1. bookVolume 65 (2016): Issue 3 (August 2016)
Journal Details
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Complex Biochemical Analysis of Fruiting Bodies from Newly Isolated Polish Flammulina velutipes Strains

Published Online: 26 Aug 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 65 (2016) - Issue 3 (August 2016)
Page range: 295 - 306
Received: 17 Jun 2014
Accepted: 11 Feb 2016
Journal Details
First Published
04 Mar 1952
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

The present study examined Polish strains of Flamulina velutipes as a potential source of nutraceuticals and found that their nutritional value is dependent on the fruiting bodies gathering time. To prove the above hypothesis protein, carbohydrate and phenolic substances concentration were determined. Moreover, catalase, superoxide dismutase, cellobiose dehydrogenase activities were assayed. In order to prove the healing properties of Enoki fruiting bodies the obtained extracts were tested for antioxidant and bacteriostatic abilities. We have proved that Polish F. velutipes fruiting bodies may be a rich source of antioxidants and that they are capable of inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus growth.


Adebayo E.A., J.K. Oloke, D.A. Aina and T.C. Bora. 2014. Antioxidant and nutritional importance of some Pleurotus species J. Microbiol. Biotech. Food. Sci. 3: 289–294. Search in Google Scholar

Baminger U., S.S. Subramaniam, V. Renganathan and D. Haltrich. 2001. Purification and characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenase from the plant pathogen Sclerotium (Athelia) rolfsii. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67: 1766–1774.10.1128/AEM.67.4.1766-1774.2001 Search in Google Scholar

Barros L., P. Baptista, L.M. Estevinho and I.C. Ferreira. 2007a. Effect of fruiting body maturity stage on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Lactarius sp. mushrooms. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 55: 8766–8771.10.1021/jf071435+ Search in Google Scholar

Barros L., P. Baptista and I.C.F.R. Ferreira. 2007b. Effect of Lac- tarius piperatus fruiting body maturity stage on antioxidant activity measured by several biochemical assays. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45: 1731–1737.10.1016/j.fct.2007.03.006 Search in Google Scholar

Barros L., T. Cruz, P. Baptista, L.M. Estevinho and I.C. Ferreira. 2008. Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals. Food Chem. Toxicol. 46: 2742–2747.10.1016/j.fct.2008.04.030 Search in Google Scholar

Beyer Jr.W.F. and I. Fridovich. 1987. Assaying for superoxide dismutase activity: Some large consequences of minor changes in conditions. Anal. Biochem. 161: 559–566.10.1016/0003-2697(87)90489-1 Search in Google Scholar

Bradford M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72: 248–254.10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3 Search in Google Scholar

Cai H.H., X.M. Liu, Z.Y. Chen, S.T. Liao and Y.X. Zou. 2013. Isolation, purification and identification of nine chemical compounds from Flammulina velutipes fruiting bodies. Food Chem. 141: 2873–2879. Search in Google Scholar

Camelini C., M. Maraschin, M. de Mendonça, C. Zucco, A. Ferreira and L. Tavares. 2005. Structural characterization of β-glucans of Agaricus brasiliensis in different stages of fruiting body maturity and their use in nutraceutical products. Biotechnol. Lett. 27: 1295–1299.10.1007/s10529-005-0222-616215828 Search in Google Scholar

Cao X., R. Liu, J. Liu, Y. Huo, W. Yang, M. Zeng and C. Yang. 2013. A novel polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes mycelia exhibits potential antitumor activity on laryngeal squamous cancer cell line Hep-2. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 171: 1444–1453.10.1007/s12010-013-0441-623955351 Search in Google Scholar

Chang S.T. 1987. World production of cultivated edible mushrooms in 1986. Mushr. J. Tropics. 7:117–120. Search in Google Scholar

Chang S.T. 2008. Overview of mushrooms cultivation and utilization as functional foods, pp. 1–33. In: Mushrooms as Functional Foods. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.10.1002/9780470367285.ch1 Search in Google Scholar

Chang Y.C., Y.M. Hsiao, M.F. Wu, C.C. Ou, Y.W. Lin, K.H. Lue and J.L. Ko. 2013. Interruption of lung cancer cell migration and proliferation by fungal immunomodulatory protein FIP-fve from Flammulina velutipes. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 61: 12044–12052.10.1021/jf403027224274472 Search in Google Scholar

Cheung L.M., P.C.K. Cheung and V.E.C. Ooi. 2003. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chem. 81: 249–255.10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00419-3 Search in Google Scholar

Chiu K.W., A.H.W. Lam and P.K.T. Pang. 1995. Cardiovascular active substances from the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea. Phyt. Res. 9: 93–99. Search in Google Scholar

Deepalakshmi K., S. Mirunalini, M. Krishnaveni and V. Arul- mozhi. 2013. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of an ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum in rat mammary carcinogenesis. Chin. J. Nat. Med. 11: 621–627.10.1016/S1875-5364(13)60072-2 Search in Google Scholar

Di Naso F.C., R.N. de Mello, S. Bona, A.S. Dias, M. Porawski, B. Ferraz Ade, M.F. Richter and N.P. Marroni. 2010. Effect of Agaricus blazei Murill on the pulmonary tissue of animals with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Exp. Diabetes. Res. 2010: 543–926.10.1155/2010/543926 Search in Google Scholar

DuBois M., K.A. Gilles, J.K. Hamilton, P.A. Rebers and F. Smith. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28: 350–356.10.1021/ac60111a017 Search in Google Scholar

Eisele N., D. Linke, K. Bitzer, S. Na’amnieh, M. Nimtz and R.G. Berger. 2011. The first characterized asparaginase from a basi- diomycete, Flammulina velutipes. Bioresour. Technol. 102: 3316–3321.Search in Google Scholar

Ergonul P.G., I. Akata, F. Kalyoncu and B. Ergonul. 2013. Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species. Scientific World J. 1–4.10.1155/2013/163964 Search in Google Scholar

Garcia M.X., H. Alexander, D. Mahadeo, D.A. Cotter and S. Alexander. 2003. The Dictyostelium discoideum prespore-specific catalase B functions to control late development and to protect spore viability. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1641: 55–64.10.1016/S0167-4889(03)00064-8 Search in Google Scholar

Gunawardena D., L. Bennett, K. Shanmugam, K. King, R. Williams, D. Zabaras, R. Head, L. Ooi, E. Gyengesi and G. Munch. 2014. Anti-inflammatory effects of five commercially available mushroom species determined in lipopolysaccharide and inter- feron-gamma activated murine macrophages. Food Chem. 148: 92–96.10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.01524262531 Search in Google Scholar

Han Z.H., J.M. Ye and G.F. Wang. 2013. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 52: 66–71.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.09.00923000690 Search in Google Scholar

Hope C.F.A. and R.G. Burns. 1987. Activity, origins and location of cellulases in a silt loam soil. Biol. Fer. Soil. 5: 164–170. Search in Google Scholar

Iketani A., M. Nakamura, Y. Suzuki, K. Awai and Y. Shioi. 2013. A novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes. Fungal. Biol. 117: 173–181.10.1016/j.funbio.2013.01.00523537874 Search in Google Scholar

Janes D., A. Umek and S. Kreft. 2006. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of extracts of five species of wood-colonizing fungi. J. Basic. Microbiol. 46: 203–207.10.1002/jobm.20051003516721880 Search in Google Scholar

Janusz G., A. Czuryło, M. Frąc, B. Rola, J. Sulej, A. Pawlik, M. Siwulski and J. Rogalski. 2014. Laccase production and metabolic diversity among Flammulina velutipes strains. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 31: 121–133.10.1007/s11274-014-1769-y Search in Google Scholar

Jaszek M., J. Żuchowski, K. Dajczak, M. Cimek, M. Grąz and K. Grzywnowicz. 2006. Lignolytic enzymes can act as a part of multiple response system to oxidative stress in white rot Basidiomycetes Fomes fomentarius and Tyromyces pubescens. Int. Biodeter. Biodegr. 58: 168–175.10.1016/j.ibiod.2006.06.012 Search in Google Scholar

Jaszek M., M. Osinska-Jaroszuk, G. Janusz, A. Matuszewska, D. Stefaniuk, J. Sulej, J. Polak, M. Ruminowicz, K. Grzywnowicz and A. Jarosz-Wilkolazka. 2013. New bioactive fungal molecules with high antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity isolated from Cer- rena unicolor idiophasic cultures. Biomed. Res. Int. 2013: ID 497492.10.1155/2013/497492Search in Google Scholar

Kalac P. 2013. A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 93: 209–218.10.1002/jsfa.5960 Search in Google Scholar

Karaman M., E. Jovin, R. Malbasa, M. Matavuly and M. Popovic. 2010. Medicinal and edible lignicolous fungi as natural sources of antioxidative and antibacterial agents. Phytother. Res. 24: 1473–1481.10.1002/ptr.2969Search in Google Scholar

Karapetyan K.N., T.V. Fedorova, L.G. Vasil’chenko, R. Ludwig, D. Haltrich and M.L. Rabinovich. 2006. Properties of neutral cellobiose dehydrogenase from the ascomycete Chaetomium sp INBI 2–26(–) and comparison with basidiomycetous cellobiose dehydrogenases. J. Biotechnol. 121: 34–48.10.1016/j.jbiotec.2005.06.024 Search in Google Scholar

Kim J.K., S.H. Lim and H.W. Kang. 2013. Cloning and characterization of a novel laccase gene, fvlac7, based on the genomic sequence of Flammulina velutipes. Mycobiology 41: 37–41. Search in Google Scholar

Kotake T., N. Hirata, Y. Degi, M. Ishiguro, K. Kitazawa, R. Takata, H. Ichinose, S. Kaneko, K. Igarashi, M. Samejima and others. 2011. Endo-beta-1,3-galactanase from winter mushroom Flammu- lina velutipes. J. Biol. Chem. 286: 27848–27854. Search in Google Scholar

Kues U. and Y. Liu. 2000. Fruiting body production in basidiomy- cetes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54: 141–152.10.1007/s002530000396 Search in Google Scholar

Lemieszek M. and W. Rzeski. 2012. Anticancer properties of polysaccharides isolated from fungi of the Basidiomycetes class. Contemp. Oncol. (Pozn) 16:285–289.10.5114/wo.2012.30055 Search in Google Scholar

Leonowicz A. and K. Grzywnowicz. 1981. Quantitative estimation of laccase forms in some white-rot fungi using syringaldazine as a substrate. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 3: 55–58.10.1016/0141-0229(81)90036-3 Search in Google Scholar

Lin S.Y., Y.K. Chen, H.T. Yu, G.S. Barseghyan, M.D. Asatiani, S.P. Wasser and J.L. Mau. 2013. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 15: 315–323.10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v15.i3.80 Search in Google Scholar

Ma H., X. Xu and L. Feng. 2014. Responses of antioxidant defenses and membrane damage to drought stress in fruit bodies of Auricu- laria auricula-judae. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30: 119–124.10.1007/s11274-013-1416-z Search in Google Scholar

Ma J.Q., C.M. Liu, Z.H. Qin, J.H. Jiang and Y.Z. Sun. 2011. Ganoderma applanatum terpenes protect mouse liver against benzo(alpha)pyren-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 31: 460–468.10.1016/j.etap.2011.02.007 Search in Google Scholar

Mahmood Z.A., S.W. Ahmed, I. Azhar, M. Sualeh, M.T. Baig and S. Zoha. 2010. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybe. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 23: 349–357. Search in Google Scholar

Malarczyk E. 1989. Transformation of Phenolic-Acids by Nocardia. Acta Microbiol. Pol. 38: 45–53. Search in Google Scholar

Mau J.-L., C.-N. Chang, S.-J. Huang and C.-C. Chen. 2004. Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta and Termitomyces albuminosus mycelia. Food Chem. 87: 111–118. Search in Google Scholar

Moon B. and Y.M. Lo. 2013. Conventional and novel applications of edible mushrooms in today’s food industry. J. Food Process. Preserv. 38(5): 2146–2153. Search in Google Scholar

Moradali M.F., H. Mostafavi, S. Ghods and G.A. Hedjaroude. 2007. Immunomodulating and anticancer agents in the realm of macromy- cetes fungi (macrofungi). Int. Immunopharmacol. 7: 701–724.10.1016/j.intimp.2007.01.008 Search in Google Scholar

Niedermeyer T.H., U. Lindequist, R. Mentel, D. Gordes, E. Schmidt, K. Thurow and M. Lalk. 2005. Antiviral terpenoid constituents of Ganoderma pfeifferi. J. Nat. Prod. 68: 1728–1731.10.1021/np0501886 Search in Google Scholar

Nyanhongo G.S., C. Sygmund, R. Ludwig, E.N. Prasetyo and G.M. Guebitz. 2013. An antioxidant regenerating system for continuous quenching of free radicals in chronic wounds. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 83: 396–404.10.1016/j.ejpb.2012.10.013 Search in Google Scholar

Paduch R., G. Matysik, M. Wojciak-Kosior, M. Kandefer-Szerszen, A. Skalska-Kaminska, M. Nowak-Kryska and P. Niedziela. 2008. Lamium album extracts express free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities. Pol. J. Environ. Stud. 17: 569–580. Search in Google Scholar

Pazdzioch-Czochra M., E. Malarczyk and J. Sielewiesiuk. 2003. Relationship of demethylation processes to veratric acid concentration and cell density in cultures of Rhodococcus erythropolis. Cell. Biol. Int. 27: 325–336.10.1016/S1065-6995(02)00282-2 Search in Google Scholar

Rahman K. 2007. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and cofactors. Clin. Interv. Aging. 2: 219–236. Search in Google Scholar

Ramesh C. and M.G. Pattar. 2010. Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India. Pharmacognosy Res. 2: 107–112. Search in Google Scholar

Re R., N. Pellegrini, A. Proteggente, A. Pannala, M. Yang and C. Rice-Evans. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 26:1231–1237.10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3 Search in Google Scholar

Santoyo S., A.C. Ramirez-Anguiano, L. Aldars-Garcia, G. Reglero and C. Soler-Rivas. 2012. Antiviral activities of Boletus edulis, Pleu- rotus ostreatus and Lentinus edodes extracts and polysaccharide fractions against Herpes simplex virus type 1. J. Food Nutr. Res. 51: 225–235. Search in Google Scholar

Sulej J., G. Janusz, M. Osinska-Jaroszuk, P. Malek, A. Mazur, I. Komaniecka, A. Choma and J. Rogalski. 2013. Characterization of cellobiose dehydrogenase and its FAD-domain from the lignino- lytic basidiomycete Pycnoporus sanguineus. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 53: 427–437.10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.09.007 Search in Google Scholar

Temp U. and C. Eggert. 1999. Novel interaction between laccase and cellobiose dehydrogenase during pigment synthesis in the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65: 389–395.10.1128/AEM.65.2.389-395.1999 Search in Google Scholar

Tong S., H. Zhong, C. Yi, X. Cao, C.K. Firempong, Q. Zheng, Y. Feng, J. Yu and X. Xu. 2014. Simultaneous HPLC determination of ergosterol and 22,23-dihydroergosterol in Flammulina velutipes sterol-loaded microemulsion. Biomed. Chromatogr. 28: 247–254. Search in Google Scholar

Wayne L.G. and G.A. Diaz. 1986. A double staining method for differentiating between two classes of mycobacterial catalase in polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels. Anal. Biochem. 157: 89–92.10.1016/0003-2697(86)90200-9 Search in Google Scholar

Wiater A., R. Paduch, A. Choma, M. Pleszczynska, M. Siwulski, J. Dominik, G. Janusz, M. Tomczyk and J. Szczodrak. 2012. Biological study on carboxymethylated (1––>3)-alpha-D-glucans from fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 51: 1014–1023.10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.08.01722947449 Search in Google Scholar

Wright T. 2004. Medicinal mushrooms, pp: 26–29. In: Nutraceuticals World, Ramsey N.J. (ed.). Roman Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

Wu G.S., J.J. Guo, J.L. Bao, X.W. Li, X.P. Chen, J.J. Lu and Y.T. Wang. 2013a. Anti-cancer properties of triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum – a review. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs. 22: 981–992.10.1517/13543784.2013.80520223790022 Search in Google Scholar

Wu S.J., T.M. Lu, M.N. Lai and L.T. Ng. 2013b. Immunomodulatory activities of medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa extract and its bioactive constituent. Am. J. Chin. Med. 41: 131–144.10.1142/S0192415X1350010923336512 Search in Google Scholar

Xu X., H. Yan, J. Chen and X. Zhang. 2011. Bioactive proteins from mushrooms. Biotechnol. Adv. 29: 667–674.10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.00321605654 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang Y., C. Venkitasamy, Z. Pan and W. Wang. 2013. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms – A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 33: 78–92.10.1016/j.tifs.2013.08.002 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang Z.F., G.Y. Lv, W.Q. He, L.G. Shi, H.J. Pan and L.F. Fan. 2013. Effects of extraction methods on the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides obtained from Flammulina velutipes. Carbohyd. Polym. 98: 1524–1531.10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.07.05224053835 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo