1. bookVolumen 5 (2016): Heft 2 (December 2016)
Zeitschriftendaten
License
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-5864
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2016
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Dec 2016
Volumen & Heft: Volumen 5 (2016) - Heft 2 (December 2016)
Seitenbereich: 293 - 298
Zeitschriftendaten
License
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2719-5864
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2016
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch
<p>The trade policy of the United States (U.S.) traditionally relied almost exclusively on multilateral negotiations in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and avoided bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs), except with countries whose import tariffs had little effect on the direction of trade.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_001_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b1Aa" symbol="1"><p>Sidney Weintraub, <italic>Some Implications of U.S. Trade Agreements with Chile and Singapore</italic> 8 (LAEBA, Working Paper No.14, Jun. 2003), <italic>available at</italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www19.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2010/06219.pdf">http://www19.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2010/06219.pdf</ext-link> (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).</p></fn> This changed in 1985 when the United States concluded a free trade agreement with Israel. As Gantz explains, “the year 1985 marked a pivotal period in U.S. foreign trade policy. The United States began to depart from its long-standing opposition to regional trade agreements.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_002_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b3Aa" symbol="2"><p>David Gantz, <italic>The ‘Bipartisan Trade Deal,’ Trade Promotion Authority and the Future of U.S. Free Trade Agreements</italic>, 28 St. Louis U. L. Rev. 116 (2008).</p></fn> The conclusion of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) in 1987 led to the conclusion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 and, subsequently, to the Free Trade Areas of the Americas initiative.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_003_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b5Aa" symbol="3"><p>Weintraub, <italic>supra</italic> note 1, at 8.</p></fn> After 2000, the United States sought to densify their FTAs network and by 2015 gradually concluded bilateral<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_004_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b7Aa" symbol="4"><p>Australia (2005), Bahrain (2006), Canada (1987), Chile (2004), Colombia (2011), Israel (1985), Jordan (2001), South Korea (2011), Morocco (2006), Oman (2006), Panama (2011), Peru (2007), Singapore (2004).</p></fn> and plurilateral<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_005_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b9Aa" symbol="5"><p>NAFTA with Canada, Mexico (1994), Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic (2006) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TTP) with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam (2015).</p></fn>free trade agreements with a total of 25 countries. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), currently under negotiation, will be added to this network. Interestingly enough, the United States concluded free trade agreements mostly with economically and politically weaker countries that had much to gain from access to the U.S. market and had little significance for U.S. trade.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_006_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1c11Aa" symbol="6"><p>Bernard K. Gordon, <italic>By Invitation Only: Cozy Free Trade Deals Subvert Global Integration</italic>, Yale Global Online, Feb. 13, 2003, <italic>available at</italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/invitation-only-cozy-free-trade-deals-subvert-global-integration">http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/invitation-only-cozy-free-trade-deals-subvert-global-integration</ext-link> (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).</p></fn> In contrast, the United States have no free trade agreements with some of their major trading partners, namely, China and the European Union even though the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the aggregate account for more than China in total export value for goods.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_007_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1c13Aa" symbol="7"><p><italic>See</italic>, <italic>Top U.S. Trade Partners Ranked by 2014 U.S. Total Export Value for Goods</italic>, <italic>available at</italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.trade.gov/mas/ian/build/groups/public/@tg_ian/documents/webcontent/tg_ian_003364.pdf">http://www.trade.gov/mas/ian/build/groups/public/@tg_ian/documents/webcontent/tg_ian_003364.pdf</ext-link> (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).</p></fn></p><p>In his introduction in this volume, Gantz attributes the change in the U.S. policy to the slow progress of the European countries towards economic integration in the 1970s and the early 1980s, as well as to the increase of the European trade power and the lack of European support for a new GATT negotiating round, leading the United States to take regional initiatives. Concerns over the U.S. expansion led Europeans to agree to new multilateral negotiations while the stalemate of the Uruguay Round offered the United States, Canada and Mexico the opportunity to conclude the NAFTA. Subsequently, after the failure of the Doha Development Round, the United States saw in free trade agreements more than a second best approach to trade liberalization, an opportunity to broaden trade liberalization to the global level and influence the content of future international trade rules.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_008_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b1Aa" symbol="8"><p>David Gantz, <italic>Introduction to U.S. Free Trade Agreements</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Legal Stud. 302-06 (2016).</p></fn> Griffith, Steinberg & Zysman explain in that respect that “[b]y negotiating deals one-by-one with individual countries, the US was able to leverage its power, securing deeper liberalization and a more complex trade agenda than could be advanced in the [World Trade Organization] WTO, where US trade bargaining power was more diffused than in one-on-one negotiations.” Furthermore, pursuing the strategy of competitive liberalization, the United States expected that “once a critical mass of bilateral agreements were achieved, states not party to these agreements would be inclined to liberalize along similar lines in order to avoid trade and investment diversion, and to remain competitive in a global economy.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_009_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b3Aa" symbol="9"><p>Melissa K. Griffith, Richard Steinberg & John Zysman, <italic>Great Power Politics in A Global Economy: Origins and Consequences of the TPP and TTIP</italic>, The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, <italic>available at</italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.brie.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Great-Power-Politics-in-a-Global-Economy-Origins-and-Consequences-of-the-TPP-and-TTIP.pdf">http://www.brie.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Great-Power-Politics-in-a-Global-Economy-Origins-and-Consequences-of-the-TPP-and-TTIP.pdf</ext-link> (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).</p></fn> According to Bergsten, the United States thus hoped “to place pressure on non-members of individual free trade agreements either to join the group itself or to conclude broader agreement.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_010_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b5Aa" symbol="10"><p>Fred C. Bergsten, <italic>A Competitive Approach to Free Trade</italic>, Financial Times, Dec. 4, 2002, <italic>available at</italic><ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="https://piie.com/commentary/op-eds/competitive-approach-free-trade">https://piie.com/commentary/op-eds/competitive-approach-free-trade</ext-link>.</p></fn></p><p>This change of the U.S. policy may have wide-ranging repercussions for the future international rules of trade. Already, the size of the U.S. economy and the consequent desire of other countries to become preferential U.S. trading partners<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_011_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b1Aa" symbol="11"><p>Gordon, <italic>supra</italic> note 6.</p></fn>allowed the proliferation of U.S. free trade agreements. Since the 2000s, the extension of the U.S. FTAs network along with the reaction of the European Union (EU) to the risk of losing privileged access to markets covered by the U.S. free trade agreements and the consequent “competitive attitude between the EU and the US, in terms of gaining preferential market access and extending regulatory rules to emerging countries,”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_012_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b3Aa" symbol="12"><p>André Sapir, <italic>Europe and the Global Economy</italic>, in Fragmented Power: Europe and the Global Economy 13 (André Sapir ed., 2007).</p></fn> led to the generalized shift from multilateral negotiations to plurilateral and bilateral preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Weintraub claims that “the United States over the past few years concluded as a policy matter that it should be prepared to negotiate in many forums - global, as in the World Trade Organization … regional, as in the Free Trade Areas of the Americas … plurilateral, as in the ongoing negotiations … to achieve a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Area … and bilaterally, as it did with Jordan and now with Singapore.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_013_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b5Aa" symbol="13"><p>Weintraub, <italic>supra</italic> note 1, at 8.</p></fn>This shift to bilateralism and regionalism was interpreted as a division of labor, placing liberalization “at the level where it is easiest to achieve, for whatever reason (geographical proximity, power relations, etc.), while maintaining regulation at the global level”, an argument deduced from references to WTO rules in most free trade agreements.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_014_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b7Aa" symbol="14"><p>Hélène Ruiz-Fabri, <italic>Regulating trade</italic>, <italic>Investment and Money</italic>, <italic>in</italic> The Cambridge Companion to International Law 357 (James Crawford & Martti Koskenniemi eds., 2012).</p></fn> However, the proliferation of free trade agreements, apart from the risk of discrepancies between the different agreements as a result of the so-called spaghetti bowl phenomenon,<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_015_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b9Aa" symbol="15"><p>Jagdish Bhagwati, Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade 61-70 (2008).</p></fn> may lead to marginalization of the WTO as a privileged forum of negotiation of international trade rules.</p><p>Along with this vertical forum shifting, the United States - and the European Union - using their increased bargaining power, introduced bilateral commitments going beyond those that their partners have accepted at the multilateral level (WTO-Plus) as well as provisions dealing with issues lying outside the current WTO mandate (WTO-Extra). The first relate to the liberalization of trade in goods and services, whereas the second relate to investment protection, competition policy, labor standards, and protection of the environment.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_016_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b1Aa" symbol="16"><p>Henrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis & André Sapir, <italic>EU and U.S. Preferential Trade Agreements: Deepening or Widening of WTO Commitments</italic>, in Preferential Trade Agreements: A Law and Economics Analysis 151-52 (Kyle W. Bagwell & Petros C. Mavroidis eds., 2011).</p></fn> To some extent, the United States traded WTO-Plus provisions in return for WTO-Extra obligations. They thus achieved with economically and politically weaker partners what they could not achieve through the WTO.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_017_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b3Aa" symbol="17"><p><italic>Cf</italic> Meredith Kolsky Lewies, <italic>The Politics and Indirect Effects of Asymmetrical Bargaining Power in Free Trade Agreements</italic>, in The Politics of International Economic Law 19 (Tomer Broude, Marc L. Busch & Amelia Porges eds., 2011).</p></fn> Indeed, the U.S. free trade agreements are amongst the most prominent examples of asymmetric preferential trade agreements.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_018_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b5Aa" symbol="18"><p>Vladimir G. Sherov-Ignatiev, & Sergei F. Sutyrin, <italic>Peculiarities and rationale ofasymmetric regional trade agreements</italic>, WTO Research and Analysis, <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr11_forum_e/wtr11_2aug11_a_e.htm">https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr11_forum_e/wtr11_2aug11_a_e.htm</ext-link> (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).</p></fn> The gains reaped by the United States include the increased access to their trading partners’ markets without them having to liberalize in return traditionally protected sectors such as agriculture, steel and textiles.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_019_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b7Aa" symbol="19"><p>Weintraub, <italic>supra</italic> note 1, at 9; Gantz, <italic>supra</italic>, note 2, at 118.</p></fn> Furthermore, the United States exported their regulatory rules in a number of areas,<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_020_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b9Aa" symbol="20"><p>Horn, Mavroidis & Sapir, <italic>supra</italic> note 16, at 169, Sapir <italic>supra</italic>, note 12, at 12.</p></fn> in order to further their domestic interests or respond to domestic concerns. In relation to intellectual property rules (IPRs), for example, Mercurio rightly explains that “[a]s a result of the strong and unwavering resistance” of developing countries during the Seattle and the Doha Rounds “the US has again shifted its negotiating focus and sought to use bilateralism/regionalism to increase IPRs by requiring FTA partners to implement TRIPS-Plus provisions.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_021_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c11Aa" symbol="21"><p>Bryan Mercurio, <italic>TRIPS</italic>-<italic>Plus Provisions in FTAs: Recent Trends</italic>, in Regional Trade Agreements and the WTO Legal System 219 (Lorand Bartels & Federico Ortino eds., 2006).</p></fn>These provisions are not necessarily beneficial to U.S. trading partners. In this volume, Tully observes that by concluding bilateral and regional agreements, the United States “is gaining greater influence over the domestic health care and drug coverage programs of its trading partners.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_022_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c13Aa" symbol="22"><p>Stephen R. Tully, <italic>Free Trade Agreements with the United States: 8 Lessons for Prospective Parties from Australia’s Experience</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Legal Stud. 406 (2016).</p></fn> Cai adds that the recent U.S. free trade agreements introduce regulatory coherence obligations that promote a uniform OECD-inspired model of regulation that is already part of the U.S. regulatory toolbox, thus extending its reach to the U.S. trading partners.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_023_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c15Aa" symbol="23"><p>Phoenix X.F. Cai, <italic>Regulatory Coherence and Standardization Mechanisms in the TransPacific Partnership</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 511 (2016).</p></fn></p><p>Amidst the continuing stalemate of the global trade negotiations, one wonders what the effect of the proliferation of U.S. free trade agreements for the future international rules of trade will be. Will the densification of U.S. - and EU - PTAs networks lead to the disintegration of the WTO or will their rules be absorbed by future WTO agreements? Panezi in this volume explains that preferential trade agreements were formally allowed by the WTO on the assumption that “more liberalization, even if it occurs on the bilateral level, is better than no liberalization at all.”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_024_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b1Aa" symbol="24"><p>Maria Panezi, <italic>The Two Noble Kinsmen: Internal and Legal Transparency in the WTO and Their Connection to Preferential and Regional Trade Agreements</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 554 (2016).</p></fn> Sapir by contrast, underlines that U.S. and EU preferential trade agreements present a systemic challenge to the WTO<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_025_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b3Aa" symbol="25"><p>Sapir, <italic>supra</italic> note 12, at 12.</p></fn> and WTO officials themselves have voiced concerns over the risks of their proliferation.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_026_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b5Aa" symbol="26"><p>Horn, Mavroidis & Sapir, <italic>supra</italic> note 16, at 151.</p></fn> The densification of these networks could lead to the establishment of plurilateral rules involving the United States, the European Union and their respective partners or even to the creation of a U.S./EU-led trade organization with WTO rules remaining a second best choice for trading with the United States and the European Union. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) and the TTIP, as Pitschas in this volume explains, represent “a watershed for the multilateral trade system, just as TPP,”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_027_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b7Aa" symbol="27"><p>Christian Pitschas, <italic>Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): The Devil in Disguise or a Golden Opportunity to Build a Transatlantic Marketplace?</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 340 (2016).</p></fn> and may be the first steps towards that development.</p><p>Nevertheless, one cannot exclude the possibility of a transition from bilateral and plurilateral to multilateral rules, as was the case with GATT.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_028_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b1Aa" symbol="28"><p>John M. Kline & Rodney D. Ludema, <italic>Building a Multilateral Frameworkfor Investment: Comparing the Development of Trade and Investment Accords</italic>, 6 Transnat’l Corp. 8 (1997).</p></fn> If, as Sapir claims, one of the main objectives of the TTIP “is for the EU and the US to change gear and adopt a more cooperative attitude at a time when their global economic leadership is more and more called into question by the emergence of new economic powers,”<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_029_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b3Aa" symbol="29"><p>Sapir, <italic>supra</italic> note 12, at 13.</p></fn> the TTIP may then constitute the Trojan horse for them to regain control over multilateral trade negotiations. Some of their trading partners will voluntarily align with them whereas others will be coerced towards the multilateralization of what they have already agreed on the bilateral and the plurilateral levels, a strategy that has been used before in the case of TRIPS.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_030_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b5Aa" symbol="30"><p>Susan K. Sell, <italic>TRIPS Was Never Enough: Vertical Forum Shifting</italic>, <italic>FTAs</italic>, <italic>ACTA and TPP</italic>, 18 J. Intell. Prop. L. 452 (2013).</p></fn> The competitive liberalization strategy, envisaging that non-partners will join the group or conclude a broader agreement, accommodates both developments. Last but not least, one should not underestimate how U.S. free trade agreements may serve as models for future international trade and investment rules. In this volume, Monardes, amongst others, points out the influence of NAFTA in the free trade agreements concluded among Latin American and between Latin American countries and Asia Pacific countries.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_031_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b7Aa" symbol="31"><p>Rodrigo Monardes, <italic>Challenges for Countries in Trade in Services ‘Negotiations with the NAFTA Approach: The Experience of Chile in the Free Trade Agreement with the United States</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 390-92 (2016).</p></fn> Schill and Bray explain that NAFTA and the U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaties have been the source of inspiration of the recent Mega-Regionals and other important trade and investment agreements.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_032_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b9Aa" symbol="32"><p>Stephan W. Schill & Heather L. Bray, <italic>The Brave New (American) World of International Investment Law: Substantive Investment Protection Standards in Mega-Regionals</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 424 (2016).</p></fn> Finally, Voon and Sheargold observe the likelihood of TPP influencing many current and future PTAs’ negotiations.<fn id="j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_033_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6c11Aa" symbol="33"><p>Tania Voon & Elizabeth Sheargold, <italic>The Trans</italic>-<italic>Pacific Partnership</italic>, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 370 (2016).</p></fn></p><p>The shift from multilateralism to regionalism, plurilateralism and bilateralism in international trade negotiations, amongst others, changed the focus of the academic debate. The challenge of free trade agreements rather than of the WTO now occupy most of the discussions of the relevant epistemic communities all over the world; a trend that is likely to intensify since the conclusion of the TTP and the advancement of the negotiations on the TTIP. This special issue of the <italic>British Journal of American Legal Studies</italic>, conceived just before the unexpected conclusion of the TTP negotiations, responds to the need for research on the recent U.S. free trade agreements. It does not intend to provide a comprehensive analysis of the problems related to the rise of these agreements or of the content of the agreements themselves. Its aim is rather to focus on selected issues arising from the different obligations included in these agreements. Twelve distinguished international trade and investment law scholars from accros the world were invited to explore key aspects of particular U.S. free trade agreements. Contributors were not restricted by a research agenda, their independence was respected and hence their approaches do not necessarily converge, even though all share similar concerns in relation to the expansion of the U.S. free trade agreements.</p><p>In his introduction David A. Gantz explores the historical changes in U.S. trade policy and the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional and bilateral trade agreements. Christian Pitschas focuses on the ongoing negotiations for the TTIP and on the possible impact of the TTIP on the multilateral trading system and developing countries. Tania Voon and Elizabeth Sheargold analyze the motives and the negotiation dynamics of the chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence of the recently concluded TPP. Rodrigo Monardes analyzes the liberalization of trade in services under the NAFTA negative list approach on the basis of the Chile-United States Free Trade Agreement. Relying on the experience of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, Stephen R. Tully discusses the standards of intellectual property protection and their impact for U.S. trading partners. Haydn Davies analyzes the effects of investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms of NAFTA, the European Union-Canada Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement, the TTP and the draft TTIP on national environmental rules and, in particular, on the precautionary principle. Stephan W. Schill and Heather L. Bray focus on the influence of NAFTA and U.S. practice on the substantive rules governing investor-state relations of the Mega-Regionals. Jaemin Lee explores the dispute settlement’ provisions of the free trade agreements concluded between the United States and Korea, Peru, Panama and Colombia. Using the TPP as her primary example, Phoenix X. F. Cai analyzes regulatory coherence obligations and the role of international standard setting organizations. Maria Panezi, finally, examines the relation between preferential trade agreements and WTO rules with particular focus on the problem of transparency and the limits of the Doha Transparency Mechanisms.</p><p>This special issue of the <italic>British Journal of American Legal Studies</italic> is the outcome of a collaborative effort. The editor would like to thank David A. Gantz for his input and suggestions during the discussions on the content of this volume as well as all contributors for generously agreeing to participate in this project respecting strict deadlines. The volume would not have been completed without the assistance of Daniel Gough who adapted the articles to the journal’s reference style and Zoë K. Millman who reviewed some of the articles and made corrections to the language and suggestions of style. Special thanks are also due to Anne Richardson Oakes for her encouragement, guidance and supervision as well as for her comments and assistance in the adaptation of the contributions to the journal’s standards.</p></sec></div></div></div></div><div id="pane-3" class="SeriesTab_card__26XnC SeriesTab_tab-pane__3pc7y card tab-pane" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="tab-3"><div class="SeriesTab_card-header__1DTAS card-header d-md-none pl-0" role="tab" id="heading-3"><h4 class="mb-0"><a data-toggle="collapse" href="#collapse-3" data-parent="#content" aria-expanded="false" aria-controls="collapse-3" style="padding:24px 0">Neueste Artikel<svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fas" data-icon="chevron-down" class="svg-inline--fa fa-chevron-down fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M207.029 381.476L12.686 187.132c-9.373-9.373-9.373-24.569 0-33.941l22.667-22.667c9.357-9.357 24.522-9.375 33.901-.04L224 284.505l154.745-154.021c9.379-9.335 24.544-9.317 33.901.04l22.667 22.667c9.373 9.373 9.373 24.569 0 33.941L240.971 381.476c-9.373 9.372-24.569 9.372-33.942 0z"></path></svg></a></h4></div><div id="collapse-3" class="SeriesTab_seriesTabCollapse__2csiF collapse" role="tabpanel" aria-labelledby="heading-3" data-parent="#content"><div class="SeriesTab_series-tab-body__1tZ1H SeriesTab_card-body__31JEh card-body"><ul class="list-unstyled text-left"></ul></div></div></div></div></div><div style="margin-top:60px;font-weight:bold">Empfohlene Artikel von Trend MD</div><div style="margin-top:10px" id="trendmd-suggestions"></div></div></div><div class="PlanRemoteConference_seriesFindMoreBox__18Ul8"><h2>Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo<!-- --> </h2><div><button>Finde mehr heraus</button></div></div></div></div></div><footer class="Footer_footer__31YtZ"><div class="Footer_footer-middle__3bOWl text-left"><div class="Footer_footer-container__1iVD7"><div class="row my-4"><div class="col-md-4"><a style="padding:12px 0" href="/de"><img src="/navbar/logoW.svg" alt="Sciendo" class="Footer_footer-sciendo-logo__2QHd2"/></a><p class="Footer_siadgc___WjQ_D fw-400 PTSerifCaption-Regular">Sciendo ist ein a Unternehmen von De Gruyter</p></div><div class="col-md-4"><ul class="Footer_sitemap__2FrpO p-0 list-unstyled anchor-unstyled"><li><a href="/de/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns">Veröffentlichen Sie bei uns</a></li><li><a href="/de/blog/neueste-artikel">Neueste Artikel</a></li><li><a href="/de/uber-uns">Über Sciendo</a></li><li><a href="/de/team">Team</a></li><li><a href="/de/nutzungsbedingungen">AGB</a></li><li><a href="/de/datenschutz-bestimmungen">Datenschutzerklärung</a></li><li><a href="/de/cookie-richtlinie">Cookie-Richtlinie</a></li><li><a href="/de/veroffentlichungs-und-ethische-richtlinien">Veröffentlichungs- und ethische Richtlinien</a></li></ul></div><div class="Footer__footer_contact_details__1vVfy col-md-4"><dl><dt class="Footer__fcttl__1ycmk fw-500 mb-3">Kontakt</dt><dd><address class="fw-400"><span>De Gruyter Poland Sp. z o.o.<br/> Bogumila Zuga 32a<br/> 01-811 Warsaw, Poland</span><br/><a href="mailto:info@sciendo.com" class="Footer_footer-links__3JxR8 lh-35 pt-4" style="display:inline-block">info@sciendo.com</a><br/><a href="tel:+48227015015" class="Footer_footer-links__3JxR8 Footer__fcttl__1ycmk lh-35 pt-4 pb-4" style="display:inline-block">+48 22 701 50 15</a></address></dd></dl><div class="Footer_social-links__29g4I"><a href="https://twitter.com/sciendo_" target="_blank"><svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fab" data-icon="twitter" class="svg-inline--fa fa-twitter fa-w-16 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 512 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M459.37 151.716c.325 4.548.325 9.097.325 13.645 0 138.72-105.583 298.558-298.558 298.558-59.452 0-114.68-17.219-161.137-47.106 8.447.974 16.568 1.299 25.34 1.299 49.055 0 94.213-16.568 130.274-44.832-46.132-.975-84.792-31.188-98.112-72.772 6.498.974 12.995 1.624 19.818 1.624 9.421 0 18.843-1.3 27.614-3.573-48.081-9.747-84.143-51.98-84.143-102.985v-1.299c13.969 7.797 30.214 12.67 47.431 13.319-28.264-18.843-46.781-51.005-46.781-87.391 0-19.492 5.197-37.36 14.294-52.954 51.655 63.675 129.3 105.258 216.365 109.807-1.624-7.797-2.599-15.918-2.599-24.04 0-57.828 46.782-104.934 104.934-104.934 30.213 0 57.502 12.67 76.67 33.137 23.715-4.548 46.456-13.32 66.599-25.34-7.798 24.366-24.366 44.833-46.132 57.827 21.117-2.273 41.584-8.122 60.426-16.243-14.292 20.791-32.161 39.308-52.628 54.253z"></path></svg></a><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/sciendo-publishing-services/" target="_blank"><svg aria-hidden="true" focusable="false" data-prefix="fab" data-icon="linkedin" class="svg-inline--fa fa-linkedin fa-w-14 " role="img" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 448 512"><path fill="currentColor" d="M416 32H31.9C14.3 32 0 46.5 0 64.3v383.4C0 465.5 14.3 480 31.9 480H416c17.6 0 32-14.5 32-32.3V64.3c0-17.8-14.4-32.3-32-32.3zM135.4 416H69V202.2h66.5V416zm-33.2-243c-21.3 0-38.5-17.3-38.5-38.5S80.9 96 102.2 96c21.2 0 38.5 17.3 38.5 38.5 0 21.3-17.2 38.5-38.5 38.5zm282.1 243h-66.4V312c0-24.8-.5-56.7-34.5-56.7-34.6 0-39.9 27-39.9 54.9V416h-66.4V202.2h63.7v29.2h.9c8.9-16.8 30.6-34.5 62.9-34.5 67.2 0 79.7 44.3 79.7 101.9V416z"></path></svg></a></div></div></div></div></div><div class="Footer_footer-lower__EZq-l"><div class="Footer_footer-container__1iVD7"><div class="row"><div class="col-md-6 col-sm-12 text-md-left text-sm-center">Urheberrechte<!-- -->: ©<!-- --> <!-- -->2022<!-- --> Sciendo</div><div class="col-md-6 col-sm-12 text-md-right text-sm-center"></div></div></div></div></footer><div class="Toastify"></div></div><script id="__NEXT_DATA__" type="application/json">{"props":{"pageProps":{"product":{"id":"600a9327213ad608733d208e","mayBuildBookPdf":null,"name":null,"nameText":null,"doi":null,"fileName":"/tmp/feeds_BJALS-5-2_9051487518555087027.zip","packageId":null,"content":null,"packageType":"article","productDescription":"Journal","license":{"type":"OpenAccess","creativeCommonsLicense":"by-nc-nd 3.0"},"impactFactors":"\u003cP\u003e\u003cBR\u003eCiteScore 2018: 0.62 \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eSCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.138\u003cBR\u003eSource Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.526 \u003c/P\u003e","doiOrder":{"NoSubject":[],"Editorial":["10.1515/bjals-2016-0009"],"":["10.1515/bjals-2016-0019","10.1515/bjals-2016-0018","10.1515/bjals-2016-0017","10.1515/bjals-2016-0016","10.1515/bjals-2016-0015","10.1515/bjals-2016-0014","10.1515/bjals-2016-0013","10.1515/bjals-2016-0012","10.1515/bjals-2016-0011","10.1515/bjals-2016-0010"]},"descriptions":[{"text":[{"type":"abstracting-and-indexing","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies\u003c/EM\u003e is covered by the following services: \u003c/P\u003e \u003cUL\u003e \u003cLI\u003eBaidu Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eCNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eCNPIEC - cnpLINKer \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eDimensions \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eEBSCO \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eExLibris \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eGoogle Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eJ-Gate \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eJournalTOCs \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eKESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eMyScienceWork \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eNaver Academic \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eNaviga (Softweco) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eProQuest \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003ePublons \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eQOAM (Quality Open Access Market) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eReadCube \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSCImago (SJR) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSCOPUS \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSemantic Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eTDNet \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eUlrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWanFang Data \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWeb of Science - Emerging Sources Citation Index \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWorldCat (OCLC) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eX-MOL \u003c/LI\u003e\u003c/UL\u003e"},{"type":"abstracting-and-indexing","language":"German","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies\u003c/EM\u003e ist in den folgenden Services indiziert: \u003c/P\u003e \u003cUL\u003e \u003cLI\u003eBaidu Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eCNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eCNPIEC - cnpLINKer \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eDimensions \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eEBSCO \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eExLibris \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eGoogle Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eJ-Gate \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eJournalTOCs \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eKESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eMyScienceWork \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eNaver Academic \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eNaviga (Softweco) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eProQuest \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003ePublons \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eQOAM (Quality Open Access Market) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eReadCube \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSCImago (SJR) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSCOPUS \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eSemantic Scholar \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eTDNet \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eUlrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWanFang Data \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWeb of Science - Emerging Sources Citation Index \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eWorldCat (OCLC) \u003c/LI\u003e \u003cLI\u003eX-MOL \u003c/LI\u003e\u003c/UL\u003e"},{"type":"submission","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cDIV align=left\u003e \u003cP\u003eAll manuscripts should be submitted to the journal via \u003cA href=\"http://www.editorialmanager.com/BJALS/default.aspx\"\u003eEditorial Manager\u003c/A\u003e. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eOpen Access Statement\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe journal is an Open Access journal that allows a free unlimited access to all its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003e\u003cA href=\"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/BJALS/Open_Access_License.pdf\"\u003eOpen Access License\u003c/A\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"},{"type":"advantages","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cDIV align=left\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe \u003cEM\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies \u003c/EM\u003eis the premier American legal studies journal in Europe. This peer reviewed, cross-disciplinary journal is a bridge between American and European legal scholarship focused on American legal issues. The journal has a theoretical focus, but will occasionally publish articles with a doctrinal or empirical focus that cast light on important issue within the journal's remit. The journal highlights scholarship examining shared intellectual traditions between America, Britain and Europe. Authors whose work draws connections between American, British and European constitutional, political, historical, intellectual ideas and materials informing legal studies are particularly welcome to submit articles to the journal.  \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eSubmissions/information for authors:\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eSubmissions may be made through Scholastica and are typically but not exclusively between 10 - 15, 000 words excluding footnotes. The journal uses Bluebook referencing format.  \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eArchiving\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eSciendo archives the contents of this journal in \u003cA href=\"https://www.portico.org/\"\u003ePortico\u003c/A\u003e - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePlagiarism Policy\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe editorial board is participating in a growing community of \u003cA href=\"https://www.crossref.org/services/similarity-check/\"\u003eSimilarity Check System's\u003c/A\u003e users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eTarget Group\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cUL\u003e \u003cLI\u003eacademics and practitioners in the field of constitutional law having relevance to the United States, including human rights, legal and political theory, socio-legal studies and legal history \u003c/LI\u003e\u003c/UL\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"},{"type":"editorial","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditor-in-Chief\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eDr Anne Richardson Oakes, Birmingham City University.\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eAssociate Editors\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eSarah Cooper, Birmingham City University. \u003cBR\u003eDr Haydn Davies, Birmingham City University. \u003cBR\u003eProf Julian Killingley, Birmingham City University. \u003cBR\u003eProf Jon Yorke, Birmingham City University. \u003cBR\u003eSeth Barrett Tillman, National University of Ireland, Maynooth.\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditorial Board \u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eHon. Joseph A. Greenaway Jr., Circuit Judge 3rd Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals\u003cBR\u003eHon. Raymond J. McKoski, Circuit Judge (retired), 19th Judicial Circuit Court, IL. Adjunct Professor of Law, The John Marshall Law School, Chicago, IL.\u003cBR\u003eProf Antonio Aunion, University of Castille-la Mancha.\u003cBR\u003eProf Francine Banner, Phoenix School of Law, AZ.\u003cBR\u003eProf Devon W. Carbado, UCLA, CA.\u003cBR\u003eDr Damian Carney, University of Portsmouth, UK.\u003cBR\u003eDr Simon Cooper, Reader in Property Law, Oxford Brookes University.\u003cBR\u003eProf Randall T. Coyne, Frank Elkouri and Edna Asper Elkouri Professor, College of Law, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK. \u003cBR\u003eMark George QC, Garden Court Chambers, Manchester, UK.\u003cBR\u003eProf Larry Hammond, Osborne Maledon PA, Phoenix AZ.\u003cBR\u003eProf Carolyn Hoyle, Professor of Criminology, University of Oxford, UK.\u003cBR\u003eProf James Kousouros, CALS Visiting Professor, NY.\u003cBR\u003eProf Ian Loveland, City University London, UK.\u003cBR\u003eProf James Maxeiner, Center for International \u0026 Comparative Law, University of Baltimore School of Law, Baltimore, MD.\u003cBR\u003eProf Ruth Miller, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA.\u003cBR\u003eDr Anne-Marie O'Connell, University Toulouse 1 Capitole.\u003cBR\u003eProf Austin Sarat, William Nelson Cromwell Professor of Jurisprudence \u0026 Political Science, Amherst College, MA.\u003cBR\u003eDr Stephen W. Smith, University of Birmingham, UK.\u003cBR\u003eProf Carrie Sperling, Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law, Arizona State University, AZ. \u003cBR\u003eProf Clive Stafford Smith, Reprieve.\u003cBR\u003eDr Timothy Stanley, Rothermere American Institute, University of Oxford, UK.\u003cBR\u003eProf Adam N. Steinman, Seton Hall University School of Law, Newark, NJ.\u003cBR\u003eProf Russell Wheeler, The Brookings Institution, Washington DC.\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eContact\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:anne.oakes@bcu.ac.uk\"\u003eanne.oakes@bcu.ac.uk\u003c/A\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePublisher \u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eDe Gruyter Poland\u003cBR\u003eBogumiła Zuga 32A Str. \u003cBR\u003e01-811 Warsaw, Poland \u003cBR\u003eT: +48 22 701 50 15\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/P\u003e"}]}],"metrics":{"metric":[{"name":"Cite Score","value":1.1},{"name":"SCImago Journal Rank","value":0.111},{"name":"Source Normalized Impact per Paper","value":0.237}]},"pricing":null,"publicationFrequency":{"frequency":"2","period":"YEAR"},"permissions":null,"contributors":"","serial":null,"publishMonth":"12","publishYear":"2016","tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"keywords":[],"figures":null,"tables":null,"planPubDates":[],"epubLink":null,"pdfLink":null,"coverImage":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600a9294213ad608733d208a/cover-image.jpg","coverImageOriginal":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600a9294213ad608733d208a/cover-image-original.jpg","pdfFiles":[],"parentObjectId":"600a9294213ad608733d208a","isParentConference":false,"relatedTitles":null,"forAuthors":null,"nextPackageId":"6005d650e797941b18f28cf9","prevPackageId":null,"parentName":"Volume 5 (2016): Issue 2 (December 2016)","grandParentId":"6005c7dae797941b18f26ff1","grandParentName":"British Journal of American Legal Studies","isGrandParentConference":false,"publisherName":"De Gruyter Open","publisherLocation":null,"nextMap":{"id":{"timestamp":1610995280,"date":"2021-01-18T18:41:20.000+00:00"},"doi":"10.1515/bjals-2016-0010"},"prevMap":{"doi":null},"counter":0,"apaString":"Protopsaltis,P.(2016).\u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e. British Journal of American Legal Studies,5(2) 293-298. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009\u003c/a\u003e","mlaString":"Protopsaltis, Panayotis M.. \"\u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e\" British Journal of American Legal Studies, vol.5, no.2, 2016, pp.293-298. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009\u003c/a\u003e","harvardString":"Protopsaltis P. (2016) \u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e. British Journal of American Legal Studies, Vol.5 (Issue 2), pp. 293-298. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009\u003c/a\u003e","chicagoString":"ProtopsaltisPanayotis M.. \u0026quot;\u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e\u0026quot; \u003ci\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies\u003c/i\u003e 5, no.2 (2016): 293-298. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009\u003c/a\u003e","vancouverString":"Protopsaltis P. \u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e. British Journal of American Legal Studies. 2016;5(2): 293-298. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009\u003c/a\u003e","journalKey":"","journalPublisherId":"bjals","journalCode":"bjals","journalDOICode":"bjals","journalTitle":"British Journal of American Legal Studies","abbrevJournalTitle":null,"isOpenIssue":null,"issueId":"bjals.2016.5.issue-2","isSpecialIssue":null,"isAOPIssue":null,"volume":"5","issue":"2","sortedIssueList":[],"articles":[],"issuesList":{},"journalMetric":null,"journalOwners":null,"highlightArticles":[],"articleData":{"id":null,"articleType":"research-article","publisherId":"bjals-2016-0009","doi":"10.1515/bjals-2016-0009","name":"\u003carticle-title\u003eEditorial\u003c/article-title\u003e","nameText":"Editorial","contribGroup":{"contrib":[{"name":{"surname":"Protopsaltis","prefix":null,"suffix":null,"content-type":null,"id":null,"specific-use":null,"xml:base":null,"xml:lang":null,"given-names":"Panayotis M.","name-style":null},"emailAddress":null,"contrib-type":"author","deceased":null,"equal-contrib":null,"id":null,"rid":null,"specific-use ":null,"xlink:actuate":null,"xlink:href":null,"xlink:role":null,"xlink:show":null,"xlink:title":null,"xlink:type":null,"xlink:base":null,"xref":null,"corresp":null,"ext-link":null,"contrib-id":null,"anonymous":null,"collab":null,"collab-alternatives":null,"name-alternatives":null,"string-name":null,"address":null,"aff":null,"aff-alternatives":null,"author-comment":null,"on-behalf-of":null,"email":null,"degrees":null,"bio":null,"uri":null,"role":null}],"aff":null,"aff-alternatives":null,"author-comment":null,"email":null,"on-behalf-of":null,"role":null,"uri":null,"xref":null,"content-type":null,"id":null,"specific-use":null,"xml:base":null,"bio":null,"ext-link":null},"eISSN":"2049-4092","pISSN":null,"volume":"5","issue":"2","fPage":"293","lPage":"298","permissions":{"license":{"license-type":"open-access","license-p":"This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License.","specific-use":"rights-object-archive-dnb","xlink:href":"http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0","xlink:role":null},"copyright-statement":"© 2016 Panayotis M. Protopsaltis","copyright-year":"2016","copyright-holder":null,"ali:free_to_read":null,"xml:base":null,"id":null},"isAccessible":true,"isPaidContent":false,"pageCount":6,"referenceList":null,"pdfUrl":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600a9294213ad608733d208a/10.1515_bjals-2016-0009.pdf?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20221127T142954Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221127%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=eca2a563f74fb61465ac5601a51b1ca3bfffb2ed4cc404b9b304bcba194d4f3f","authorNotes":null,"publishMonth":"12","publishYear":"2016","receivedDate":null,"acceptedDate":null,"ePubDate":"2016-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00","ePubDateText":"31 December 2016","pPubDate":"2016-12-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","pPubDateText":"1 December 2016","issueDate":null,"coverDate":null,"tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"articleCategories":"{\"subj-group\":{\"subject\":\"Editorial\"}}","titleGroup":"{\"article-title\":\"Editorial\"}","fundingGroup":null,"abstractContent":[],"figures":[],"tableContent":{},"tables":null,"articleContent":"\u003cdiv\u003e\u003csec id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_s_001_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1aAa\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe trade policy of the United States (U.S.) traditionally relied almost exclusively on multilateral negotiations in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and avoided bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs), except with countries whose import tariffs had little effect on the direction of trade.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_001_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b1Aa\" symbol=\"1\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eSidney Weintraub, \u003citalic\u003eSome Implications of U.S. Trade Agreements with Chile and Singapore\u003c/italic\u003e 8 (LAEBA, Working Paper No.14, Jun. 2003), \u003citalic\u003eavailable at\u003c/italic\u003e\u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"http://www19.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2010/06219.pdf\"\u003ehttp://www19.iadb.org/intal/intalcdi/PE/2010/06219.pdf\u003c/ext-link\u003e (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e This changed in 1985 when the United States concluded a free trade agreement with Israel. As Gantz explains, “the year 1985 marked a pivotal period in U.S. foreign trade policy. The United States began to depart from its long-standing opposition to regional trade agreements.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_002_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b3Aa\" symbol=\"2\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eDavid Gantz, \u003citalic\u003eThe ‘Bipartisan Trade Deal,’ Trade Promotion Authority and the Future of U.S. Free Trade Agreements\u003c/italic\u003e, 28 St. Louis U. L. Rev. 116 (2008).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e The conclusion of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (CUSFTA) in 1987 led to the conclusion of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994 and, subsequently, to the Free Trade Areas of the Americas initiative.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_003_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b5Aa\" symbol=\"3\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eWeintraub, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 1, at 8.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e After 2000, the United States sought to densify their FTAs network and by 2015 gradually concluded bilateral\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_004_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b7Aa\" symbol=\"4\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eAustralia (2005), Bahrain (2006), Canada (1987), Chile (2004), Colombia (2011), Israel (1985), Jordan (2001), South Korea (2011), Morocco (2006), Oman (2006), Panama (2011), Peru (2007), Singapore (2004).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e and plurilateral\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_005_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1b9Aa\" symbol=\"5\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eNAFTA with Canada, Mexico (1994), Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) with Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Dominican Republic (2006) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TTP) with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam (2015).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003efree trade agreements with a total of 25 countries. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), currently under negotiation, will be added to this network. Interestingly enough, the United States concluded free trade agreements mostly with economically and politically weaker countries that had much to gain from access to the U.S. market and had little significance for U.S. trade.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_006_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1c11Aa\" symbol=\"6\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eBernard K. Gordon, \u003citalic\u003eBy Invitation Only: Cozy Free Trade Deals Subvert Global Integration\u003c/italic\u003e, Yale Global Online, Feb. 13, 2003, \u003citalic\u003eavailable at\u003c/italic\u003e\u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/invitation-only-cozy-free-trade-deals-subvert-global-integration\"\u003ehttp://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/invitation-only-cozy-free-trade-deals-subvert-global-integration\u003c/ext-link\u003e (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e In contrast, the United States have no free trade agreements with some of their major trading partners, namely, China and the European Union even though the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France in the aggregate account for more than China in total export value for goods.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_007_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab1c13Aa\" symbol=\"7\"\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eSee\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eTop U.S. Trade Partners Ranked by 2014 U.S. Total Export Value for Goods\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eavailable at\u003c/italic\u003e\u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"http://www.trade.gov/mas/ian/build/groups/public/@tg_ian/documents/webcontent/tg_ian_003364.pdf\"\u003ehttp://www.trade.gov/mas/ian/build/groups/public/@tg_ian/documents/webcontent/tg_ian_003364.pdf\u003c/ext-link\u003e (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eIn his introduction in this volume, Gantz attributes the change in the U.S. policy to the slow progress of the European countries towards economic integration in the 1970s and the early 1980s, as well as to the increase of the European trade power and the lack of European support for a new GATT negotiating round, leading the United States to take regional initiatives. Concerns over the U.S. expansion led Europeans to agree to new multilateral negotiations while the stalemate of the Uruguay Round offered the United States, Canada and Mexico the opportunity to conclude the NAFTA. Subsequently, after the failure of the Doha Development Round, the United States saw in free trade agreements more than a second best approach to trade liberalization, an opportunity to broaden trade liberalization to the global level and influence the content of future international trade rules.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_008_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b1Aa\" symbol=\"8\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eDavid Gantz, \u003citalic\u003eIntroduction to U.S. Free Trade Agreements\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Legal Stud. 302-06 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Griffith, Steinberg \u0026amp; Zysman explain in that respect that “[b]y negotiating deals one-by-one with individual countries, the US was able to leverage its power, securing deeper liberalization and a more complex trade agenda than could be advanced in the [World Trade Organization] WTO, where US trade bargaining power was more diffused than in one-on-one negotiations.” Furthermore, pursuing the strategy of competitive liberalization, the United States expected that “once a critical mass of bilateral agreements were achieved, states not party to these agreements would be inclined to liberalize along similar lines in order to avoid trade and investment diversion, and to remain competitive in a global economy.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_009_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b3Aa\" symbol=\"9\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eMelissa K. Griffith, Richard Steinberg \u0026amp; John Zysman, \u003citalic\u003eGreat Power Politics in A Global Economy: Origins and Consequences of the TPP and TTIP\u003c/italic\u003e, The Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, \u003citalic\u003eavailable at\u003c/italic\u003e\u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"http://www.brie.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Great-Power-Politics-in-a-Global-Economy-Origins-and-Consequences-of-the-TPP-and-TTIP.pdf\"\u003ehttp://www.brie.berkeley.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Great-Power-Politics-in-a-Global-Economy-Origins-and-Consequences-of-the-TPP-and-TTIP.pdf\u003c/ext-link\u003e (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e According to Bergsten, the United States thus hoped “to place pressure on non-members of individual free trade agreements either to join the group itself or to conclude broader agreement.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_010_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab2b5Aa\" symbol=\"10\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eFred C. Bergsten, \u003citalic\u003eA Competitive Approach to Free Trade\u003c/italic\u003e, Financial Times, Dec. 4, 2002, \u003citalic\u003eavailable at\u003c/italic\u003e\u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"https://piie.com/commentary/op-eds/competitive-approach-free-trade\"\u003ehttps://piie.com/commentary/op-eds/competitive-approach-free-trade\u003c/ext-link\u003e.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThis change of the U.S. policy may have wide-ranging repercussions for the future international rules of trade. Already, the size of the U.S. economy and the consequent desire of other countries to become preferential U.S. trading partners\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_011_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b1Aa\" symbol=\"11\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eGordon, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 6.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003eallowed the proliferation of U.S. free trade agreements. Since the 2000s, the extension of the U.S. FTAs network along with the reaction of the European Union (EU) to the risk of losing privileged access to markets covered by the U.S. free trade agreements and the consequent “competitive attitude between the EU and the US, in terms of gaining preferential market access and extending regulatory rules to emerging countries,”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_012_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b3Aa\" symbol=\"12\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eAndré Sapir, \u003citalic\u003eEurope and the Global Economy\u003c/italic\u003e, in Fragmented Power: Europe and the Global Economy 13 (André Sapir ed., 2007).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e led to the generalized shift from multilateral negotiations to plurilateral and bilateral preferential trade agreements (PTAs). Weintraub claims that “the United States over the past few years concluded as a policy matter that it should be prepared to negotiate in many forums - global, as in the World Trade Organization … regional, as in the Free Trade Areas of the Americas … plurilateral, as in the ongoing negotiations … to achieve a U.S.-Central American Free Trade Area … and bilaterally, as it did with Jordan and now with Singapore.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_013_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b5Aa\" symbol=\"13\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eWeintraub, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 1, at 8.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003eThis shift to bilateralism and regionalism was interpreted as a division of labor, placing liberalization “at the level where it is easiest to achieve, for whatever reason (geographical proximity, power relations, etc.), while maintaining regulation at the global level”, an argument deduced from references to WTO rules in most free trade agreements.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_014_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b7Aa\" symbol=\"14\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eHélène Ruiz-Fabri, \u003citalic\u003eRegulating trade\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eInvestment and Money\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003ein\u003c/italic\u003e The Cambridge Companion to International Law 357 (James Crawford \u0026amp; Martti Koskenniemi eds., 2012).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e However, the proliferation of free trade agreements, apart from the risk of discrepancies between the different agreements as a result of the so-called spaghetti bowl phenomenon,\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_015_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab3b9Aa\" symbol=\"15\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eJagdish Bhagwati, Termites in the Trading System: How Preferential Agreements Undermine Free Trade 61-70 (2008).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e may lead to marginalization of the WTO as a privileged forum of negotiation of international trade rules.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eAlong with this vertical forum shifting, the United States - and the European Union - using their increased bargaining power, introduced bilateral commitments going beyond those that their partners have accepted at the multilateral level (WTO-Plus) as well as provisions dealing with issues lying outside the current WTO mandate (WTO-Extra). The first relate to the liberalization of trade in goods and services, whereas the second relate to investment protection, competition policy, labor standards, and protection of the environment.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_016_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b1Aa\" symbol=\"16\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eHenrik Horn, Petros C. Mavroidis \u0026amp; André Sapir, \u003citalic\u003eEU and U.S. Preferential Trade Agreements: Deepening or Widening of WTO Commitments\u003c/italic\u003e, in Preferential Trade Agreements: A Law and Economics Analysis 151-52 (Kyle W. Bagwell \u0026amp; Petros C. Mavroidis eds., 2011).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e To some extent, the United States traded WTO-Plus provisions in return for WTO-Extra obligations. They thus achieved with economically and politically weaker partners what they could not achieve through the WTO.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_017_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b3Aa\" symbol=\"17\"\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eCf\u003c/italic\u003e Meredith Kolsky Lewies, \u003citalic\u003eThe Politics and Indirect Effects of Asymmetrical Bargaining Power in Free Trade Agreements\u003c/italic\u003e, in The Politics of International Economic Law 19 (Tomer Broude, Marc L. Busch \u0026amp; Amelia Porges eds., 2011).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Indeed, the U.S. free trade agreements are amongst the most prominent examples of asymmetric preferential trade agreements.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_018_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b5Aa\" symbol=\"18\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eVladimir G. Sherov-Ignatiev, \u0026amp; Sergei F. Sutyrin, \u003citalic\u003ePeculiarities and rationale ofasymmetric regional trade agreements\u003c/italic\u003e, WTO Research and Analysis, \u003cext-link ext-link-type=\"uri\" xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"https://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr11_forum_e/wtr11_2aug11_a_e.htm\"\u003ehttps://www.wto.org/english/res_e/publications_e/wtr11_forum_e/wtr11_2aug11_a_e.htm\u003c/ext-link\u003e (last visited Jul. 20, 2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e The gains reaped by the United States include the increased access to their trading partners’ markets without them having to liberalize in return traditionally protected sectors such as agriculture, steel and textiles.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_019_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b7Aa\" symbol=\"19\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eWeintraub, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 1, at 9; Gantz, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e, note 2, at 118.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Furthermore, the United States exported their regulatory rules in a number of areas,\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_020_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4b9Aa\" symbol=\"20\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eHorn, Mavroidis \u0026amp; Sapir, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 16, at 169, Sapir \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e, note 12, at 12.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e in order to further their domestic interests or respond to domestic concerns. In relation to intellectual property rules (IPRs), for example, Mercurio rightly explains that “[a]s a result of the strong and unwavering resistance” of developing countries during the Seattle and the Doha Rounds “the US has again shifted its negotiating focus and sought to use bilateralism/regionalism to increase IPRs by requiring FTA partners to implement TRIPS-Plus provisions.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_021_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c11Aa\" symbol=\"21\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eBryan Mercurio, \u003citalic\u003eTRIPS\u003c/italic\u003e-\u003citalic\u003ePlus Provisions in FTAs: Recent Trends\u003c/italic\u003e, in Regional Trade Agreements and the WTO Legal System 219 (Lorand Bartels \u0026amp; Federico Ortino eds., 2006).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003eThese provisions are not necessarily beneficial to U.S. trading partners. In this volume, Tully observes that by concluding bilateral and regional agreements, the United States “is gaining greater influence over the domestic health care and drug coverage programs of its trading partners.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_022_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c13Aa\" symbol=\"22\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eStephen R. Tully, \u003citalic\u003eFree Trade Agreements with the United States: 8 Lessons for Prospective Parties from Australia’s Experience\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Legal Stud. 406 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Cai adds that the recent U.S. free trade agreements introduce regulatory coherence obligations that promote a uniform OECD-inspired model of regulation that is already part of the U.S. regulatory toolbox, thus extending its reach to the U.S. trading partners.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_023_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab4c15Aa\" symbol=\"23\"\u003e\u003cp\u003ePhoenix X.F. Cai, \u003citalic\u003eRegulatory Coherence and Standardization Mechanisms in the TransPacific Partnership\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 511 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eAmidst the continuing stalemate of the global trade negotiations, one wonders what the effect of the proliferation of U.S. free trade agreements for the future international rules of trade will be. Will the densification of U.S. - and EU - PTAs networks lead to the disintegration of the WTO or will their rules be absorbed by future WTO agreements? Panezi in this volume explains that preferential trade agreements were formally allowed by the WTO on the assumption that “more liberalization, even if it occurs on the bilateral level, is better than no liberalization at all.”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_024_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b1Aa\" symbol=\"24\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eMaria Panezi, \u003citalic\u003eThe Two Noble Kinsmen: Internal and Legal Transparency in the WTO and Their Connection to Preferential and Regional Trade Agreements\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 554 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Sapir by contrast, underlines that U.S. and EU preferential trade agreements present a systemic challenge to the WTO\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_025_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b3Aa\" symbol=\"25\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eSapir, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 12, at 12.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e and WTO officials themselves have voiced concerns over the risks of their proliferation.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_026_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b5Aa\" symbol=\"26\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eHorn, Mavroidis \u0026amp; Sapir, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 16, at 151.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e The densification of these networks could lead to the establishment of plurilateral rules involving the United States, the European Union and their respective partners or even to the creation of a U.S./EU-led trade organization with WTO rules remaining a second best choice for trading with the United States and the European Union. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) and the TTIP, as Pitschas in this volume explains, represent “a watershed for the multilateral trade system, just as TPP,”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_027_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab5b7Aa\" symbol=\"27\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eChristian Pitschas, \u003citalic\u003eTransatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): The Devil in Disguise or a Golden Opportunity to Build a Transatlantic Marketplace?\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 340 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e and may be the first steps towards that development.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eNevertheless, one cannot exclude the possibility of a transition from bilateral and plurilateral to multilateral rules, as was the case with GATT.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_028_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b1Aa\" symbol=\"28\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eJohn M. Kline \u0026amp; Rodney D. Ludema, \u003citalic\u003eBuilding a Multilateral Frameworkfor Investment: Comparing the Development of Trade and Investment Accords\u003c/italic\u003e, 6 Transnat’l Corp. 8 (1997).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e If, as Sapir claims, one of the main objectives of the TTIP “is for the EU and the US to change gear and adopt a more cooperative attitude at a time when their global economic leadership is more and more called into question by the emergence of new economic powers,”\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_029_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b3Aa\" symbol=\"29\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eSapir, \u003citalic\u003esupra\u003c/italic\u003e note 12, at 13.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e the TTIP may then constitute the Trojan horse for them to regain control over multilateral trade negotiations. Some of their trading partners will voluntarily align with them whereas others will be coerced towards the multilateralization of what they have already agreed on the bilateral and the plurilateral levels, a strategy that has been used before in the case of TRIPS.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_030_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b5Aa\" symbol=\"30\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eSusan K. Sell, \u003citalic\u003eTRIPS Was Never Enough: Vertical Forum Shifting\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eFTAs\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eACTA and TPP\u003c/italic\u003e, 18 J. Intell. Prop. L. 452 (2013).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e The competitive liberalization strategy, envisaging that non-partners will join the group or conclude a broader agreement, accommodates both developments. Last but not least, one should not underestimate how U.S. free trade agreements may serve as models for future international trade and investment rules. In this volume, Monardes, amongst others, points out the influence of NAFTA in the free trade agreements concluded among Latin American and between Latin American countries and Asia Pacific countries.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_031_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b7Aa\" symbol=\"31\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eRodrigo Monardes, \u003citalic\u003eChallenges for Countries in Trade in Services ‘Negotiations with the NAFTA Approach: The Experience of Chile in the Free Trade Agreement with the United States\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 390-92 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Schill and Bray explain that NAFTA and the U.S. Model Bilateral Investment Treaties have been the source of inspiration of the recent Mega-Regionals and other important trade and investment agreements.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_032_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6b9Aa\" symbol=\"32\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eStephan W. Schill \u0026amp; Heather L. Bray, \u003citalic\u003eThe Brave New (American) World of International Investment Law: Substantive Investment Protection Standards in Mega-Regionals\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 424 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e Finally, Voon and Sheargold observe the likelihood of TPP influencing many current and future PTAs’ negotiations.\u003cfn id=\"j_bjals-2016-0009_fn_033_w2aab2b8c14b1b7b1ab1ab6c11Aa\" symbol=\"33\"\u003e\u003cp\u003eTania Voon \u0026amp; Elizabeth Sheargold, \u003citalic\u003eThe Trans\u003c/italic\u003e-\u003citalic\u003ePacific Partnership\u003c/italic\u003e, 5 Br. J. Am. Leg. Stud. 370 (2016).\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/fn\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThe shift from multilateralism to regionalism, plurilateralism and bilateralism in international trade negotiations, amongst others, changed the focus of the academic debate. The challenge of free trade agreements rather than of the WTO now occupy most of the discussions of the relevant epistemic communities all over the world; a trend that is likely to intensify since the conclusion of the TTP and the advancement of the negotiations on the TTIP. This special issue of the \u003citalic\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies\u003c/italic\u003e, conceived just before the unexpected conclusion of the TTP negotiations, responds to the need for research on the recent U.S. free trade agreements. It does not intend to provide a comprehensive analysis of the problems related to the rise of these agreements or of the content of the agreements themselves. Its aim is rather to focus on selected issues arising from the different obligations included in these agreements. Twelve distinguished international trade and investment law scholars from accros the world were invited to explore key aspects of particular U.S. free trade agreements. Contributors were not restricted by a research agenda, their independence was respected and hence their approaches do not necessarily converge, even though all share similar concerns in relation to the expansion of the U.S. free trade agreements.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eIn his introduction David A. Gantz explores the historical changes in U.S. trade policy and the shift from the support of multilateral rules to the embracement of regional and bilateral trade agreements. Christian Pitschas focuses on the ongoing negotiations for the TTIP and on the possible impact of the TTIP on the multilateral trading system and developing countries. Tania Voon and Elizabeth Sheargold analyze the motives and the negotiation dynamics of the chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence of the recently concluded TPP. Rodrigo Monardes analyzes the liberalization of trade in services under the NAFTA negative list approach on the basis of the Chile-United States Free Trade Agreement. Relying on the experience of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, Stephen R. Tully discusses the standards of intellectual property protection and their impact for U.S. trading partners. Haydn Davies analyzes the effects of investor-state dispute settlement mechanisms of NAFTA, the European Union-Canada Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement, the TTP and the draft TTIP on national environmental rules and, in particular, on the precautionary principle. Stephan W. Schill and Heather L. Bray focus on the influence of NAFTA and U.S. practice on the substantive rules governing investor-state relations of the Mega-Regionals. Jaemin Lee explores the dispute settlement’ provisions of the free trade agreements concluded between the United States and Korea, Peru, Panama and Colombia. Using the TPP as her primary example, Phoenix X. F. Cai analyzes regulatory coherence obligations and the role of international standard setting organizations. Maria Panezi, finally, examines the relation between preferential trade agreements and WTO rules with particular focus on the problem of transparency and the limits of the Doha Transparency Mechanisms.\u003c/p\u003e\u003cp\u003eThis special issue of the \u003citalic\u003eBritish Journal of American Legal Studies\u003c/italic\u003e is the outcome of a collaborative effort. The editor would like to thank David A. Gantz for his input and suggestions during the discussions on the content of this volume as well as all contributors for generously agreeing to participate in this project respecting strict deadlines. The volume would not have been completed without the assistance of Daniel Gough who adapted the articles to the journal’s reference style and Zoë K. Millman who reviewed some of the articles and made corrections to the language and suggestions of style. Special thanks are also due to Anne Richardson Oakes for her encouragement, guidance and supervision as well as for her comments and assistance in the adaptation of the contributions to the journal’s standards.\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/sec\u003e\u003c/div\u003e","keywords":[],"recentIssues":{},"supplement":[],"apaString":null,"mlaString":null,"harvardString":null,"chicagoString":null,"vancouverString":null,"citBIBUrl":null,"citRISUrl":null,"citENDNOTEUrl":null},"seriesKey":null,"chapters":[],"chapterData":null,"bookList":{},"bookListForBirkha":{},"bookCategories":null,"bookTitleGroup":null,"bookVolumes":null,"flyerUrl":null,"pressReleaseUrl":null,"citBIBUrl":"/article/download/cite/BIBTEXT?doi=10.1515/bjals-2016-0009","citRISUrl":"/article/download/cite/RIS?doi=10.1515/bjals-2016-0009","citENDNOTEUrl":"/article/download/cite/ENDNOTE?doi=10.1515/bjals-2016-0009","trendMDCode":"60900\r","interview":null,"lookInsideLink":null,"isNew":false,"isConference":false,"isAccessible":true,"epubDateText":"31 December 2016","ppubDateText":"1 December 2016","eisbn":null,"pisbn":null,"ppubDate":"2016-12-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","epubDate":"2016-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00","eissn":"2049-4092","pissn":null,"aicontent":null,"planned_pub_date":null,"RecordReference":"JE-BJALS-1","NotificationType":"03","ProductIdentifier":[{"ProductIDType":"01","IDTypeName":"product_order_number","IDValue":"BJALS/1"},{"ProductIDType":"01","IDTypeName":"journal_key","IDValue":"BJALS"},{"ProductIDType":"01","IDTypeName":"ISSN","IDValue":"27195864"}],"DescriptiveDetail":{"ProductComposition":"00","ProductForm":null,"TitleDetail":[{"TitleType":"01","TitleElement":{"titleText":"British Journal of American Legal Studies","TitleElementLevel":"01","TitleText":"British Journal of American Legal Studies","Subtitle":null}},{"TitleType":"05","TitleElement":{"titleText":"Brit J of Amer Leg St.","TitleElementLevel":"01","TitleText":"Brit J of Amer Leg St.","Subtitle":null}}],"Contributor":null,"Language":[{"language":"English","LanguageRole":"01","LanguageCode":"eng"}],"Subject":[{"id":null,"imageName":null,"subjectEn":null,"subjectDe":null,"subjectName":null,"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":"20","SubjectCode":null,"SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"Law","subjectDe":"Rechtswissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Law","de":"Rechtswissenschaften","es":"Derecho","fr":"Droit","it":"Legge","pl":"Prawo"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"History, Philosophy and Sociology of Law","subjectDe":"Rechtsgeschichte, Rechtsphilosophie, Rechtssoziologie","subjectName":{"en":"History, Philosophy and Sociology of Law","de":"Rechtsgeschichte, Rechtsphilosophie, Rechtssoziologie","es":"Historia, filosofía y sociología del derecho","fr":"Histoire, philosophie et sociologie du droit","it":"Storia, Filosofia e Sociologia del diritto","pl":"Historia, filozofia i socjologia prawa"},"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA-01","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"International Law, Foreign Law, Comparative Law","subjectDe":"Int. Recht, Auslands-, Völkerrecht, Rechtsvergleichung","subjectName":{"en":"International Law, Foreign Law, Comparative Law","de":"Int. Recht, Auslands-, Völkerrecht, Rechtsvergleichung","es":"Derecho internacional, derecho extranjero, derecho comparado","fr":"Droit international, droit étranger, droit comparé","it":"Diritto internazionale, diritto straniero, diritto comparativo","pl":"Prawo międzynarodowe, prawo zagraniczne, prawo porównawcze"},"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA-02","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340672,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:12.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"International Law, Foreign Law, Comparative Law, other","subjectDe":"Int. Recht, Auslands-, Völkerrecht, Rechtsvergleichung, andere","subjectName":{"en":"International Law, Foreign Law, Comparative Law, other","de":"Int. Recht, Auslands-, Völkerrecht, Rechtsvergleichung, andere","es":"Derecho internacional, derecho extranjero, derecho comparado, otros","fr":"Droit international, droit étranger, droit comparé, autres","it":"Diritto internazionale, diritto straniero, diritto comparativo, altro","pl":"Prawo międzynarodowe, prawo zagraniczne, prawo porównawcze, inne"},"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA-02-01","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"Public Law","subjectDe":"Öffentliches Recht","subjectName":{"en":"Public Law","de":"Öffentliches Recht","es":"Derecho público","fr":"Droit public","it":"Diritto pubblico","pl":"Prawo publiczne"},"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA-10","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340672,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:12.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"Public Law, other","subjectDe":"Öffentliches Recht, andere","subjectName":{"en":"Public Law, other","de":"Öffentliches Recht, andere","es":"Derecho público, otros","fr":"Droit public, autres","it":"Diritto pubblico, altro","pl":"Prawo publiczne, inne"},"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA-10-01","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":null,"imageName":null,"subjectEn":null,"subjectDe":null,"subjectName":null,"isMaster":false,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":"20","SubjectCode":null,"SubjectHeadingText":null}],"Audience":null,"Extent":null,"AncillaryContent":null,"EditionStatement":null},"CollateralDetail":{"TextContent":{"TextType":"03","ContentAudience":"00","Text":null}},"PublishingDetail":{"PublishingStatus":"04","PublishingDate":{"publishDate":"2016-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00","PublishingDateRole":"11","Date":{"dateformat":"00","content":20160416}},"CopyrightStatement":null},"ProductSupply":[{"isbnForFormat":null,"formatType":"PDF","licenseType":null,"license":null,"publishingDetail":null,"planPubDate":null,"SupplyDetail":{"Supplier":{"SupplierRole":"09","SupplierName":"Sciendo"},"ProductAvailability":"20","Price":null}}],"is_retracted":null},"subjects":[{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Architecture \u0026 Design.png","subjectEn":"Architecture and Design","subjectDe":"Architektur und Design","subjectName":{"en":"Architecture and Design","de":"Architektur und Design","es":"Arquitectura y diseño","fr":"Architecture et design","it":"Architettura e design","pl":"Architektura i projektowanie"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"AD","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Arts.png","subjectEn":"Arts","subjectDe":"Kunst","subjectName":{"en":"Arts","de":"Kunst","es":"Arte","fr":"Art","it":"Arte","pl":"Sztuka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"AR","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Chemistery.png","subjectEn":"Chemistry","subjectDe":"Chemie","subjectName":{"en":"Chemistry","de":"Chemie","es":"Química","fr":"Chimie","it":"Chimica","pl":"Chemia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"CH","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Classical Ancient Near Eastern Studies.png","subjectEn":"Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies","subjectDe":"Altertumswissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Classical and Ancient Near Eastern Studies","de":"Altertumswissenschaften","es":"Estudios clásicos y antiguos del Oriente Próximo","fr":"Études classiques et du Proche-Orient ancien","it":"Studi classici e del Medio Oriente antico","pl":"Klasyczne i starożytne studia bliskowschodnie"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"CL","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Computer Sciences.png","subjectEn":"Computer Sciences","subjectDe":"Informatik","subjectName":{"en":"Computer Sciences","de":"Informatik","es":"Informática","fr":"Informatique","it":"Informatica","pl":"Informatyka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"CO","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Cultural Studies.png","subjectEn":"Cultural Studies","subjectDe":"Kulturwissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Cultural Studies","de":"Kulturwissenschaften","es":"Estudios culturales","fr":"Études culturelles","it":"Studi culturali","pl":"Kulturoznawstwo"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"CS","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Bussiness \u0026 Economics.png","subjectEn":"Business and Economics","subjectDe":"Wirtschaftswissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Business and Economics","de":"Wirtschaftswissenschaften","es":"Negocios y Economía","fr":"Affaires et économie","it":"Economia e business","pl":"Biznes i ekonomia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"EC","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340670,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:10.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Engineering.png","subjectEn":"Engineering","subjectDe":"Technik","subjectName":{"en":"Engineering","de":"Technik","es":"Ingeniería","fr":"Ingénierie","it":"Ingegneria","pl":"Inżynieria"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"EN","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"General Interest.png","subjectEn":"General Interest","subjectDe":"Allgemein","subjectName":{"en":"General Interest","de":"Allgemein","es":"Conocimientos generales","fr":"Intérêt général","it":"Interesse generale","pl":"Wiedza ogólna"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"GL","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Geosciences.png","subjectEn":"Geosciences","subjectDe":"Geowissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Geosciences","de":"Geowissenschaften","es":"Geociencias","fr":"Géosciences","it":"Geoscienze","pl":"Nauki o Ziemi"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"GS","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"History.png","subjectEn":"History","subjectDe":"Geschichte","subjectName":{"en":"History","de":"Geschichte","es":"Historia","fr":"Histoire","it":"Storia","pl":"Historia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"HI","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Industrial Chemistery.png","subjectEn":"Industrial Chemistry","subjectDe":"Industrielle Chemie","subjectName":{"en":"Industrial Chemistry","de":"Industrielle Chemie","es":"Química Industrial","fr":"Chimie industrielle","it":"Chimica idustriale","pl":"Chemia przemysłowa"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"IC","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Jewish Studies.png","subjectEn":"Jewish Studies","subjectDe":"Jüdische Studien","subjectName":{"en":"Jewish Studies","de":"Jüdische Studien","es":"Estudios judíos","fr":"Études juives","it":"Studi ebraici","pl":"Studia żydowskie"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"JS","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Law.png","subjectEn":"Law","subjectDe":"Rechtswissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Law","de":"Rechtswissenschaften","es":"Derecho","fr":"Droit","it":"Legge","pl":"Prawo"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LA","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Library Information \u0026 Science, Book Studies.png","subjectEn":"Library and Information Science, Book Studies","subjectDe":"Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft, Buchwissenschaft","subjectName":{"en":"Library and Information Science, Book Studies","de":"Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft, Buchwissenschaft","es":"Bibliotecología y ciencias de la información, estudios de libros","fr":"Bibliothéconomie et sciences de l'information, études du livre","it":"Biblioteconomia ed informazione scientifica, bibliologia","pl":"Bibliotekoznawstwo i informacja naukowa, bibliologia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LB","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Life Sciences.png","subjectEn":"Life Sciences","subjectDe":"Biologie","subjectName":{"en":"Life Sciences","de":"Biologie","es":"Ciencias de la vida","fr":"Sciences de la vie","it":"Scienze biologiche","pl":"Nauki biologiczne"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LF","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Lingustics \u0026 Semiostics.png","subjectEn":"Linguistics and Semiotics","subjectDe":"Linguistik und Semiotik","subjectName":{"en":"Linguistics and Semiotics","de":"Linguistik und Semiotik","es":"Lingüística y semiótica","fr":"Linguistique et sémiotique","it":"Linguistica e semiotica","pl":"Lingwistyka i semiotyka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LS","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Literary Studies.png","subjectEn":"Literary Studies","subjectDe":"Literaturwissenschaft","subjectName":{"en":"Literary Studies","de":"Literaturwissenschaft","es":"Estudios literarios","fr":"Études littéraires","it":"Studi letterari","pl":"Studia literackie"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"LT","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Medicine.png","subjectEn":"Medicine","subjectDe":"Medizin","subjectName":{"en":"Medicine","de":"Medizin","es":"Medicina","fr":"Médecine","it":"Medicina","pl":"Medycyna"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"MD","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Material Sciences.png","subjectEn":"Materials Sciences","subjectDe":"Materialwissenschaft","subjectName":{"en":"Materials Sciences","de":"Materialwissenschaft","es":"Ciencia de los materiales","fr":"Sciences des matériaux","it":"Scienze materiali","pl":"Nauka o materiałach"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"MS","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Mathematics.png","subjectEn":"Mathematics","subjectDe":"Mathematik","subjectName":{"en":"Mathematics","de":"Mathematik","es":"Matemáticas","fr":"Mathématiques","it":"Matematica","pl":"Matematyka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"MT","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Music.png","subjectEn":"Music","subjectDe":"Musik","subjectName":{"en":"Music","de":"Musik","es":"Música","fr":"Musique","it":"Musica","pl":"Muzyka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"MU","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Philosophy.png","subjectEn":"Philosophy","subjectDe":"Philosophie","subjectName":{"en":"Philosophy","de":"Philosophie","es":"Filosofía","fr":"Philosophie","it":"Filosofia","pl":"Filozofia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"PL","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Pharmacy.png","subjectEn":"Pharmacy","subjectDe":"Pharmazie","subjectName":{"en":"Pharmacy","de":"Pharmazie","es":"Farmacia","fr":"Pharmacie","it":"Farmacia","pl":"Farmacja"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"PM","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Physics.png","subjectEn":"Physics","subjectDe":"Physik","subjectName":{"en":"Physics","de":"Physik","es":"Física","fr":"Physique","it":"Fisica","pl":"Fizyka"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"PY","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Social Sciences.png","subjectEn":"Social Sciences","subjectDe":"Sozialwissenschaften","subjectName":{"en":"Social Sciences","de":"Sozialwissenschaften","es":"Ciencias sociales","fr":"Sciences sociales","it":"Scienze sociali","pl":"Nauki społeczne"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"SN","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Sports \u0026 Recreation.png","subjectEn":"Sports and Recreation","subjectDe":"Sport und Freizeit","subjectName":{"en":"Sports and Recreation","de":"Sport und Freizeit","es":"Deportes y recreación","fr":"Sports et loisirs","it":"Sport e ricreazione","pl":"Sport i rekreacja"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"SR","SubjectHeadingText":null},{"id":{"timestamp":1649340671,"date":"2022-04-07T14:11:11.000+00:00"},"imageName":"Theology \u0026 Religion.png","subjectEn":"Theology and Religion","subjectDe":"Theologie und Religion","subjectName":{"en":"Theology and Religion","de":"Theologie und Religion","es":"Teología y religión","fr":"Théologie et religion","it":"Teologia e religione","pl":"Teologia i religia"},"isMaster":true,"partner":null,"selectedPackages":null,"SubjectSchemeIdentifier":null,"SubjectCode":"TL","SubjectHeadingText":null}],"citationPdfUrl":"https://sciendo.com/pdf/10.1515/bjals-2016-0009","coverBg":"/subjectImages/Law.jpg","_nextI18Next":{"initialI18nStore":{"de":{"common":{"/about":"/uber-uns","/contact":"/team","/blog/all":"/blog/neueste-artikel","/terms":"/nutzungsbedingungen","/privacy":"/datenschutz-bestimmungen","/cookie-policy":"/cookie-richtlinie","/publishingAndEthicalPolicies":"/veroffentlichungs-und-ethische-richtlinien","/publish/journals":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/zeitschriften","/publish/books":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/bucher","/publish/selfpublishing":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/selfpublishing","/publish/fullpublishing":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/komplette-publikationsdienste","/publish/conferences":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/konferenzen","/publish/whitelabel":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/white-label-publishing-house","/publish/apcmodel":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns/processing-charge-model","/publish":"/veroffentlichen-sie-bei-uns","/journal":"/zeitschrift","/issue":"/ausgabe","/book":"/buch","/chapter":"/kapitel","/article":"/artikel","Redirecting":"Umleiten","aboutSciendo":"Über Sciendo","cookiePolicy":"Cookie-Richtlinie","footer_deGruyter":"Sciendo ist ein a Unternehmen von De Gruyter","about.first":"Sciendo ist kein gewöhnlicher Service- oder Technologieanbieter. Sciendo ist Eigentum von De Gruyter, einem renommierten akademischen Verlag.","about.second":"Daher können wir Ihnen erstklassige Publikationslösungen und Dienstleistungen anbieten, die sich bei unseren eigenen Zeitschriften bewährt haben.","about.third":"Sciendo bietet Verlagsdienstleistungen und -lösungen für Institutionen und einzelne Autoren. Wir veröffentlichen Zeitschriften, Bücher, Konferenzberichte und eine Vielzahl anderer Publikationen – für Akademiker und Fachleute.","about.fourth":"Neben aktuellen Inhalten publizieren wir auch bereits erschienene Zeitschriftenbände und Bücher. Unsere Kunden haben die Wahl, ob ihre Publikation im Open-Access- oder im Paid-Access-Modell verfügbar sein soll.","about.fifth":"Sciendo verlegt derzeit etwa 600 Zeitschriften, die sich im Besitz von Universitäten und anderen Institutionen befinden. Etliche dieser Zeitschriften werden von Clarivate Analytics (ehemals Thomson Reuters), Scopus und PubMed indexiert, wobei einige einen hohen Einflussfaktor aufweisen.","ourBrochures":"Unsere Borschüren","brochureName":"Name der Broschüre","ourPartners":"Unsere Partner:","Format":"Format","firstPublished":"Erstveröffentlichung","publicationTimeframe":"Erscheinungsweise","Languages":"Sprachen","Copyright":"Urheberrechte","home":"Heim","Publish with us":"Veröffentlichen Sie bei uns","latestNews":"Neueste Artikel","latestArticles":"Neueste Artikel","contacts":"Team","login":"Login","terms":"AGB","privacy":"Datenschutzerklärung","contact":"Kontakt","home.title":"Ein Verlag nach Ihren Wünschen","subjects":"Themen","selectedJournalAndBook":"Ausgewählte Zeitschriften und Bücher","selectedJournalAndBooks":"\u003c0\u003eAusgewählte Zeitschriften und Bücher\u003c/0\u003e","facebook":"Sciendo auf Facebook","follow":"Folgen","news":"Blog","profile":"Profil","signOut":"Logout","createAccount":"Konto erstellen","about":"etwa","aboutUs":"Über uns","cart":"Warenkorb","hostingPlatform":"Hosting-Plattform","onlineSubmissionSystem":"Online einreichen","typesetting":"Textsatz und Korrektorat","XMLpublication":"Volltextveröffentlichung XML","copyediting":"Lektorat","wideElectronicDistribution":"Weiter elektronischer Vertrieb","contentAndJournalIndexing":"Indexierung von Inhalten und Zeitschriften","marketingExtraPackage":"Marketing-Paket","consulting":"Beratung","accountManagement":"Kundenbetreuung","bookLayout":"Buchumschlaggestaltung","ePubVersion":"ePub-Version","printOnDemand":"Print-on-Demand und Versand","contentAndBookIndexing":"Indexierung von Inhalten und Büchern","journals.first":"Sciendo verlegt akademische Fachzeitschriften von Universitäten, Forschungsinstituten, Akademien der Wissenschaften, wissenschaftlichen Gesellschaften und anderen Organisationen. Dabei können wir sowohl in Open-Access- als auch in traditionellen (Paid-Access-)Modellen publizieren. Derzeit veröffentlichen wir Zeitschriften in den Sprachen Englisch, Deutsch, Französisch, Spanisch, Italienisch und Polnisch.","journals.second":"Für Universitäten und andere Institutionen haben wir für die Veröffentlichung Ihrer Zeitschriften, Bücher und anderer Publikationen ein ganz besonders Angebot. \u003c1\u003eWeitere Informationen finden Sie hier.\u003c/1\u003e","journals.third":" Bitte laden Sie unsere \u003c1\u003eBroschüre\u003c/1\u003e mit weiteren Informationen herunter und kontaktieren Sie unseren Vertreter für Ihr Gebiet, um die Konditionen zu besprechen.","books.first":"Sciendo kann alle Publikationsanforderungen von Autoren akademischer und professioneller Büchern in englischer Sprache erfüllen. Wir verlegen Monografien, Lehrbücher, Sammelbände und andere Buchtypen. Dabei können unsere Kunden wählen, ob sie den Open Access für die elektronische Version ihrer Bücher anbieten oder ob das Buch über traditionelle kommerzielle Kanäle vertrieben werden soll.","books.second":"\u003c0\u003eWir verlegen auch Bücher für Institutionen. \u003c1\u003eMehr dazu hier.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.third":"\u003c0\u003eFür selbst verlegte Bücher \u003c1\u003ehier klicken.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.fourth":"\u003c0\u003eFür von uns verlegte Bücher \u003c1\u003ehier klicken.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","selfPublishingContent.first":"Oft möchten Autoren (und manchmal auch Organisationen) ihre Bücher auf ihre eigene Art und Weise veröffentlichen können. Sie möchten nicht, dass der Herausgeber eines Verlags Änderungen im Text vornimmt oder ihn anders gestaltet. Vielmehr möchten sie Layout und Schrift selbst festlegen. Sie haben ihre eigene Vorstellung vom Buchcover, und sind überzeugt, dass sich das Buch gut verkaufen wird – und möchten deshalb auch den Löwenanteil der Verkaufserlöse erhalten.","selfPublishingContent.second":"Sie liefern uns eine fertige, veröffentlichungsreife E-Book-Datei, und wir hosten, verkaufen und bewerben Ihr Buch für Sie kostenlos. Sie erhalten 70 % der Nettoeinnahmen aus den Buchverkäufen. \u003c/1\u003e Ferner haben Sie die Möglichkeit, einige unserer kostenpflichtigen Dienstleistungen zu wählen, einschließlich der Formatierung Ihres E-Books.","selfPublishingContent.third":"Um die komplette Liste der Verlagsservices und Lösungen zu sehen, die Sciendo für Autoren im Selbstverlag bietet, einschließlich der entsprechenden Kosten, \u003c1\u003eregistrieren Sie sich hier\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fourth":"Wenn Sie mehr über diese Services erfahren möchten, wenden Sie sich bitte an Magdalena Cal, Customer Service Manager unter \u003c1\u003emagdalena.cal@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fifth":"Weitere Informationen finden Sie auch in unserer \u003c1\u003eBroschüre für Selfpublisher\u003c/1\u003e.","fullPublishingContent.first":"Sciendo veröffentlicht Bücher von Universitäten, Forschungsinstituten, Akademien der Wissenschaften, gelehrten Gesellschaften und anderen Organisationen. Wir bieten sowohl das Open-Access-Modell als auch das traditionelle Modell (Paid Access) an. Die folgenden Angaben gelten auch für einzelne Autorinnen und Autoren, deren Institutionen bereit sind, die Verlagsgebühren für die Veröffentlichung ihrer Bücher zu zahlen.","fullPublishingContent.second":"\u003c0\u003eFür Universitäten und andere Organisationen, die ihre englischsprachigen Zeitschriften, Bücher und andere Publikationen oder einen Teil davon veröffentlichen möchten, haben wir ein ganz besonderes Angebot. \u003c1\u003eWeitere Informationen finden Sie hier.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","fullPublishingContent.third":"Unsere Dienstleistungen und Lösungen sind in drei Paketen erhältlich: Standard, Classic und Premium. Diese Pakete reichen von Standardkomponenten, die für die Veröffentlichung erforderlich sind, bis hin zum Full-Service-Paket. Wir berechnen für jedes veröffentlichte Buch eine Gebühr, die sich nach dem gewählten Paket sowie den zusätzlichen Dienstleistungen und Lösungen richtet.","fullPublishingContent.fourth":"Die Tabelle zeigt die Hauptkomponenten der einzelnen Pakete. Gerne bietet Sciendo die in der untenstehenden Tabelle aufgeführten Dienstleistungen auch für Bücher an, deren Publikation von Institutionen finanziert wird.","fullPublishingContent.fifth":"Institutionen und Autoren, die mehr über die Dienstleistungen und die entsprechenden Gebühren erfahren möchten, werden gebeten, sich mit \u003c1\u003e unserem Vertreter \u003c/1\u003e für ihr Gebiet in Verbindung zu setzen, um die Konditionen zu besprechen.","conferenceServices.first":"Wenn Sie mehr über diese Dienstleistung erfahren möchten, wenden Sie sich bitte an den Sales \u0026 Publishing Specialist — Services für Organisatoren von Konferenzen: \u003c1\u003ealexandru.vlad@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e oder rufen Sie direkt an unter \u003c3\u003e+44 2086388130\u003c/3\u003e.","conferenceServices.second":"Sciendo ist weltweit der einzige Anbieter, der die beiden wichtigsten Bedürfnisse von akademischen Konferenzorganisatoren erfüllt. Neben der Veröffentlichung von Konferenzmaterialien können wir auch eines der weltweit besten Veranstaltungsmanagementsysteme zur Verfügung stellen. Wir arbeiten mit Cvent und Converia.","conferenceServices.third":"Gerne publizieren wir Ihre Konferenzberichte und stellen Ihnen optional die Veranstaltungssysteme zur Verfügung. Im Rahmen des Open-Access-Modells veröffentlichen wir Konferenzberichte online. Gedruckte Exemplare können online gekauft werden. Derzeit veröffentlichen wir die Berichtsbände nur in englischer Sprache.","conferenceServices.fourth":"Die Dienstleistungen und Lösungen, die wir für Konferenzberichte anbieten, sind in drei Paketen erhältlich: Standard, Classic und Premium. Für jeden veröffentlichten Bericht erheben wir eine Gebühr, die sich nach dem Paket und den von Ihnen gewählten zusätzlichen Dienstleistungen und Lösungen richtet.","conferenceServices.fifth":"Das Diagramm zeigt die Hauptkomponenten der einzelnen Pakete.","conferenceServices.sixth":"Gerne veröffentlicht Sciendo Ihre Konferenzberichte und stellt Veranstaltungsmanagementsysteme für Ihre Konferenz zur Verfügung. Bitte beachten Sie die in der obigen Grafik dargestellten Leistungen und laden Sie \u003c1\u003edie Broschüre\u003c/1\u003e mit weiteren Informationen herunter.","whiteLabelContent.first":"Für Universitäten und andere Institutionen, die einen Partner für die Veröffentlichung eines Teils oder aller ihrer Zeitschriften, Bücher oder andere Publikationen auf Englisch, Deutsch, Französisch, Spanisch, Italienisch oder Polnisch suchen, hat Sciendo ein ganz besonderes Angebot. Dieses gilt sowohl für Neuerscheinungen als auch für bereits veröffentlichte Bücher und Zeitschriftenbände. Wir verlegen Monografien, Lehrbücher, Sammelbände und andere Kategorien.","whiteLabelContent.second":"Dabei kann die Universität entscheiden, ob eine bestimmte Zeitschrift oder ein bestimmtes Buch im Open-Access- oder im Paid-Access-Modell erscheinen soll. Alle Bücher und Zeitschriften tragen sowohl das Universitäts- als auch das Sciendo-Logo.","whiteLabelContent.third":"Für die Universität kostenlos entwirft, gestaltet und verwaltet Sciendo die Website dieses Verlags. Die Rolle der Universität besteht darin, die Bücher und Buchvorschläge für diese Verlagskooperation auszuwählen und zu vermitteln sowie diese Verlagsmöglichkeiten bei ihrer Fakultät bekannt zu machen.","whiteLabelContent.fourth":"Für jede Zeitschrift und jedes Buch kann die Universität entscheiden, welches Leistungspaket zum Einsatz kommt. Entsprechende Pakete werden auf den Seiten für \u003c1\u003eZeitschriften\u003c/1\u003e und \u003c3\u003eBücher\u003c/3\u003e beschrieben. \u003c5\u003eLiegt der Auftragswert über einem vereinbarten Betrag, erhält die Universität Ermäßigungen von bis zu 60 % auf die Standardgebühren.\u003c/5\u003e","whiteLabelContent.fifth":"Bitte \u003c1\u003ekontaktieren Sie unseren Vertreter\u003c/1\u003e für Ihr Gebiet, um die Konditionen des White-Label-Publishing-House-Angebots zu besprechen.","sortBy":"Sortieren nach","filterBy":"Filtern nach","filters":"Filter","proudPartner":"Sciendo and De Gruyter are proud partners with IUPAC","Journal":"Zeitschrift","Journal \u0026 Issue Details":"Details zu Zeitschrift und Ausgabe","Abstract":"Abstrakt","Article":"Artikel","PDF Preview":"PDF-Vorschau","Figures \u0026 Tables":"Zahlen und Tabellen","References":"Referenzen","Supplement":"Zugabe","Supplementary Material Details":"Details zum Zusatzmaterial","Recent Articles":"Neueste Artikel","Journal \u0026 Issues":"Zeitschriften und Ausgaben","Published Online":"Online veröffentlicht","Received":"Erhalten","Accepted":"Akzeptiert","Download PDF":"PDF downloaden","Details":"Details","First Published":"Erstveröffentlichung","Pages":"Seiten","Illustration":"Illustration","PaperBack":"Taschenbuch","Book Subjects":"Buchthemen","Books":"Buch","Details \u0026 Formats":"Details und Formate","Overview":"Übersicht","Authors":"Autoren","Table of Contents":"Inhalt","Download Chapter PDF":"Kapitel als PDF downloaden","Download Book PDF":"Buch als PDF downloaden","Download ePub":"ePub downloaden","Chapter":"Kapitel","Book Details":"Buchdaten","Published Online on":"Online veröffentlicht am","Journal Details":"Zeitschriftendaten","Publication timeframe":"Erscheinungsweise","Search":"Suche","Search within Journal":"In der Zeitschrift suchen","Download Cover":"Cover downloaden","Articles":"Artikel","Details, Metrics \u0026 Owners":"Details, Metriken und Inhaber","Aims \u0026 Scope":"Übersicht","Editorial Board":"Redaktionsleitung","Abstracting \u0026 Indexing":"Abstracting und Indexing","Issues":"Ausgaben","Submit":"Einreichen","Journal Metrics":"Zeitschriftenmetriken","Impact Factor":" Impact Factor","Five Year Impact Factor":"Five Year Impact Factor","Cite Score":" Cite Score","Journal Owners":"Zeitschrifteninhaber","Editor-in-Chief":"Chefredakteur","Book Keywords":"Schlagwörter zum Buch","Series":"Reihe","series":"reihe","Start your search":"Starten Sie Ihre Suche","Website by Northern Comfort":"Website von Northern Comfort","Next":"Weiter","Previous":"Zurück","Download":"Herunterladen","share":"Teilen","Sort By Title":"Sortieren nach Titel","Sort By Publish Date":"Sortieren nach Veröffentlichungsdatum","Sort By Page No":"Sortieren nach Seitennummern","chapter":"Kapitel","Book":"Buch","Sort By":"Sortieren nach","Article Preview":"Artikel Vorschau","pageRange":" Seitenbereich:","forAuthors":"Für Autoren","Issue":"Heft","articleAbstract":"Zusammenfassung","Recieved":"Eingereicht","English":"Englisch","German":"Deutsch","time per year":"Hefte pro Jahr","times per year":"Hefte pro Jahr","Search within Issue":"Suche innerhalb der Ausgabe","Add to cart":"In den Warenkorb legen","Alerts":"Benachrichtigungen","Copied":"Kopiert","Copy to clipboard":"In die Zwischenablage kopieren","ProCite RefWorks Reference Manager":"ProCite RefWorks Referenzmanager","Downloading. Please Wait.":"Wird heruntergeladen. Warten Sie mal.","Formats":"Formate","Additional Material":"Zusätzliches Material","Deleted Bookshelf":"Bücherregal gelöscht","Deleted Bookmark":"Gelöschtes Lesezeichen","Save":"Speichern","Undo":"Rückgängig machen","Bookmark":"Lesezeichen","Save to Bookshelf":"Im Bücherregal speichern","Orcid profile":"Orcid-Profil","Author":"Autor","Plan your remote conference with Sciendo":"Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo","Find out more":"Finde mehr heraus","publishingAndEthicalPolicies":"Veröffentlichungs- und ethische Richtlinien","Volume":"Volumen","Highlight articles":"Artikel hervorheben","Read more":"Weiterlesen","Search for a journal, book, proceeding or author…":"Suche nach einem Buch, einer Zeitschrift, einem Autor oder einer Tagung...","Logout":"Ausloggen","More":"Mehr","Preview not available":"Vorschau nicht verfügbar","Conference":"Konferenz","Open DOI":"DOI öffnen","Search in Google Scholar":"In Google Scholar suchen","Recommended articles from Trend MD":"Empfohlene Artikel von Trend MD","People Also Read":"Leute lesen auch","Requires Authentication":"Erfordert Authentifizierung","How can we help you?":"Wie können wir Ihnen helfen?","Search Within The Issue":"Suche innerhalb der Ausgabe","Top Articles":"Top-Artikel","Open Access":"Uneingeschränkter Zugang","Journal RSS Feed":"Zeitschriften-RSS-Feed"," Other news articles":"Andere Nachrichtenartikel","No Result Found!":"Keine Einträge gefunden!","News":"Blog","Load More":"Mehr laden","Privacy Policy":"Datenschutz-Bestimmungen","publish_solution":"Publishing-Lösungen für Zeitschriften,\u003c1\u003e\u003c/1\u003eBücher und Tagungsbände","Publishing and Ethical Policies":"Veröffentlichungs- und ethische Richtlinien","of":"von","results":"Ergebnisse","Clear":"Klar","Apply":"Sich bewerben","All":"Alle","Journals":"Zeitschriften","New Titles":"Neue Titel","Browse all":"Alles durchsuchen","titles":"Titel","Show More":"Zeig mehr","RSS Feed":"RSS-Feed","Terms of Service":"Nutzungsbedingungen","Authorizing Your Request":"Autorisieren Ihrer Anfrage","standard":"Standard","classic":"Klassisch","premier":"Premier","Conference Keywords":"Konferenz-Schlüsselwörter","Conference Subjects":"Konferenzthemen","Accessible":"Zugänglich","Conference Metrics":"Konferenzmetriken","Conference Owners":"Konferenzinhaber","Conference \u0026 Issues":"Konferenz \u0026 Themen","Search Within The Conference":"Suche innerhalb der Konferenze","Search Within The Journal":"Suche in der Zeitschrift","Type":"Typ","Subject":"Gegenstand","Date":"Datum","Language":"Sprache","article":"Artikel","journal":"Tagebuch","book":"Buchen","conference":"Konferenz","French":"Französisch","Polish":"Polieren","Spanish":"Spanisch","Italian":"Italienisch","issues":"Ausgaben","Keywords":"Schlüsselwörter","Management":"Verwaltung","Sales":"Der Umsatz","Customer Service":"Kundendienst","Marketing":"Marketing","Production":"Produktion","Administration":"Verwaltung","Cite":"Zitieren","and":"und","Sciendo is a":"Sciendo ist ein a","De Gruyter company":"Unternehmen von De Gruyter","Tables":"Tabellen","Book Series Subjects":"Fachgebiete der Buchreihe","JOURNALS":"ZEITSCHRIFTEN","BOOKS":"BÜCHER","SELF-PUBLISHING":"SELF-PUBLISHING","FULL PUBLISHING SERVICES":"KOMPLETTE PUBLIKATIONSDIENSTE","CONFERENCES SERVICES":"KONFERENZEN","WHITE LABEL PUBLISHING HOUSE":"WHITE LABEL PUBLISHING HOUSE","ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGE MODEL":"ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGE MODEL","ADDITIONAL SERVICES":"ADDITIONAL SERVICES"}},"en":{"common":{"/about":"/about","/contact":"/team","/blog/all":"/blog/latest-articles","/terms":"/terms","/privacy":"/privacy","/cookie-policy":"/cookie-policy","/publishingAndEthicalPolicies":"/publishing-and-ethical-policies","/publish/journals":"/publish/journals","/publish/books":"/publish/books","/publish/selfpublishing":"/publish/selfpublishing","/publish/fullpublishing":"/publish/full-publishing-services","/publish/conferences":"/publish/conferences-services","/publish/whitelabel":"/publish/white-label-publishing-house","/publish/apcmodel":"/publish/article-processing-charge-model","/publish":"/publish","/journal":"/journal","/issue":"/issue","/book":"/book","/chapter":"/chapter","/article":"/article","Redirecting":"Redirecting","Search for a journal, book, proceeding or author…":"Search for a journal, book, proceeding or author...","aboutSciendo":"About Sciendo","cookiePolicy":"Cookie Policy","ourBrochures":"Our Brochures","Journal":"Journal","Journal \u0026 Issue Details":"Journal \u0026 Issue Details","Abstract":"Abstract","Article":"Article","PDF Preview":"PDF Preview","Figures \u0026 Tables":"Figures \u0026 Tables","References":"References","Supplement":"Supplement","Supplementary Material Details":"Supplementary Material Details","Recent Articles":"Recent Articles","Journal \u0026 Issues":"Journal \u0026 Issues","Published Online":"Published Online","Recieved":"Received","Accepted":"Accepted","Download PDF":"Download PDF","Format":"Format","firstPublished":" First Published","publicationTimeframe":" Publication timeframe","Languages":" Languages","Copyright":" Copyright","home":"Home","Details":"Details","First Published":"First Published","Pages":"Pages","Illustration":"Illustration","PaperBack":"PaperBack","Book Subjects":"Book Subjects","Books":"Books","Details \u0026 Formats":"Details \u0026 Formats","Overview":"Overview","Authors":" Authors ","Table of Contents":" Table of Contents ","Download Chapter PDF":" Download Chapter PDF ","Download Book PDF":" Download Book PDF ","Download ePub":" Download ePub ","Chapter":"Chapter","Book Details":" Book Details ","Published Online on":"Published Online on","Publish with us":"Publish with us","latestNews":"Latest Articles","latestArticles":"Latest Articles","contacts":"Team","terms":"Terms","privacy":"Privacy","contact":"Contact","footer_deGruyter":"Sciendo is a De Gruyter company","ourPartners":"Our partners:","home.title":"Your publishing needs met","subjects":"Subjects","selectedJournalAndBook":"Selected journals and books","selectedJournalAndBooks":"\u003c0\u003eSelected journals and books\u003c/0\u003e","Journal Details":" Journal Details ","Publication timeframe":" Publication timeframe ","Search":" Search ","Search within Journal..":" Search within Journal.. ","Download Cover":" Download Cover","Articles":" Articles ","Details, Metrics \u0026 Owners":" Details, Metrics \u0026 Owners ","Aims \u0026 Scope":" Aims \u0026 Scope ","Editorial Board":" Editorial Board ","Abstracting \u0026 Indexing":" Abstracting \u0026 Indexing ","Issues":" Issues ","Submit":" Submit ","Journal Metrics":" Journal Metrics ","Impact Factor":" Impact Factor ","Five Year Impact Factor":" Five Year Impact Factor ","Cite Score":" Cite Score","Journal Owners":" Journal Owners ","Editor-in-Chief":" Editor-in-Chief ","news":"Blog","profile":"Profile","signOut":"Sign Out","login":"Login","createAccount":"Create Account","about":"About","aboutUs":"About","cart":"Cart","standard":"Standard","classic":"Classic","premier":"Premier","hostingPlatform":"Hosting platform","onlineSubmissionSystem":"Online submission system","typesetting":"Typesetting and proofreading","XMLpublication":"Fulltext XML publication","copyediting":"Copyediting (heavy edit)","wideElectronicDistribution":"Wide electronic distribution","contentAndJournalIndexing":"Content and journal indexing","marketingExtraPackage":"Marketing Extra Package","consulting":"Consulting","accountManagement":"Account management","bookLayout":"Book layout, cover design","ePubVersion":"ePub version","printOnDemand":"Print on demand and delivery","contentAndBookIndexing":"Content and book indexing","journals.first":"Sciendo publishes academic journals that belong to universities, research institutes, academies of sciences, learned societies and other organizations. We can publish them both in the Open Access and in traditional ( paid access) models. We currently publish journals in the English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Polish languages.","journals.second":"We have a special offer for universities and other organizations to publish their journals, books and other publications. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e","journals.third":" Please download the \u003c1\u003ebrochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information. Please contact our representative for your territory, to meet and discuss the terms.","journals.fourth":"The content is available here \u003c1\u003ehttps://content.sciendo.com/\u003c/1\u003e","journals.fifth":"\u003c0\u003eIMPACT FACTORS 2019\u003c/0\u003e","books.first":"Sciendo can meet all publishing needs for authors of academic and professional books in the English language. We publish monographs, textbooks, edited volumes, and other book types. Our customers have the choice between offering the Open Access for the electronic version of their books, or for the book to be distributed via traditional commercial methods.","books.second":"\u003c0\u003eWe also publish books for institutions. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.third":"\u003c0\u003eFor Self-Publishing Books, \u003c1\u003eclick here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.fourth":"\u003c0\u003eFor Full-Publishing Books, \u003c1\u003eclick here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","selfPublishingContent.first":"Often authors (and sometimes organizations too) would like to be able to publish their books their way. They do not want a publisher's editor to impose any changes in the text or to organize the text differently. They want the layout and the font to be a certain way. They have their own vision of the book cover. And — if they believe the book can sell well — they would like to receive a significant part of the sales revenues.","selfPublishingContent.second":"If you supply a ready-made publishable eBook file, we can host, distribute, sell and promote your book free of any charge. \u003c1\u003eYou will receive 70% of net revenues from the book sales.\u003c/1\u003e In addition, you have the option of choosing some of our paid services, including eBook formatting.","selfPublishingContent.third":"To see the complete list of publishing services and solutions that Sciendo offers to Self-publishing authors, as well as the relevant fees, \u003c1\u003eregister here\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fourth":"To learn more about these services, please contact Magdalena Cal, Customer Service Manager at \u003c1\u003emagdalena.cal@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fifth":"You can also \u003c1\u003edownload the Self-Publishing brochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information.","fullPublishingContent.first":"Sciendo publishes books from universities, research institutes, academies of sciences, learned societies and other organizations. We offer both the Open Access and traditional (paid access) models. The following rules also apply to individual authors whose institutions are willing to pay the publishing fees for the publication of their books.","fullPublishingContent.second":"\u003c0\u003eWe have a special offer for universities and other organizations to publish all or some of their English language journals, books and other publications. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","fullPublishingContent.third":"The services and solutions that we offer are bundled into three packages: Standard, Classic and Premier. These packages range from standard components required for publication to a full-service package and a hybrid between “basic” and “full-service”. We charge for each book published, the charge is dependent on the package and any additional services and solutions are chosen.","fullPublishingContent.fourth":"The table shows the key components of each package. Sciendo would be delighted to offer the services shown in the chart below to books whose publication is financed by institutions.","fullPublishingContent.fifth":"Institutions and authors interested in learning more about the services and relevant charges should \u003c1\u003econtact our representative\u003c/1\u003e for their territory, to meet and discuss the terms.","conferenceServices.first":"If you would like to learn more about these services, please contact Sales \u0026 Publishing Specialist — Services for conference organizers: \u003c1\u003ealexandru.vlad@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e or call directly \u003c3\u003e+44 2086388130\u003c/3\u003e.","conferenceServices.second":"Sciendo is the only company in the world that meets the two most important needs of an academic conference organizer. As well as publishing conference proceedings, we can also provide the organizer with one of the world's best event management systems. We have partnered with Cvent and Converia.","conferenceServices.third":"We can publish your conference proceedings and optionally provide you with the event management systems. We publish conference proceedings online using the Open Access model. Printed copies can be bought online. We currently publish proceedings in English language only.","conferenceServices.fourth":"The services and solutions that we offer for conference proceedings are bundled into three packages: \u003c1\u003eStandard\u003c/1\u003e, \u003c3\u003eClassic\u003c/3\u003e and \u003c5\u003ePremier\u003c/5\u003e. We charge for each paper published and the charge depends on the package and any additional services and solutions you choose.","conferenceServices.fifth":"The diagram shows the key components of each package.","conferenceServices.sixth":"Sciendo would be delighted to publish your conference proceedings and provide event management systems for your conference. Please refer to the services shown in the chart above and \u003c1\u003edownload the brochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information.","whiteLabelContent.first":"Sciendo has a special offer for universities and other organizations that are seeking a partner to publish all or some of their English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Polish languages journals, books and other publications. This applies to new publications and to previously published books and back journal volumes. We publish monographs, textbooks, edited volumes, and other categories.","whiteLabelContent.second":"The university can decide if a given journal or book is published using the Open Access or paid access model. All books and journal articles bear both the university and the Sciendo logos.","whiteLabelContent.third":"At no cost to the university, Sciendo will design, produce and manage the website of this publishing house. The role of the university is to select and channel books and book proposals for this publishing co-operation, as well as to promote this publishing opportunity to its faculty.","whiteLabelContent.fourth":"The university can decide which package of services applies to each journal and book. Such packages are described in the pages for \u003c1\u003ejournals\u003c/1\u003e and \u003c3\u003ebooks\u003c/3\u003e. \u003c5\u003eIf the value of the contract exceeds an agreed amount, the university can enjoy discounts up to 60% on standard fees.\u003c/5\u003e","whiteLabelContent.fifth":"Please \u003c1\u003econtact our representative\u003c/1\u003e for your territory to meet and discuss the terms of the White Label Publishing House offer.","publish_solution":"Publishing solutions for Journals,\u003c1\u003e\u003c/1\u003eBooks and Conference proceedings","sortBy":"Sort By","filterBy":"Filter By","filters":"Filters","Book Keywords":"Book Keywords","Series":"Series","series":"series","pageRange":"Page range:","forAuthors":"For Authors","articleAbstract":"Abstract","Add to cart":"Add to cart","Alerts":"Alerts","Copied":"Copied","Copy to clipboard":"Copy to clipboard","ProCite RefWorks Reference Manager":"ProCite RefWorks Reference Manager","Download":"Download","Downloading. Please Wait.":"Downloading... Please Wait.","Formats":"Formats","Additional Material":"Additional Material","Deleted Bookshelf":"Deleted Bookshelf","Deleted Bookmark":"Deleted Bookmark","Save":"Save","Undo":"Undo","Bookmark":"Bookmark","Save to Bookshelf":"Save to Bookshelf","share":"Share","Orcid profile":"Orcid profile","Author":"Author","Next":"Next","Plan your remote conference with Sciendo":"Plan your remote conference with Sciendo","Find out more":"Find out more","Previous":"Previous","publishingAndEthicalPolicies":"Publishing and Ethical Policies","Volume":"Volume","Issue":"Issue","Article Preview":"Article Preview","Highlight articles":"Highlight articles","Read more":"Read more","English":"English","German":"German","Logout":"Logout","More":"More","Preview not available":"Preview not available","Sort By Title":"Sort By Title","Sort By Publish Date":"Sort By Publish Date","Sort By Page No":"Sort By Page No","Conference":"Conference","times per year":"times per year","time per year":"time per year","Open DOI":"Open DOI","Search in Google Scholar":"Search in Google Scholar","Recommended articles from Trend MD":"Recommended articles from Trend MD","People Also Read":"People Also Read","Requires Authentication":"Requires Authentication","How can we help you?":"How can we help you?","Search Within The Issue":"Search Within The Issue","Top Articles":"Top Articles","Sort By":"Sort By","Open Access":"Open Access","Journal RSS Feed":"Journal RSS Feed","Other news articles":"Other news articles","No Result Found!":"No Result Found!","News":"Blog","Load More":"Load More","Privacy Policy":"Privacy Policy","Publishing and Ethical Policies":"Publishing and Ethical Policies","of":"of","results":"results","Clear":"Clear","Apply":"Apply","All":"All","Journals":"Journals","New Titles":" New Titles","Browse all":"Browse all","titles":"titles","Show More":"Show More","RSS Feed":"RSS Feed","Terms of Service":"Terms of Service","Authorizing Your Request":"Authorizing Your Request","Conference Keywords":"Conference Keywords","Conference Subjects":"Conference Subjects","Accessible":"Accessible","Conference Metrics":"Conference Metrics","Conference Owners":"Conference Owners","Conference \u0026 Issues":"Conference \u0026 Issues","Search Within The Conference":"Search Within The Conference","Search Within The Journal":"Search Within The Journal","Type":"Type","Subject":"Subject","Date":"Date","Language":"Language","article":"article","journal":"journal","chapter":"chapter","book":"book","Book":"Book","conference":"conference","French":"French","Polish":"Polish","Spanish":"Spanish","Italian":"Italian","issues":"issues","Sciendo is a":"Sciendo is a","De Gruyter company":"De Gruyter company","Tables":"Tables","Book Series Subjects":"Book Series Subjects","JOURNALS":"JOURNALS","BOOKS":"BOOKS","SELF-PUBLISHING":"SELF-PUBLISHING","FULL PUBLISHING SERVICES":"FULL PUBLISHING SERVICES","CONFERENCES SERVICES":"CONFERENCES SERVICES","WHITE LABEL PUBLISHING HOUSE":"WHITE LABEL PUBLISHING HOUSE","ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGE MODEL":"ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGE MODEL","ADDITIONAL SERVICES":"ADDITIONAL SERVICES"}}},"initialLocale":"de","userConfig":{"i18n":{"defaultLocale":"en","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"],"localeDetection":false},"default":{"i18n":{"defaultLocale":"en","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"],"localeDetection":false}}}}},"__N_SSP":true},"page":"/article/[...doi]","query":{"doi":["10.1515","bjals-2016-0009"]},"buildId":"5-51h7E19eVKaw7LZTFoA","isFallback":false,"gssp":true,"locale":"de","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"],"defaultLocale":"en"}</script><script nomodule="" src="/_next/static/chunks/polyfills-d6a8d6e27925204621ee.js"></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/webpack-0f6623589bf29a955e30.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/framework.f18e6f416ebc8f9cfbb1.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/4f389eb6d5af935cd57751353f4eca221a6fe70c.7b09e0f85837d9620f0e.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/main-a0d40838b1ef641d16e5.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/b637e9a5.b4b5d51fd340381760bf.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/a9a7754c.361ab3c36c25f6e9ac27.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/a028bde0.ee17212073ffc002002d.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/1a1faa2cee67836d4853c983b080fb400e5d0f3d.bee9b1de8da4e1c78abe.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/af24cc135d6543f71928ff1bf7dbca40034d0bcb.9a79d2bae5157d184d79.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/db6fb1c34cd4b461722de6df30a6037b714a84a5.a1b950d017db8b66c8d5.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/b1b030d7cf2a7e84fe0604c430a97e737a0d6db2.3916d1d64d59a376ef19.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/788ec6b892a2ed6f626aa779da3070e6e8806682.fb33b252df247828d550.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/c537d5680584a2b16163a12bc2a0e7d1d08911eb.995ce0d8d6f1e18ba9c7.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/c537d5680584a2b16163a12bc2a0e7d1d08911eb_CSS.6bd51dc256e30336ee2e.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/pages/_app-c4137570ad68e594a82e.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/cb1608f2.99181609c74ffd6482c6.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/2b7b2d2a.09ccbfa5e15ffaf035f4.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/9cf3c464cc61f5b10e19f542e6b3f9f44979f036.498316ff7dd488d70fdf.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/45f216a91335d6713129036ed31ffc5caca00cd0.fa1825f62f7e37d6fea2.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/7d9ab5c49818ebfc10bd3642a7795a78de5e29d1.59045cf1a1220ffebe64.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/a9549ad15e33494dffefb3277312afc83ba57508.9c5e56fb04f508528d94.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/609043b408e8a02430f6b86ae64de147fcf29029.31e25db1b3571cf3720f.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/pages/article/%5B...doi%5D-1667adcf4f8e521df526.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/5-51h7E19eVKaw7LZTFoA/_buildManifest.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/5-51h7E19eVKaw7LZTFoA/_ssgManifest.js" async=""></script><script src="https://cc.cdn.civiccomputing.com/9/cookieControl-9.x.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script><script src="/scripts/cookieControlSettings.js" type="text/javascript"></script></body></html>