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Molecular and morphological characterization of a first report of Cactodera torreyanae Cid del Prado Vera & Subbotin, 2014 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Minnesota, the United States of America


Cactodera torreyanae Cid del Prado Vera & Subbotin, 2014 cysts were discovered during a Pale Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN) survey conducted by Minnesota Department of Agriculture as part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) efforts to survey states for the presence of PCN. The soil samples were collected from a potato field, located in Karlstad, Kittson County, Minnesota, USA. Two out of 175 vials submitted for identification to the Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL) contained few cysts and juveniles of C. torreyanae. Cysts were dark brown in color, lemon-shaped to elongated with distinct vulval cone. Vulva with denticles present around fenestra, cyst length to width ratio between 1.6 and 2.3 and anus distinct. The juveniles had rounded stylet knobs, some sloping slightly posteriorly. The molecular analysis included sequence and phylogenetic analysis of ITS rRNA, D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA and COI of mtDNA genes. The nematode species was identified by both morphological and molecular means as Cactodera torreyanae. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first report of Cactodera torreyanae from the United States and first report of this cyst nematode species from potato fields. Definite host plant for this nematode remains unknown.

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