A study on resource productivity under yam based crop mixture (YBCM) in crude and non-crude oil communities was conducted in Imo State, Nigeria. The study assessed food crops’ outputs, evaluated costs and returns, and determined the allocative efficiency of resource use under YBCM system in crude and non-crude oil producing communities. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted in selection of respondents. Primary data were obtained using a set of questionnaire on 50 YBCM farmers each from crude and non-crude oil communities. Data were analyzed using percentages, gross margin and net profit analysis, multiple regressions, t-values, and gross returns/total costs ratio. Output levels of the food crop components in YBCM system in non-crude oil producing communities were statistically and significantly higher than those of the crude oil producing communities. This agreed with results of studies that showed reduction effects of gas flaring on food crop yields in the areas. There was higher profitability in YBCM enterprise in non-crude oil producing communities than in crude oil producing communities. However, the two critical resources in farming, land and labour, the YBCM farmers in crude oil producing communities allocated these resources better than the YBCM farmers in non-crude oil producing communities. Based on the study findings the Federal and State Governments, and other oil industry stakeholders should formulate appropriate policies, programmes and conduct detailed ecological research studies that will lead to higher farm output by YBCM farmers in crude oil producing areas.