1. bookVolume 7 (2020): Issue 2 (October 2020)
    Failures in Cultural Participation
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2246-3755
First Published
01 Nov 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Too Big to Fail?

Published Online: 06 Apr 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 7 (2020) - Issue 2 (October 2020) - Failures in Cultural Participation
Page range: 1 - 21
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2246-3755
First Published
01 Nov 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

THIS ARTICLE ENGAGES WITH QUESTIONS OF FAILURE IN CULTURAL PARTICIPATION THROUGH A REFLECTION UPON MATTERS OF INTERPRETATION AND MEANING. THAT IS, RATHER THAN CONSIDERING THE WAYS OR EXTENT TO WHICH CULTURAL PARTICIPATION PROGRAMMES MIGHT ACHIEVE THEIR STATED GOALS, THE DISCUSSION CENTRES UPON THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF REPRESENTATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS IN RELATION TO QUESTIONS OF ‘FAILURE’/‘SUCCESS’. THE DISCUSSION CENTRES UPON ONE CASE STUDY INITIATIVE, ENGLAND'S VERSION OF THE VENEZUELAN EL SISTEMA PROGRAMME, IN HARMONY, AND EMPLOYS FRAME ANALYSIS TO EXPLORE THE WAYS PRESS COVERAGE AND RELEVANT POLICY DOCUMENTS CULTIVATE AN IMAGE OF PROGRAMME ‘SUCCESS’. IN ORDER TO HELP REVEAL SOME OF THE PROBLEMATIC ASSUMPTIONS EMBEDDED IN DOMINANT ACCOUNTS, THE ARTICLE ALSO DRAWS ON ORIGINAL INTERVIEW DATA IN EXPLORING THE MARGINALISED PERSPECTIVES OF PROGRAMME PARTICIPANTS. THE FINDINGS WHICH EMERGE SUGGEST THE NEED FOR PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO THE SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF CULTURAL PARTICIPATION POLICIES IN RELATION TO QUESTIONS OF ‘FAILURE’/‘SUCCESS’.

Keywords

Alemán, X., Duryea, S., Guerra, N., McEwan, P., Muñoz, R., Stampini, M., & Williamson, A. (2016). The effects of musical training on child development: A randomized trial of El Sistema in Venezuela. Prevention Science, 18, 865–878. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-016-0727-310.1007/s11121-016-0727-3 Search in Google Scholar

Allan, J., Moran, N., Duffy, C., & Loening, G. (2010). Knowledge exchange with Sistema Scotland. Journal of Education Policy, 25(3), 335–347. https://doi.org/10.1080/0268093100364619610.1080/02680931003646196 Search in Google Scholar

Arnold, M. (1869/1994), Culture and anarchy. Samuel Lipman (Ed.). New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Arts Council England (ACE). (n.d.). ‘In Harmony’. Retrieved from https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/music-education-programmes/harmony Search in Google Scholar

Arts Council England (ACE). (2010). Achieving great art for everyone, a strategic framework for the arts. Retrieved from https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/Great_art_and_culture_for_everyone.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Asthana, A., & Thorpe, V. (2008, June 15). Free instruments for poor children. The Observer. Search in Google Scholar

Badham, B., & Wade, H. (2005). Hear by right: Standards for the active involvement of children and young people. London: The National Youth Agency/Local Government Association. Search in Google Scholar

Baker, G. (2014). El Sistema: Orchestrating Venezuela’s youth. Oxford: OUP Search in Google Scholar

Baker, G. (2019). El Sistema, “The Venezuelan Musical Miracle”: The construction of a global myth. Latin American Music Review, 39(2), 160–193. https://doi.org/10.7560/LAMR3920210.7560/LAMR39202 Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E. (2002). Art as a means towards alleviating social exclusion: Does it really work? A critique of instrumental cultural policies and social impact studies in the UK. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 8(1), 91–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286630290032465810.1080/102866302900324658 Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E. (2009). On bullshit in cultural policy practice and research: Notes from the British case. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 15(3), 343–359. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028663090280608010.1080/10286630902806080 Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E. (2011). The “transformative power” of the arts: History of an idea. In J. Sefton-Green, P. Thomson, K. Jones & L. Bresler (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Creative Learning (pp. 27–35). Abingdon: Routledge Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E. (2016). Cultural policy research in the real world: curating “impact”, facilitating “enlightenment”. Cultural Trends, 25(3), 205–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2016.120405010.1080/09548963.2016.1204050 Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E., & Bennett, O. (2007). Rethinking the social impact of the arts. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 13(2), 135–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028663070134274110.1080/10286630701342741 Search in Google Scholar

Belfiore, E. & Bennett, O. (2008). The social impact of the arts: An intellectual history. London: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9780230227774 Search in Google Scholar

Bennett, O. (1995). Cultural policy in the United Kingdom: Collapsing rationales and the end of a tradition. The European Journal of Cultural Policy, 2(4), 199–216. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028663950935798210.1080/10286639509357982 Search in Google Scholar

Blackmore, L. (2007, August 17). The street children saved by music. The Independent. Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. London, Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Bovens, M., & ‘t Hart, P. (1996). Understanding policy fiascoes. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. Search in Google Scholar

Bull, A. (2016). El Sistema as a bourgeois social project: Class, gender, and Victorian values. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 15(1), 120–153. http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Bull15_1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Bull, A. (2019). Class, control, and classical music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.10.1093/oso/9780190844356.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Burns, S., & Bewick, P. (2011). In Harmony Liverpool Interim Report: Year 2. Liverpool Philharmonic/DfE. https://www.liver-poolphil.com/media/190714/in-harmony-liverpool-evaluation-update-year-2.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Cassidy, S. (2008, June 21). Orchestral manoeuvre to give poorest children hope. The Independent. Search in Google Scholar

Cox, G. (1993). A history of music education in England, 1872–1928. Aldershot: Scholar Press. Search in Google Scholar

Creech, A., Gonzalez-Moreno, P., Lorenzino, L., & Waitman, G. (2013). El Sistema and Sistema-Inspired Programmes: A literature review of research, evaluation, and critical debates. Sistema Global: San Diego, California. https://sistemaglobal.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/ESv2_full_version_Final.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Crossick, G., & Kaszynska, P. (2016). Understanding the value of arts & culture: The AHRC Cultural Value Project. Swindon: Arts and Humanities Research Council. Search in Google Scholar

Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF). (2008). Young people leading change. London: Department for Children Schools and Families. Search in Google Scholar

Department for Education (DfE). (2011a). Music education in England - A review by Darren Henley. London: DfE & DCMS. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/175432/DFE-00011-2011.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Department for Education (DfE). (2011b). Music education in England - The Government response to Darren Henley’s review of music education. London: DfE. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/177100/DFE-00012-2011.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Department for Education (DfE). (2011c). A national plan for music education. London: DfE.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/180973/DFE-00086-2011.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Department for Education (DfE). (2016). Thousands of children to benefit from music and arts investment, November 18: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/thousands-of-children-to-benefit-from-music-and-arts-investment Search in Google Scholar

Dobson, N. (2016). Hatching plans: Pedagogy and discourse within an El Sistema-inspired program. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 15(1), 89–119. http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Dobson15_1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Dommett, E. (2011, November 25). Music hits all the right notes. The Times Educational Supplement. Search in Google Scholar

Dromey, C., & Haferkorn, J. (Eds). (2018). The classical music industry. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.10.4324/9781315471099 Search in Google Scholar

Edelmann, M. (1964). The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Search in Google Scholar

Edelman, M. (1988). Constructing the political spectacle. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Search in Google Scholar

Ehrlich, C. (1985). The music profession in Britain since the eighteenth century: A social history. Oxford: Clarendon. Search in Google Scholar

Entman, R. M. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51–58.10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x Search in Google Scholar

Fairclough, N. (2013). Critical discourse analysis and critical policy studies. Critical Policy Studies, 7(2), 177–197. https://doi.org/10.1080/19460171.2013.79823910.1080/19460171.2013.798239 Search in Google Scholar

Fink, R. (2016). Resurrection symphony: El Sistema as ideology in Venezuela and Los Angeles. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 15(1), 33–57. http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Fink15_1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Fischer, F. (2003). Reframing public policy: Discursive politics and deliberative practices. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/019924264X.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Frith, S. (1996). Performing rites: On the value of popular music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Gamson, W. A., & Lasch, K. E. (1983). The political culture of social welfare policy. In S. E. Spiro & E. Yuchtman-Yaar (Eds.), Evaluating the welfare state: Social and political perspectives (pp. 397–415). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Search in Google Scholar

Gamson, W. A., & Modigliani, A. (1989). Media discourse and public opinion on nuclear power: A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, 95(1), 1–37.10.1086/229213 Search in Google Scholar

Gee, C. B. (2002). The “use and abuse” of arts advocacy and consequences for music education. Arts Education Policy Review, 103(4), 3–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/1063291020960029410.1080/10632910209600294 Search in Google Scholar

Gee, C. B. (2004). Spirit, mind, and body: Arts education the redeemer. In E. Eisner & M. Day (Eds.), Handbook of research and policy in art education (pp.115–194). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum. Search in Google Scholar

Gibson, L., & Edwards, D. (2016). Facilitated participation: Cultural value, risk and the agency of young people in care. Cultural Trends, 25(3), 194–204. https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2016.120404910.1080/09548963.2016.1204049 Search in Google Scholar

Gitlin, T. (1980). The whole world is watching. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Search in Google Scholar

Gove, M. (2012, September 29) Letter: Every child can discover music. The Guardian.Hallam, R., & Hanke, M. (2012). In Harmony Sistema England: A coherent music education. ISME Conference 2012 Special Interest Group Submission. Available: http://www.dickhallam.co.uk/resources/In%20Harmony%20Sistema%20England%20A%20Coherent%20Music%20Education%20ISME%202012.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Hallam, S. (2010, September 24). Music must take centre stage in primaries or we risk striking a bum note for society. The Times Educational Supplement. Search in Google Scholar

Hallam, S., Rogers, L., & Creech, A. (2011). Interim evaluation of ‘In Harmony’. London: University of London, Institute of Education. Unpublished report. Search in Google Scholar

Hallam, S., & Burns, S. (2017). Research into support for musical progression for young people from In Harmony programmes and other disadvantaged communities. Leeds, UK: Opera North/Arts Council England. https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/In_harmony_Final_report.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Hallam, S., & Burns, S. (2018). Progression in instrumental music making for learners from disadvantaged communities: A literature review. Leeds, UK: Opera North/Arts Council England. https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/In_harmony_Literature_review.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Hewitt, S. (2009). Discourse analysis and public policy research. Centre for Rural Economy Discussion Paper Series, 24, 1–16. Search in Google Scholar

Higgins, C. (2006, November 24). Land of hope and glory. The Guardian. Search in Google Scholar

Higgins, C. (2009, April 24). Notes from Venezuela: The ideal of El Sistema is shared in Britain: it needs defending with the spirit Abreu’s musicians show. The Guardian. Search in Google Scholar

Hough, S. (2010, May 18). Music unlocks the key to their souls. The Daily Telegraph. Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, J. (2002). Who needs classical music? Cultural choice and musical value. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195146813.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Kaszynska, P. (2015). Capturing the vanishing point: Subjective experiences and cultural value. Cultural Trends, 24(3), 256–266.10.1080/09548963.2015.1066077 Search in Google Scholar

Khan, R. (2019). Researchers, bureaucrats and the lifeworlds of cultural policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(4), 528–540. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2017.134149810.1080/10286632.2017.1341498 Search in Google Scholar

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2009a, April 26). Music for all: POINTS. The Sunday Times. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2009b, December 23). The music that cuts crime and saves lives. The Daily Telegraph. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2011a, August 14). Letters: Fruits of harmony. The Sunday Times. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2011b, November 25). Julian Lloyd Webber: On the children enriched by music. The Telegraph. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2013, August 28). I’m doing a Dudamel over here. The Independent. Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd Webber, J. (2015, December 19). £278m concert hall is a classic mistake. The Times. Search in Google Scholar

Local Government Group. (2011). Valuing young voices, strengthening democracy. London: Local Government Group. Search in Google Scholar

Logan, O. (2015). Hand in glove: El Sistema and neoliberal research. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287202150 Search in Google Scholar

Logan, O. (2016). Lifting the veil: A realist critique of Sistema’s upwardly mobile path. Action, Criticism, and Theory for Music Education, 15(1), 58–88. http://act.maydaygroup.org/articles/Logan15_1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Lord, P. Sharp, C., Harland, J., Mehta, P., & White, R. (2016). Evaluation of In Harmony: final report. Slough: National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER). https://www.nfer.ac.uk/publications/ACII04/ACII04.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Machin, D., & Mayr, A. (2012). How to do critical discourse analysis. A multimodal introduction. London: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

McConnell, A. (2010). Policy success, policy failure and grey areas in-between. Journal of Public Policy, 30(3), 345–362. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X1000015210.1017/S0143814X10000152 Search in Google Scholar

McConnell, A. (2015). What is policy failure? A primer to help navigate the maze. Public Policy and Administration, 30(3–4), 221–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/095207671456541610.1177/0952076714565416 Search in Google Scholar

McGuigan, J. (2001). Three discourses of cultural policy. In N. Stevenson (Ed.), Culture and Citizenship (pp.124–137). London: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Merli, P. (2002). Evaluating the social impact of participation in arts activities. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 8(1), 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028663029003247710.1080/10286630290032477 Search in Google Scholar

Miles, A., & Sullivan, A. (2012). Understanding participation in culture and sport: Mixing methods, reordering knowledges. Cultural Trends, 21(4), 311–324. https://doi.org/10.1080/09548963.2012.72679510.1080/09548963.2012.726795 Search in Google Scholar

Miles, A., & Gibson, L. (2016). Everyday participation and cultural value. Cultural Trends, 25(3), 151–157. https://doi:10.1080/09548963.2016.1204043.10.1080/09548963.2016.1204043 Search in Google Scholar

Millington, B. (2007, 20 August). An epic journey from slum to Shostakovich; Proms 2007. London Evening Standard. Search in Google Scholar

Millington, B. (2018, April 5). José Antonio Abreu obituary. The Guardian. Search in Google Scholar

Mota, G., Baker, G., Ilari, B., O’Neill, S., & Senyshyn, Y. (2016). Social inclusion and non-formal music learning: In the shadow of Venezuela’s El Sistema. In R. Wright, C. Beynon & B. Younker (Eds.), 21st century music education: Informal learning and non-Formal teaching (pp. 38–54). Waterloo, Ontario: Canadian Music Educators’ Association. Search in Google Scholar

Pan, Z., & Kosicki, G.M. (1993). Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Political Communication, 10, 55–75.10.1080/10584609.1993.9962963 Search in Google Scholar

Pritchard, S. (2007, August 26). Caracas about them. The Observer. Search in Google Scholar

Rimmer, M. (2017). Music, middle childhood and agency: The value of an interactional-relational approach. Childhood: A Global Journal of Child Research, 24(4), 559–573. https://doi.org/10.1177/090756821771174110.1177/0907568217711741 Search in Google Scholar

Rimmer, M. (2018). Harmony or Discord? Understanding children’s valuations of a Sistema-inspired initiative. British Journal of Music Education, 35(1), 43-55.10.1017/S0265051717000146 Search in Google Scholar

Rimmer, M., Street, J., & Phillips, T. (2014). Understanding the cultural value of In Harmony-Sistema England. Arts & Humanities Research Council/University of East Anglia. https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/id/eprint/50664/4/Rimmer_et_al_2014_Understanding_the_Cultural_Value_of_In_Harmony_Sistema_England_final_.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Ritchie, M. (2009, June 12). Melody makers. The Times Educational Supplement. Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, A. (2009, April 20). Anything Venezuela can do, Lambeth can do much better. The Evening Standard. Search in Google Scholar

Romer, C. (2016, 24 November). No link between In Harmony participation and attainment. Arts Professional. Search in Google Scholar

Savage, J. (2018). Music education for all. Forum, 60(1), 111–122. http://doi.org/10.15730/forum.2018.60.1.11110.15730/forum.2018.60.1.111 Search in Google Scholar

Scruton, R. (2007). Culture counts. New York, NY: Encounter Books. Search in Google Scholar

Selwood, S. (2002). The politics of data collection: Gathering, analysing and using data about the subsidised cultural sector in England’. Cultural Trends, 12(47), 14–84. https://doi.org/10.1080/0954896020939033010.1080/09548960209390330 Search in Google Scholar

Shave, N. (2011, February 9). Bittersweet symphonies. The Guardian. Search in Google Scholar

Shieh, E. (2015). Relationship, rescue, and culture: How El Sistema might work. In C. Benedict, P. Schmidt, G. Spruce & P. Woodford (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Justice in Music Education (pp. 567–581). New York: Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Shiner, L. (2001). The invention of art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.10.7208/chicago/9780226753416.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Sistema England. (2015). About. Retrieved from http://www.sistemaengland.org.uk/about/ Search in Google Scholar

Sistema Global. (2015). About Sistema Global. Retrieved from http://sistemaglobal.org/about/ Search in Google Scholar

Spruce, G. (2013). “The National Music Plan” and the taming of English music education. Arts Education Policy Review, 114(3), 112–118. https://doi.org/10.1080/10632913.2013.80341210.1080/10632913.2013.803412 Search in Google Scholar

Spruce, G. (2017). The power of discourse: Reclaiming social justice from and for music education. Education 3-13, 45(6), 720–733. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2017.134712710.1080/03004279.2017.1347127 Search in Google Scholar

Spruce, G., & Philpott, C. (2015, April 25). What is a socially just approach to music education? [Conference presentation]. El Sistema and the Alternatives: Social Action through Music in Critical Perspective, University of London. Search in Google Scholar

Stevenson, D. (2016). Understanding the problem of cultural non-participation: Discursive structures, articulatory practice and cultural domination [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Queen Margaret University, Musselburgh. https://eresearch.qmu.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/20.500.12289/7339/2198.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Search in Google Scholar

Stevenson, D. (2019). The cultural non-participant: Critical logics and discursive subject identities. Arts and the Market, 9(1), 50–64.10.1108/AAM-01-2019-0002 Search in Google Scholar

Stevenson, D., Balling, G., & Kann-Rasmussen, N. (2015). Cultural participation in Europe: Shared problem or shared problematisation? International Journal of Cultural Policy, 23(1), 89–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2015.104329010.1080/10286632.2015.1043290 Search in Google Scholar

Stolz, B. A. (2007). Interpreting the US human trafficking debate through the lens of symbolic politics. Law & Policy, 29(3), 311–38.10.1111/j.1467-9930.2007.00257.x Search in Google Scholar

The Times. (2018, March 26). Obituary: José Antonio Abreu. The Times. Search in Google Scholar

Toynbee, J. (2003). Music, culture and creativity. In M. Clayton, R. Middleton & T. Herbert (Eds.), The cultural study of music (pp. 102–112). New York, NY: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

UK Government. (2008, June 20). Unprecedented investment in music education has the power to change children’s lives. M2 PressWIRE. Search in Google Scholar

Van Gorp, B. (2007). The constructionist approach to framing: Bringing culture back in. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 60–78. Search in Google Scholar

Vulliamy, E. (2010, October 3). How could classical music reach into the lives of some of Britain’s poorest kids and give them the confidence to dream of a different life? Here’s how.... The Observer. Search in Google Scholar

Waterton, E. (2010). Politics, policy and the discourses of heritage in Britain. London: Palgrave.10.1057/9780230292383 Search in Google Scholar

Weber, W. (1975). Music and the middle class: The social structure of concert life in London, Paris and Vienna between 1830 and 1848. New York: Holmes and Meier. Search in Google Scholar

White, H. (2014, December 18). Access to music should be every child’s basic right, says singer songwriter. The Guardian. Search in Google Scholar

Yanow, D. (2000). Conducting interpretive policy analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.10.4135/9781412983747 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo