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Hybrid Threats and Counter-Hybrid Solutions: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Croatia, North Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina


Hybrid threats are not new security challenges, but they are becoming more and more pronounced, primarily due to the situation in Ukraine, where multiple hybrid activities are underway by Russia. As central actors in the European security architecture, the European Union and NATO recognise that both organisations, their member states and other countries in Europe are exposed to various forms of hybrid threats. However, this ability to recognise hybrid threats and especially the development of counter-hybrid solutions is an open question for some smaller countries. In order to investigate the above, this paper focuses on hybrid threats and counter-hybrid solutions by analysing the state of affairs in Croatia, North Macedonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our goal is to explore this area and answer the following research questions: What hybrid threats are Croatia, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina exposed to? How do they deal with them? What counter-hybrid solutions are being developed?

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