Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 25 (2022): Heft 2 (November 2022)

Volumen 25 (2022): Heft 1 (May 2022)

Volumen 24 (2021): Heft 2 (November 2021)

Volumen 24 (2021): Heft 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 24 (2021): Heft s1 (May 2021)
Special Heft

Volumen 23 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)

Volumen 23 (2020): Heft 1 (May 2020)

Volumen 22 (2019): Heft 2 (November 2019)

Volumen 22 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 21 (2018): Heft 2 (November 2018)

Volumen 21 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 20 (2017): Heft 2 (November 2017)

Volumen 20 (2017): Heft 1 (May 2017)

Volumen 19 (2016): Heft 2 (November 2016)

Volumen 19 (2016): Heft s1 (December 2016)

Volumen 19 (2016): Heft 1 (May 2016)

Volumen 18 (2015): Heft 2 (November 2015)

Volumen 18 (2015): Heft 1 (May 2015)

Volumen 17 (2014): Heft 2 (November 2014)

Volumen 17 (2014): Heft 1 (May 2014)

Volumen 16 (2013): Heft 2 (December 2013)

Volumen 16 (2013): Heft 1 (September 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-5259
Erstveröffentlichung
06 Sep 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 22 (2019): Heft 2 (November 2019)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-5259
Erstveröffentlichung
06 Sep 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differences in Water Vapor Adsorption-Desorption of Non Aged and 3-Year Aged Biochar in Sandy Spodosols

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 56 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ageing of biochars in soil affects their surface properties and can cause changes in water vapor adsorption-desorption processes. Measurements of hygroscopic water contents and corresponding water potentials of non aged and 3-year aged biochars as well as of sandy soils with medium and high quality were carried out during 5 cycles of water vapor adsorption-desorption processes at a room temperature of 23.5 °C. The results showed a significantly lower content of maximum hygroscopic water in the aged biochars than that in the non aged biochar at the end of water vapor adsorption processes at high air humidity. A significantly higher affinity of the high quality soil to water vapor resulted in insignificant differences in the maximum hygroscopic water content and in significant changes in the corresponding water potentials as compared to the same properties of the soil with medium quality. Minimum content of hygroscopic water was significantly lower in the non aged biochar than in the aged biochars at the end of the water desorption processes at ambient laboratory atmosphere. There were insignificant differences in minimum contents of hygroscopic water and in the corresponding water potentials of the aged biochars from soils with medium and high quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biochar
  • ageing
  • water vapor adsorption-desorption
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Measurement of Volumetric Water Content by Gravimetric and Time Domain Reflectometry Methods at Field Experiment with Biochar and N Fertilizer

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 61 - 64

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are many methods used for soil water content measurement which we can divide into direct gravimetric methods from using soil samples or indirect methods that are based on the measurement of another soil property which is dependent on soil moisture. The paper presents the findings of volumetric water content measurements with gravimetric and time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods. We focused on four variants in the field experiment in Dolná Malanta (Slovakia): control variant (B0+N0), variant with biochar at dose 20 t.ha−1 without N fertilizer (B20+N0), variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 160 kg.ha−1 (B20+N160) and variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 240 kg.ha−1 (B20+N240). TDR is nowadays a well-established dielectric technique to measure volumetric water content; however, its accuracy is influenced by high concentration of salts in soil. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of added N fertilizer on the measuring accuracy of HydroSense II device that is operating under the TDR principle.

Schlüsselwörter

  • gravimetric method
  • TDR calibration
  • N fertilizer
  • soil salinization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Biochar and its Reapplication on Soil pH and Sorption Properties of Silt Loam Haplic Luvisol

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 65 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the effects of biochar alone and its reapplication and combination with N-fertilizer (1) on the soil pH, and (2) sorption parameters. The soil samples were taken during growing period in 2018 from plots with different biochar (first application in 2014 – A, reapplication in 2018 – B) at application rates: 0 t.ha−1 (B0 control), 10 t.ha−1 (B10) and 20 t.ha−1 (B20) and different nitrogen fertilization: N0 (no nitrogen) and N40 (40 kg.ha−1). Our results showed that the first application of biochar at the rate of 20 t.ha−1 (B20A) without N-fertilizer significantly increased the values of soil pH in H2O, soil pH in KCl, the sum of base cations (SBC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared to control (B0). Similar effects were observed also after reapplication of biochar (B10B). All investigated parameters in fertilized control treatment (B0N40) were worst and the first application, as well as the reapplication of biochar with N, caused significant increase of soil pH in H2O, soil pH in KCl, SBC, CEC, BS and decrease of hydrolytic acidity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • soil acidity
  • cation exchange capacity
  • base saturation
  • biochar
  • fertilization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Identification of Study Sites for Placement of Sediment Traps in Vegetated Buffer Strips

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 71 - 74

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this contribution was to outline the decision procedure for selecting potential sites suitable for installing sediment traps in vegetation buffer strips in the Fugnitz catchment, Austria. The selection procedure consisted of GIS data processing where the contributing areas of specific sites were specified according to the selected criteria (i.e. slope above 2°, vegetation strip in between agriculturally used land and river network, contributing area of at least 300 m2). Available landuse maps were updated with formerly not-digitized structures potentially influencing connectivity (e.g. ephemeral streams and road ditches) which were mapped in the field. From 31 pre-defined sites 15 were selected, taking into account as additional selection criteria the slope angle, soil erodibility and size of the contributing area. Two sites were selected for further investigations – i.e. installation of the sediment traps in vegetation filter strips collecting event-based sediment yields from adjacent arable fields. We conclude that GIS analysis has shown to be useful for the first step-delineation of potential sites of interest on the catchment scale. However, field-based surveys have been shown to be inevitable to obtain on-site information on vegetation characteristics and fine-scale topographic and management information.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water erosion
  • sediment delivery
  • connectivity
  • buffer strips
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact Assessment of Vegetation Growth on Soil Erosion of a Landfill Cover Surface

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 75 - 79

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Soil erosion is a very common phenomenon encountered at many sloped earthen geotechnical structures. For instance, the surface soil of an inclined landfill cover system undergoes the erosion due to various adverse atmospheric variants. This is one of the major causes for performance failure in the cover system. However, previous researchers have rarely conducted the study for field assessment of soil erosion in high rainfall tropical regions such as northeast India. The literature advocates the utilization of vegetation for erosion management. This study investigated the impact of vegetation growth on soil erosion of a cover surface layer under both natural and controlled artificial rainfall. The soil erosion was monitored by collecting the soil loss due to rainfall. Vegetation growth was evaluated based on photographic image analyses. The study clearly indicates that the vegetation growth can contribute to reduction of soil erosion from the landfill cover surface.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vegetation growth
  • water infiltration
  • soil erosion
  • landfill cover
  • artificial rainfall
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Movement of the Suspended Flow in the Open Irrigation Channels

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 80 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article deals with the issues of turbulent movement of a suspended flow in open channels. Differential equations of a suspended flow were used with considering the interaction of the fluid and solid particles. The solution of equations for steady flow was obtained by a numerical method. Field data measured in irrigation channels in Tashkent and Parkent were used to estimate the velocity distribution over the depth of the stream. Developed method for calculating the formation of velocity field in statically and dynamically stable channels considered the turbulent characteristics and the presence of suspended sediments in the stream. The possibilities of practical application of the above-mentioned differential equations to the solution of the problem of a suspended solids flow's forming a velocity field were discussed. The developed analytical formulas make it possible to determine the value of flow parameters. The result is a new generalization of the mathematical model of the velocity field formation regularity at different flow saturations with a suspension. On its basis, the method is developed for calculating the parameters of the weighing process and transport of suspended particles in open channels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • suspended solid flow
  • open channel
  • sediment
  • modelling
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sensitivity Analysis of Input Data in Surface Water Quality Models

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 84 - 87

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is focused on analysis of input data impact on outputs of water quality models. The authors examined the impact of roughness coefficient, both boundary and initial conditions setup on changes of outputs generated by HEC-RAS model. Simulation results have shown a various response rate of input data on simulated results. The strong impact shows roughness coefficient setup that through the value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient affects pollution transport process. Changes in boundary conditions have had less influence on outputs. Relatively strong impact shows the setup of initial state of pollution concentration along the reach mainly for the case of low gradient rivers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sensitivity analysis
  • water quality modelling
  • open channel
  • HEC-RAS
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Solution of the Forest Road Network Optimization in the Transformation to a Selective Silviculture Method

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 88 - 92

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper is focused on the forest road access in the area of supposed specific method of forest management. The studied forest area of 81 hectares (ha) is intended for transformation by selective silviculture method demanding dense forest road network. The parameters of the current road network were analysed by Beneš method based on quantifying the general geometric and configuration criteria of the road network. The new road distribution was designed with respect to the results of the terrain slope and runoff concentration analyses to reduce the negative impacts of the roads on the surrounding environment. The new road layout resulted to the decrement of all types of skidding distances. The real skidding distance Ds decreased by 51% to the value of 72 m. In addition, the road network efficiency was increased by 14%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • road network efficiency
  • runoff concentration
  • slope analysis
  • timber skidding
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Iron and Manganese in Well Water: Potential Risk for Irrigation Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 93 - 96

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water quality
  • groundwater
  • irrigation
  • iron
  • manganese
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficient Use of Water and Fertilizers in Irrigated Agriculture: Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 97 - 102

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Increasing food demand and decreasing water resources have composed a kind of pressure to find new technologies for efficient use of water and fertilizers in agriculture. Drip irrigation can be able to save irrigation water from 30% up to 50% in case it is properly designed, installed and operated compared to surface irrigation, and it can also enable increasing crop yields and crop quality. In order to get the highest benefits using drip irrigation, some soil data (infiltration rate, soil texture and soil structure), crop characteristics (row space, plant density, canopy cover, root system, crop species, crop variety) and water resources properties (water quality, surface or well water) must be considered in drip system design, management and operation. Fertigation is basically an agricultural technique and application together with water and fertilizer to soil and/or plants. It increases both yield and fertilizer use efficiency; therefore, leaching of nutrients is prevented. In order to utilize fertigation successfully, the four main factors must be considered: (i) the consumption rate of water and nutrients throughout the growth season that result in optimal yields, (ii) response in uptake of different crops to nutrient concentration in the soil and soil solutions, (iii) monitoring for total soil water potential, nutrients concentration in soil solution and % elements in plants as a function of time and (iv) root mass and distribution in the soil for given irrigation regimes and soil types.

Schlüsselwörter

  • nutrient use efficiency
  • water use efficiency
  • water saving
  • sustainability
10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differences in Water Vapor Adsorption-Desorption of Non Aged and 3-Year Aged Biochar in Sandy Spodosols

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 56 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ageing of biochars in soil affects their surface properties and can cause changes in water vapor adsorption-desorption processes. Measurements of hygroscopic water contents and corresponding water potentials of non aged and 3-year aged biochars as well as of sandy soils with medium and high quality were carried out during 5 cycles of water vapor adsorption-desorption processes at a room temperature of 23.5 °C. The results showed a significantly lower content of maximum hygroscopic water in the aged biochars than that in the non aged biochar at the end of water vapor adsorption processes at high air humidity. A significantly higher affinity of the high quality soil to water vapor resulted in insignificant differences in the maximum hygroscopic water content and in significant changes in the corresponding water potentials as compared to the same properties of the soil with medium quality. Minimum content of hygroscopic water was significantly lower in the non aged biochar than in the aged biochars at the end of the water desorption processes at ambient laboratory atmosphere. There were insignificant differences in minimum contents of hygroscopic water and in the corresponding water potentials of the aged biochars from soils with medium and high quality.

Schlüsselwörter

  • biochar
  • ageing
  • water vapor adsorption-desorption
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Measurement of Volumetric Water Content by Gravimetric and Time Domain Reflectometry Methods at Field Experiment with Biochar and N Fertilizer

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 61 - 64

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are many methods used for soil water content measurement which we can divide into direct gravimetric methods from using soil samples or indirect methods that are based on the measurement of another soil property which is dependent on soil moisture. The paper presents the findings of volumetric water content measurements with gravimetric and time domain reflectometry (TDR) methods. We focused on four variants in the field experiment in Dolná Malanta (Slovakia): control variant (B0+N0), variant with biochar at dose 20 t.ha−1 without N fertilizer (B20+N0), variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 160 kg.ha−1 (B20+N160) and variant with biochar 20 t.ha−1 and N fertilizer 240 kg.ha−1 (B20+N240). TDR is nowadays a well-established dielectric technique to measure volumetric water content; however, its accuracy is influenced by high concentration of salts in soil. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of added N fertilizer on the measuring accuracy of HydroSense II device that is operating under the TDR principle.

Schlüsselwörter

  • gravimetric method
  • TDR calibration
  • N fertilizer
  • soil salinization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Biochar and its Reapplication on Soil pH and Sorption Properties of Silt Loam Haplic Luvisol

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 65 - 70

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper we investigate the effects of biochar alone and its reapplication and combination with N-fertilizer (1) on the soil pH, and (2) sorption parameters. The soil samples were taken during growing period in 2018 from plots with different biochar (first application in 2014 – A, reapplication in 2018 – B) at application rates: 0 t.ha−1 (B0 control), 10 t.ha−1 (B10) and 20 t.ha−1 (B20) and different nitrogen fertilization: N0 (no nitrogen) and N40 (40 kg.ha−1). Our results showed that the first application of biochar at the rate of 20 t.ha−1 (B20A) without N-fertilizer significantly increased the values of soil pH in H2O, soil pH in KCl, the sum of base cations (SBC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) compared to control (B0). Similar effects were observed also after reapplication of biochar (B10B). All investigated parameters in fertilized control treatment (B0N40) were worst and the first application, as well as the reapplication of biochar with N, caused significant increase of soil pH in H2O, soil pH in KCl, SBC, CEC, BS and decrease of hydrolytic acidity.

Schlüsselwörter

  • soil acidity
  • cation exchange capacity
  • base saturation
  • biochar
  • fertilization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Identification of Study Sites for Placement of Sediment Traps in Vegetated Buffer Strips

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 71 - 74

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this contribution was to outline the decision procedure for selecting potential sites suitable for installing sediment traps in vegetation buffer strips in the Fugnitz catchment, Austria. The selection procedure consisted of GIS data processing where the contributing areas of specific sites were specified according to the selected criteria (i.e. slope above 2°, vegetation strip in between agriculturally used land and river network, contributing area of at least 300 m2). Available landuse maps were updated with formerly not-digitized structures potentially influencing connectivity (e.g. ephemeral streams and road ditches) which were mapped in the field. From 31 pre-defined sites 15 were selected, taking into account as additional selection criteria the slope angle, soil erodibility and size of the contributing area. Two sites were selected for further investigations – i.e. installation of the sediment traps in vegetation filter strips collecting event-based sediment yields from adjacent arable fields. We conclude that GIS analysis has shown to be useful for the first step-delineation of potential sites of interest on the catchment scale. However, field-based surveys have been shown to be inevitable to obtain on-site information on vegetation characteristics and fine-scale topographic and management information.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water erosion
  • sediment delivery
  • connectivity
  • buffer strips
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact Assessment of Vegetation Growth on Soil Erosion of a Landfill Cover Surface

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 75 - 79

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Soil erosion is a very common phenomenon encountered at many sloped earthen geotechnical structures. For instance, the surface soil of an inclined landfill cover system undergoes the erosion due to various adverse atmospheric variants. This is one of the major causes for performance failure in the cover system. However, previous researchers have rarely conducted the study for field assessment of soil erosion in high rainfall tropical regions such as northeast India. The literature advocates the utilization of vegetation for erosion management. This study investigated the impact of vegetation growth on soil erosion of a cover surface layer under both natural and controlled artificial rainfall. The soil erosion was monitored by collecting the soil loss due to rainfall. Vegetation growth was evaluated based on photographic image analyses. The study clearly indicates that the vegetation growth can contribute to reduction of soil erosion from the landfill cover surface.

Schlüsselwörter

  • vegetation growth
  • water infiltration
  • soil erosion
  • landfill cover
  • artificial rainfall
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Movement of the Suspended Flow in the Open Irrigation Channels

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 80 - 83

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article deals with the issues of turbulent movement of a suspended flow in open channels. Differential equations of a suspended flow were used with considering the interaction of the fluid and solid particles. The solution of equations for steady flow was obtained by a numerical method. Field data measured in irrigation channels in Tashkent and Parkent were used to estimate the velocity distribution over the depth of the stream. Developed method for calculating the formation of velocity field in statically and dynamically stable channels considered the turbulent characteristics and the presence of suspended sediments in the stream. The possibilities of practical application of the above-mentioned differential equations to the solution of the problem of a suspended solids flow's forming a velocity field were discussed. The developed analytical formulas make it possible to determine the value of flow parameters. The result is a new generalization of the mathematical model of the velocity field formation regularity at different flow saturations with a suspension. On its basis, the method is developed for calculating the parameters of the weighing process and transport of suspended particles in open channels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • suspended solid flow
  • open channel
  • sediment
  • modelling
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sensitivity Analysis of Input Data in Surface Water Quality Models

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 84 - 87

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article is focused on analysis of input data impact on outputs of water quality models. The authors examined the impact of roughness coefficient, both boundary and initial conditions setup on changes of outputs generated by HEC-RAS model. Simulation results have shown a various response rate of input data on simulated results. The strong impact shows roughness coefficient setup that through the value of longitudinal dispersion coefficient affects pollution transport process. Changes in boundary conditions have had less influence on outputs. Relatively strong impact shows the setup of initial state of pollution concentration along the reach mainly for the case of low gradient rivers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sensitivity analysis
  • water quality modelling
  • open channel
  • HEC-RAS
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Solution of the Forest Road Network Optimization in the Transformation to a Selective Silviculture Method

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 88 - 92

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper is focused on the forest road access in the area of supposed specific method of forest management. The studied forest area of 81 hectares (ha) is intended for transformation by selective silviculture method demanding dense forest road network. The parameters of the current road network were analysed by Beneš method based on quantifying the general geometric and configuration criteria of the road network. The new road distribution was designed with respect to the results of the terrain slope and runoff concentration analyses to reduce the negative impacts of the roads on the surrounding environment. The new road layout resulted to the decrement of all types of skidding distances. The real skidding distance Ds decreased by 51% to the value of 72 m. In addition, the road network efficiency was increased by 14%.

Schlüsselwörter

  • road network efficiency
  • runoff concentration
  • slope analysis
  • timber skidding
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Iron and Manganese in Well Water: Potential Risk for Irrigation Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 93 - 96

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • water quality
  • groundwater
  • irrigation
  • iron
  • manganese
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Efficient Use of Water and Fertilizers in Irrigated Agriculture: Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Nov 2019
Seitenbereich: 97 - 102

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Increasing food demand and decreasing water resources have composed a kind of pressure to find new technologies for efficient use of water and fertilizers in agriculture. Drip irrigation can be able to save irrigation water from 30% up to 50% in case it is properly designed, installed and operated compared to surface irrigation, and it can also enable increasing crop yields and crop quality. In order to get the highest benefits using drip irrigation, some soil data (infiltration rate, soil texture and soil structure), crop characteristics (row space, plant density, canopy cover, root system, crop species, crop variety) and water resources properties (water quality, surface or well water) must be considered in drip system design, management and operation. Fertigation is basically an agricultural technique and application together with water and fertilizer to soil and/or plants. It increases both yield and fertilizer use efficiency; therefore, leaching of nutrients is prevented. In order to utilize fertigation successfully, the four main factors must be considered: (i) the consumption rate of water and nutrients throughout the growth season that result in optimal yields, (ii) response in uptake of different crops to nutrient concentration in the soil and soil solutions, (iii) monitoring for total soil water potential, nutrients concentration in soil solution and % elements in plants as a function of time and (iv) root mass and distribution in the soil for given irrigation regimes and soil types.

Schlüsselwörter

  • nutrient use efficiency
  • water use efficiency
  • water saving
  • sustainability

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo