl sulfate and polysorbate 80. As part of the study of the dissolution test, the similarity coefficient (f2) for the obtained profiles was calculated, and mathematic models were used to estimate the kinetics and mechanism of active substance release. In our work, it was observed that the inclusion of polymer Eudragit FS alone in the tablet composition ensured a modified release of the active substance for 10 h. After this time period, the amount of metronidazole determined in the acceptor fluid was 71% - 81% of the declared dose. Modification of the composition by the addition of surfactants resulted in an increased release of the active substance of up to 98%. This effect was dependent on the type of surfactant and its quantitative ratio to the Eudragit FS. Similar release profiles were obtained for tablets containing Eudragit RS and sodium lauryl sulfate, as well as Eudragit RS and polysorbate 80. Depending on the composition of tablets, metronidazole release proceeded in accordance with either first or second-order kinetics. We calculated as well, that the differing masses of Eudragit FS in the studied formulations correlates with the order of release kinetics (p < 0.002). Such an effect was validated using the Weibull model, wherein, in all the studied formulations, the release rate was seen as a decreasing function of time. An analysis of data according to the Ritger-Peppas model and the Peppas-Sahlin model for some formulations, indicated that the mechanism of active substance release from matrix tablets is diffusion.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eudragit FS
  • matrix tablets
  • metronidazole
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 105 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD). Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a supporting agent in the pharmacotherapy of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, substantially accelerates mood stabilization in patients. In turn, memantine, known for its procognitive effect, not only has antimanic and normothymic properties, but also boosts the neuroprotective action of traditional lithium therapy.

In view of the latest opinions, the subtle pro-inflammatory process is typical for the pathophysiology of bipolar disease. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) (a popular analgesic, antipyretic and antiphlogistic agent) may be useful in BD therapy. This is because that, via its effect upon cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), ASA modulates leukocyte recruitment in neuro-inflammation.

Apart from the above-mentioned medications, this article introduces the results of recent investigations of ketamine, modafinil and tamoxifen, including their receptor mechanisms, as well as certain genetic aspects or elements of their pharmacodynamics, for use in BD therapy. We put forward that, possibly, more insightful cognition of these drugs will allow significant enrichment in the range of pharmacotherapy for BD in the near future.

Schlüsselwörter

  • allopurinol
  • N-acetylcysteine
  • memantine
  • acetylsalicylic acid
  • ketamine
  • modafinil
  • tamoxifen
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The blood resistin level in patients with DM2, depending on the duration of the disease

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 111 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Resistin is still a little known hormone of the adipose tissue. The potential role of resistin in the development of DM2 has been currently investigated. The aim of our study was to detect the resistin blood level in patients with DM2, depending on the duration of the disease. In so doing, a determination of resistin and insulin blood level was conducted in 305 patients with DM2, and in a control group of 32 persons. Before testing, the patients were placed into four groups, depending on the duration of type 2 diabetes. Our results indicate that the resistin level was significantly lower in the control group of patients, in comparison with the DM2 patients groups. Moreover, a significantly lower resistin level was found in group I (firstly diagnosed DM2), in comparison with the groups of patients with a different duration of DM2. No correlation between resistin level and BMI, and between resistin and insulin blood level was found. However, a tendency towards increase of resistin blood level is noticeably evident in co-relation with increment of DM2 duration. In addition, the resistin level was considerably lower in patients with no DM2, when compared with patients with diagnosed DM2. Yet, there was no significant difference in the resistin blood level depending on the sex of the patients at the same duration of DM2

Schlüsselwörter

  • resistin
  • diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2)
  • insulin
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Regulation of the genes involved in neurotransmission in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 115 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is the full name of the disease commonly deemed ADHD. This disease is most frequently diagnosed in childhood, and it affects up to 12 % of all children world-wide. The current clinical criteria (the base for diagnosis) can be found in DSM -V. The core symptoms are divided in three groups: hyperactivity, impulsivity and impaired attention. The aetiology of the disorder is combined, including a wide range of factors, and the genetic, environmental, toxic, perinatal background is taken into account. Because, currently, more and more studies are seeking to explore the heritability of the disorder, the aim of this study is to review the information provided by different research centres which discuss the genetic background of the disease. Herein, we present the results of different studies gathered from the online database. Our findings indicate that the participation of genetic factors within this disorder is supported by family, twin and adoption studies. Indeed, in current literature, researchers estimate that there is a higher risk of developing ADHD among children from families with an ADHD history. Of particular note is that there are some studies indicating particular genes that determine the susceptibility to ADHD. Such studies make mention that most of these genes encode components of the dompaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission systems. Researchers in the field, thus, are attempting to link the presence of certain alleles in affected children with their response to treatment. Yet, while ADHD is now considered as being a disorder of genetic background, we cannot indicate a single gene or its mutation that would be crucial in the aetiology and diagnosis. Still, a number of candidate genes have been reported so far.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetics
  • ADHD
  • candidate gene studies
  • pharmacogenetics
  • methylophenidate
  • serotonin
  • dopamine
  • DRD
  • DAT
  • 5HT2A.
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of compression pressure on mechanical and release properties of tramadol matrix tablets

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 120 - 125

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Drug delivery to the proper site of action in the body is greatly influenced by the excipients used and some processing variables such as changes in compression force.

The aim of this investigation was to study the influence of changes in compression forces during tablet manufacturing on the mechanical and release properties of Tramadol matrix tablet. Hardness and friability were used as assessment parameters for mechanical properties while release properties were analysed using dissolution test. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA at p < 0.05.

Tablet hardness and friability were typically compression pressure-dependent with a significant difference in tablet hardness and friability with increase in compression pressure (p < 0.001).

Drug release was best expressed by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation as the plots showed high linearity (r2) of 0.998 and 0.988 for formulations containing Xanthan gum and Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, respectively. Drug release from formulations containing Xanthan gum was mainly by diffusion while a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation was the mechanism of drug release from formulation containing Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose.

The release properties of tramadol matrix tablet were not significantly influenced by compression pressure but rather by the polymer and the material properties of the drug.

Schlüsselwörter

  • compression pressure
  • matrix tablet
  • mechanical properties
  • release properties
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Retention behavior of selected alkaloids in Reversed Phase micellar chromatographic systems

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 126 - 130

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this work, the effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentrations on retention, separation selectivity, peak shapes and systems efficiency were investigated. Herein, the retention data for 11 alkaloids were determined on an RP18 silica column with mobile phases containing methanol as organic modifier, with acetate buffer at pH 3.5, and, subsequently, with the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results of this study indicate that the retention of alkaloids decreases with the increase of SDS concentration in the mobile phase. The increase of SDS concentration, however, leads to the significantly improvement of peak symmetry and the increase of theoretical plate number in all cases. The best system efficiency for most of the investigated alkaloids was obtained in a mobile phase containing 0.1 M SDS, while most symmetrical peaks were obtained through the addition of 0.3 M of SDS to the mobile phase.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alkaloids
  • HPLC
  • micellar chromatography
  • SDS
  • system efficiency
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evidence of use: A selective COX-2 inhibitor in the treatment of experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by Dibutyltin dichloride

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 131 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The search for new prophylactic and therapeutic drugs for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an urgent problem in current pancreatology. A promising direction in CP therapy may be the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the selective inhibition properties of COX-2 rofecoxib on the development of pancreas fibrosis in rats with experimental chronic pancreatitis induced by Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC). The 60 male albino Wistar rats of our study were placed into three groups of 20 animals in each: I - the intact control; II - that which received an intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of DBTC (6 mg/g); III - those which, 28 days after administration of DBTC (6 mg/g, i.p.), received a two-week course of treatment of rofecoxib (5 mg/kg, i.p). One day after rofecoxib treatment was completed, analysis was undertaken regarding the level of amylase, as well as the pancreatic amylase and lipase in the blood serum and the prostaglandin E2 in the pancreatic tissue. In addition, the morphological condition of the pancreas was ascertained. The obtained data suggest that administration of Rofecoxib reduces the development of fibrosis and improves the morpho-functional state of the pancreas in rats with chronic pancreatitis induced by DBTC. Thus, treatment with a selective COX-2 inhibitor could be a possible strategy for improving the clinical outcome of patients with CP.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chronic pancreatitis
  • selective COX-2 inhibitor
  • Dibutyltin dichloride
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of standard and reversible arrangements of Ph.Eur./USP extraction cells during dissolution tests of calcium dobesilate in hydrogel formulation

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Jul 2015
Seitenbereich: 136 - 142

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate, in comparison to the reference product, the effect of the hydrophilic nonionic polymers: methylcellulose (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), as well as the anionic polymers - copolymers of acrylic acid, on the release kinetics of a calcium dobesilate hydrogel formulation intended for application on the skin. In this work, we used an ointment cell for the release of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) from the formulations. This release was performed by employing the paddle method at 100 rpm, with the extraction cells placed in the release vessels in two different positions: with the semipermeable membrane faced to the top, or to the bottom of the vessel. Released API percentage was assessed via the validated spectrophotometric method. In the study with standard placement of the ointment cell, the release rates ranged from 4.45×10-3 min-1 for a formulation containing polyacrylic acid (PA), to 6.96 × 10-3 min-1 for a formulation based on HPMC. In the group of nonionic polymers, the release rate is higher in the case of HPMC, and lower in the case of MC. In the group of anionic polymers, the release rate is higher with the formulation of a modified copolymer of acrylic acid 11 (PC11), while release from a formulation comprising a polymer PA is rather prolonged. We found that the placement of the extraction cell does not affect the alignment of the formulations investigated in terms of the release rates in the group of non-ionic formulations: HPMC > MC, and in the group of preparation of ionic polymers: PC11 > PA.

Schlüsselwörter

  • release rate
  • paddle method
  • extraction cell
  • calcium dobesilate
  • non-ionic polymers
  • anionic polymers

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