1. bookVolume 66 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Changes in the Concentration of Carbonyl Compounds during the Alcoholic Fermentation Process Carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast

Published Online: 27 Sep 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 66 (2017) - Issue 3 (September 2017)
Page range: 327 - 334
Received: 23 Nov 2016
Accepted: 12 May 2017
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2544-4646
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the source material and the applied S. cerevisiae strain on the concentrations of carbonyl fractions in raw spirits. Acetaldehyde was the most common aldehyde found, as it accounted for 88–92% of the total amount of aldehydes. The concentration of acetaldehyde in maize, rye and amaranth mashes was highly correlated with fermentation productivity at a given phase of the process, and reached its highest value of 193.5 mg/l EtOH in the first hours of the fermentation, regardless of the yeast strain applied. The acetaldehyde concentration decreased over the time with the decreasing productivity, reaching its lowest value at the 72nd hour of the process. The final concentration of acetaldehyde depended on the raw material used (ca 28.0 mg/l EtOH for maize mashes, 40.3 mg/l EtOH for rye mashes, and 74.4 mg/l EtOH for amaranth mashes). The effect of the used yeast strain was negligible. The overall concentration of the analyzed aldehydes was only slightly higher: ca 30.3 mg/l EtOH for maize mashes, 47.8 mg/l EtOH for rye mashes, and 83.1 mg/l EtOH for amaranth mashes.

Keywords

Biernacka P. and W. Wardencki. 2012. Volatile composition of raw spirits of different botanical origin. J. I. Brewing 118: 393–400.10.1002/jib.55 Search in Google Scholar

BS EN ISO 10520:1998. Native starch. Determination of starch content. Ewers polarimetric method, ISBN: 0 580 30395 0. Search in Google Scholar

Cachot T., M. Müller and M.-N. Pons. 1991. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Sac- charomyces cerevisiae. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 35: 450–454.10.1007/BF00169748 Search in Google Scholar

Cheraiti N., S. Guezenec and J.-M. Salmon. 2010. Very early acetaldehyde production by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: a new intrinsic character. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 86: 693–700.10.1007/s00253-009-2337-5Search in Google Scholar

Kłosowski G., D. Mikulski, B. Czupryński and K. Kotarska. 2010. Characterisation of fermentation of high-gravity maize mashes with the application of pullulanase, proteolytic enzymes and enzymes degrading non-starch polysaccharides. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 109(5): 466–471.10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.10.024Search in Google Scholar

Kłosowski G. and D. Mikulski, 2010. The effect of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on the composition of alcoholic fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits. Bioresource Technol. 101: 9723–9727.10.1016/j.biortech.2010.07.085 Search in Google Scholar

Lambrechts M.G. and I.S. Pretorius. 2000. Yeast and its importance to wine aroma – a review. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic. 21: 97–129.10.21548/21-1-3560 Search in Google Scholar

Li E. and R.M. de Orduña. 2011. Evaluation of acetaldehyde production and degradation potential of 26 enological Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in a resting cell model system. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38: 1391–1398.10.1007/s10295-010-0924-1 Search in Google Scholar

Liu S.-Q. and G.J. Pilone. 2000. An overview of formation and roles of acetaldehyde in winemaking with emphasis on microbiological implications. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 35: 49–61.10.1046/j.1365-2621.2000.00341.x Search in Google Scholar

Longo E., J.B. Velázquez, C. Sieiro, J. Cansado, P. Calo and T.G. Villa. 1992. Production of higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde and other compounds by 14 Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains isolated from the same region (Salnés, N. W. Spain). World J. Microb. Biot. 8: 539–541. Search in Google Scholar

Lorenz K. and B. Wright. 1984. Phytate and tannin content of amaranth. Food Chem. 14(1): 27–34.10.1016/0308-8146(84)90015-3 Search in Google Scholar

Mikulski D., G. Kłosowski and A. Rolbiecka. 2014. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process. Appl. Biochem. Biotech. 174: 1455–1470.10.1007/s12010-014-1139-025119551 Search in Google Scholar

Mikulski D. and G. Kłosowski. 2015. Phytic acid concentration in selected raw materials and the analysis of its hydrolysis rate with the use of microbial phytases during the mashing process. J. I. Brewing 121: 213–218.10.1002/jib.221 Search in Google Scholar

Moreno-Arribas M.V. and M. C. Polo. 2009. Wine Chemistry and Biochemistry. Springer Science+Business Media, B.V., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.10.1007/978-0-387-74118-5 Search in Google Scholar

Nascimento R. F., J.C. Marques, B.S.L. Neto, D. De Keukeleire and D.W. Franco. 1997. Qualitative and quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of aldehydes in Brazilian sugar cane spirits and other distilled alcoholic beverages. J. Chromatogr. A 782: 13–23.10.1016/S0021-9673(97)00425-1 Search in Google Scholar

Nykänen L. and H. Suomalainen. 1983. Aroma of beer, wine and distilled alcoholic beverages. Kluwer Academic Publishers, D. Reidel Publishing Company, England. Search in Google Scholar

Pan W., D. Jussier, N. Terrade, R.Y. Yada and R.M. de Orduña. 2011. Kinetics of sugars, organic acids and acetaldehyde during simultaneous yeast-bacterial fermentations of white wine at different pH values. Food Res. Int. 44: 660–666. Search in Google Scholar

Pietruszka M. and J.S. Szopa. 2014. Agricultural distillates from polish varieties of rye. Czech J. Food Sci. 32(4): 406–411. Search in Google Scholar

Plutowska B., P. Biernacka and W. Wardencki. 2010. Identification of volatile compounds in raw spirits of different organoleptic quality. J. I. Brewing 116(4): 433–439.10.1002/j.2050-0416.2010.tb00794.x Search in Google Scholar

Ribéreau-Gayon P., D. Dubourdieu, B. Donèche and A. Lonvaud. 2006a. Handbook of enology. Vol. 2. The Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and Treatments. 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, England.10.1002/0470010398Search in Google Scholar

Ribéreau-Gayon P., D. Dubourdieu, B. Donèche and A. Lonvaud 2006b. Handbook of enology. Vol. 1. The microbiology of wine and vinifications. 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, England.10.1002/0470010363 Search in Google Scholar

Ueno Y. and H. Matsumoto. 1975. Inactivation of some thiol- enzymes by trichothecene mycotoxins from Fusarium species. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 23(10): 2439–2442. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo