1. bookVolume 5 (2014): Issue 1 (January 2014)
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1891-5469
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01 Jan 2010
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English
access type Open Access

Skin impedance

Published Online: 16 Apr 2014
Volume & Issue: Volume 5 (2014) - Issue 1 (January 2014)
Page range: 1 - 1
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1891-5469
First Published
01 Jan 2010
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Most measurements in bioimpedance yield a fixed reproducible result. But I always liked to work on bioimpedance of the skin because it is so challenging. It is important to know the impedance of the skin when measuring the electrocardiogram because if your amplifier input impedance is not high enough, undesirable attenuation will occur. A typical skin impedance is about 500 kΩ for 1 cm2. But Rosell et al. [1] showed that at 1 Hz there is a wide spread for different subjects from 10 kΩ to 1 MΩ. And as the frequency increases to 1 MHz, impedance decreases to about 300 Ω. Then impedance changes with time.

Olson et al. [2] showed that impedance decreases steadily or exponentially with time constants of several hours. Lozano et al. [3] note that impedance varies with body location and is much lower on the tongue than elsewhere on dry skin. Bahr et al. [4] show that impedance decreases from 1 MΩ to 200 kΩ in 1 min during a hot flash. De Talhouet et al. [5] showed that impedance drops from 500 kΩ to 5 kΩ after 12 skin strippings using Scotch tape.

If you calculate the skin impedance under a defibrillator electrode you get 500 kΩ/100 cm2 = 5 k Ω. But after defibrillation if you remeasure you get 50 Ω. What has happened is the high defibrillator voltage has arced through the skin and created many holes that lower the impedance and redden the skin. There are a variety of subject areas if you want to further explore skin impedance.

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Bahr, D. E., J. G. Webster, D. Grady, F. Kronenberg, J. Creasman, J. Macer, M. Shults, M. Tyler and X. Zhou, Miniature ambulatory skin conductance monitor and algorithm for investigating hot flash events, Physiol. Meas. 35, 95–110, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/35/2/9510.1088/0967-3334/35/2/9524398586BahrD E.WebsterJ. G.GradyD.KronenbergF.CreasmanJ.MacerJ.ShultsM.TylerM.ZhouX.Miniature ambulatory skin conductance monitor and algorithm for investigating hot flash eventsPhysiol Meas35951102014http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/35/2/95395139424398586Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

de Talhouet, H., and J. G. Webster, The origin of skin-stretch-caused motion artifacts under electrodes, Physiol. Meas., 17, 81-93. 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/17/2/00310.1088/0967-3334/17/2/0038724520deTalhouet, H.G. WebsterJ.The origin of skin-stretch-caused motion artifacts under electrodesPhysiol. Meas1781931996http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/17/2/0038724520Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

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