There is lack of research on the evaluation of state aid provided to food industry enterprises in Poland, within the framework of general principles of the European Union competition policy, taking into account structure of the industry. The aim of the study is to assess the scale of general public aid for dairies, taking into account the type of enterprises, their size and location. The statistical analysis is based on SUDOP data. The amount of aid granted in 2015–2021 increased as well as the number of beneficiaries of the aid. The highest value share involved subsidies for R&D projects. The share of large dairies in funds is similar to their market share. We witness a significant concentration of aid regionally and among the beneficiaries. Dairy cooperatives accounted for a greater share of the employment of disabled persons and prisoners than other entities, which may be due to their bimodal nature.