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Volumen 1 (2017): Heft 48 (November 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2543-6821
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2017
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 1 (2017): Heft 48 (November 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2543-6821
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2017
Erscheinungsweise
1 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

4 Artikel

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Migration and Welfare Systems – State of the Art and Research Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 51 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Immigration is one of the heavily discussed subjects in modern academic and political debate. In recent decades, fiscal effects of international migration remained the centre of interest. The goal of this paper is to review and synthesise the available literature, devoted to the relationship between immigration and welfare systems, in order to present the state of the art in this area and draw conclusions for further research. Despite extensive literature, it is difficult to find an unambiguous answer to the question, whether immigrants are a burden or an asset to the state with redistributive policies. Moreover, some of the assumptions and approaches widely used in presented articles appear too simplistic or even unfounded.

Schlüsselwörter

  • immigration
  • welfare systems
  • benefits

JEL Classification

  • I30
  • J15
  • J18
  • F22
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

What Determines Export Performances in High‑tech Industries

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 37 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to identify the determinants of exports in high-technology sectors (high-tech, HT) of Visegrad countries (the Visegrad four, V4: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary) and the core member states of the European Union (EU). Based on the augmented gravity model, we estimate the regressions on panel data of the bilateral export flows of the EU-15 and V4 with the rest of the world in 1999−2011, by employing the Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood (PPML) estimator. The comparison of the estimations of overall export flows with the estimates explicitly done for the high-tech sectors allows us to outline the main characteristics of the existing gap in high-tech export performances of the EU-15 and V4. Estimation results find that while for the EU-15, human capital accumulation is statistically significant and export flows increase with similarity in physical capital accumulation of the trade partner; for V4, instead of similarity, the difference in physical capital stock increases exports and human capital accumulation does not yield statistically significant effects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • international trade
  • high-technology
  • Visegrad group
  • gravity model

JEL Classification

  • F14
  • F15
  • F55
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Up or Down the Value Chain? A Comparative Analysis of the GVC Position of the Economies of the New EU Member States

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 19 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The pattern of trade of the Central and Eastern European countries has been changing since the beginning of the economic transition in the early 1990s. By the end of the century this process was additionally strengthened by their integration with the European Union and overlapped with the development of global value chains (GVC) spanning across Europe with which the new member states (NMS) have become increasingly integrated.

In this paper, we shed light on these changes by analysing the position of the NMS within the global value chains. We employ the upstreamness measure proposed by Antràs et al. (2012) and use the World Input–Output Database. Although we observe a global increasing trend in the upstreamness of all countries, we find that the NMS have in many cases gone against this trend while converging in their production structure within their group and with the EU-15. This convergence is mostly observed in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia where the level of upstreamness in the most important exporting sectors was close to that of Germany by the end of the analysed period 1995−2011.

Schlüsselwörter

  • global chain value
  • upstreamness
  • European Union
  • New Members States

JEL Classification

  • C67
  • F10
  • F15
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Migration of Graduates Within a Sequential Decision Framework: Evidence from Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify the main drivers of highly skilled migration between regions. We argue that the spatial mobility of individuals should not be considered in terms of one-off displacements, but rather as a sequence of migration decisions within a certain time period. The important context of the research is provided by the economic transformation of Poland, accompanied by the growing demand for education, and the lack of well-established patterns of graduate mobility. By applying multinomial logit modelling on a unique database of Polish graduates, we find that all the tested migration strategies can be explained in terms of structural factors, human capital characteristics or aspirations/capabilities related variables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • skilled migration
  • graduates
  • sequential decision framework
  • aspirations
  • capability

JEL Classification

  • I25
  • J24
  • J61
  • J62
4 Artikel

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Migration and Welfare Systems – State of the Art and Research Challenges

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 51 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Immigration is one of the heavily discussed subjects in modern academic and political debate. In recent decades, fiscal effects of international migration remained the centre of interest. The goal of this paper is to review and synthesise the available literature, devoted to the relationship between immigration and welfare systems, in order to present the state of the art in this area and draw conclusions for further research. Despite extensive literature, it is difficult to find an unambiguous answer to the question, whether immigrants are a burden or an asset to the state with redistributive policies. Moreover, some of the assumptions and approaches widely used in presented articles appear too simplistic or even unfounded.

Schlüsselwörter

  • immigration
  • welfare systems
  • benefits

JEL Classification

  • I30
  • J15
  • J18
  • F22
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

What Determines Export Performances in High‑tech Industries

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 37 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to identify the determinants of exports in high-technology sectors (high-tech, HT) of Visegrad countries (the Visegrad four, V4: Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary) and the core member states of the European Union (EU). Based on the augmented gravity model, we estimate the regressions on panel data of the bilateral export flows of the EU-15 and V4 with the rest of the world in 1999−2011, by employing the Poisson pseudo-maximum-likelihood (PPML) estimator. The comparison of the estimations of overall export flows with the estimates explicitly done for the high-tech sectors allows us to outline the main characteristics of the existing gap in high-tech export performances of the EU-15 and V4. Estimation results find that while for the EU-15, human capital accumulation is statistically significant and export flows increase with similarity in physical capital accumulation of the trade partner; for V4, instead of similarity, the difference in physical capital stock increases exports and human capital accumulation does not yield statistically significant effects.

Schlüsselwörter

  • international trade
  • high-technology
  • Visegrad group
  • gravity model

JEL Classification

  • F14
  • F15
  • F55
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Up or Down the Value Chain? A Comparative Analysis of the GVC Position of the Economies of the New EU Member States

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 19 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The pattern of trade of the Central and Eastern European countries has been changing since the beginning of the economic transition in the early 1990s. By the end of the century this process was additionally strengthened by their integration with the European Union and overlapped with the development of global value chains (GVC) spanning across Europe with which the new member states (NMS) have become increasingly integrated.

In this paper, we shed light on these changes by analysing the position of the NMS within the global value chains. We employ the upstreamness measure proposed by Antràs et al. (2012) and use the World Input–Output Database. Although we observe a global increasing trend in the upstreamness of all countries, we find that the NMS have in many cases gone against this trend while converging in their production structure within their group and with the EU-15. This convergence is mostly observed in Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia where the level of upstreamness in the most important exporting sectors was close to that of Germany by the end of the analysed period 1995−2011.

Schlüsselwörter

  • global chain value
  • upstreamness
  • European Union
  • New Members States

JEL Classification

  • C67
  • F10
  • F15
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Migration of Graduates Within a Sequential Decision Framework: Evidence from Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 30 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to identify the main drivers of highly skilled migration between regions. We argue that the spatial mobility of individuals should not be considered in terms of one-off displacements, but rather as a sequence of migration decisions within a certain time period. The important context of the research is provided by the economic transformation of Poland, accompanied by the growing demand for education, and the lack of well-established patterns of graduate mobility. By applying multinomial logit modelling on a unique database of Polish graduates, we find that all the tested migration strategies can be explained in terms of structural factors, human capital characteristics or aspirations/capabilities related variables.

Schlüsselwörter

  • skilled migration
  • graduates
  • sequential decision framework
  • aspirations
  • capability

JEL Classification

  • I25
  • J24
  • J61
  • J62

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