1. bookVolume 11 (2011): Issue 3 (June 2011)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Biogenic Magnetite in Humans and New Magnetic Resonance Hazard Questions

Published Online: 12 Aug 2011
Volume & Issue: Volume 11 (2011) - Issue 3 (June 2011)
Page range: 85 - 91
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English
Biogenic Magnetite in Humans and New Magnetic Resonance Hazard Questions

The widespread use of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques in clinical practice, and recent discovery of biogenic ferrimagnetic substances in human tissue, open new questions regarding health hazards and MR. Current studies are restricted just to the induction of Faraday currents and consequent thermal effects, or ‘inoffensive’ interaction with static magnetic field. We outlined that magnetic energies associated with interaction of ferrimagnetic particles and MR magnetic fields can be dangerous for sensitive tissues like the human brain is. To simulate the interaction mechanism we use our. ‘Cube’ model approach, which allows more realistic calculation of the particle's magnetic moments. Biogenic magnetite nanoparticles face during MR examination three principal fields: (i) main B0 field, (ii) gradient field, and (iii) B1 field. Interaction energy of biogenic magnetite nanoparticle with static magnetic field B0 exceeds the covalent bond energy 5 times for particles from 4 nm up to 150 nm. Translation energy in gradient field exceeds biochemical bond energy for particles bigger than 50 nm. Biochemical bond disruption and particle release to the tissue environment, in the presence of all MR fields, are the most critical points of this interaction. And together with relaxation processes after application of RF pulses, they make biogenic magnetite nanoparticles a potential MR health hazard issue.

Keywords

Banerjee, S.K., Moskowitz, B.M. (1985). Ferrimagnetic properties of magnetite. In Kirschvink, J.L. (ed.) Magnetite Biomineralization and Magnetoreception in Organisms: A New Magnetism. Plenum Publishing Corporation, 17-41.10.1007/978-1-4613-0313-8_2Search in Google Scholar

Lowenstam, H.A. (1962). Magnetite in denticle capping in recent chitons (polyplacophora). Bulletin Geological Society of America, 73, 435-438.10.1130/0016-7606(1962)73[435:MIDCIR]2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

Safarik, I., Safarikova, M. (2002). Magnetic nanoparticles and bioscience. Monatshefte fur Chemie, 133, 737-759.10.1007/s007060200047Search in Google Scholar

Kirschvink, J.L., Hagadorn, J.W. (2000). A grand unified theory of biomineralization. In Bauerlein, E. (ed.) The Biomineralization of Nano- and Micro-Structures. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley, 139-150.Search in Google Scholar

Thomas-Keprta, K. et al. (2000). Elongated prismatic magnetite crystals in ALH84001 carbonate globules: Potential Martian magnetofossils. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 4049-4081.10.1016/S0016-7037(00)00481-6Search in Google Scholar

Walker, M.M. (2008). A model for encoding of magnetic field intensity by magnetite-based magnetoreceptor cells. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 250, 85-91.10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.09.030Search in Google Scholar

Kirschvink, J.L., Kobayashi-Kirschvink, A., Woodford, B.J. (1992). Magnetite biomineralization in the human brain. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA, 89, 7683-7687.10.1073/pnas.89.16.7683Search in Google Scholar

Dunn, J.R. et al. (1995). Magnetic material in human hippocampus. Brain Research Bulletin, 36, 149-153.10.1016/0361-9230(94)00182-ZSearch in Google Scholar

Dobson, J., Grassi, P. (1996). Magnetic properties of human hippocampal tissue: Evaluation of artefacts and contamination sources. Brain Research Bulletin, 39, 255-259.10.1016/0361-9230(95)02132-9Search in Google Scholar

Schultheiss-Grassi, P., Weissiken, R., Dobson, J. (1999). TEM investigations of biogenic magnetite extracted from human hippocampus. Biochimica and Biophysica Acta, 1426, 212-216.10.1016/S0304-4165(98)00160-3Search in Google Scholar

Schultheiss-Grassi, P.P., Heller, F., Dobson, J. (1997). Analysis of magnetic material in the human heart, spleen and liver. Biometals, 10, 351-355.10.1023/A:1018340920329Search in Google Scholar

Hautot, D., Pankhurst, Q.A., Khan, N., Dobson, J. (2003). Preliminary evaluation of Nanoscale biogenic magnetite in AD brain tissue. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B (Biology Letters), 270, S62-S64.10.1098/rsbl.2003.0012Search in Google Scholar

Collingwood, J.F. et al. (2005). In-situ characterization and mapping of iron compounds in Alzheimer's tissue. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 7, 267-272.10.3233/JAD-2005-7401Search in Google Scholar

Pankhurst, Q.A., Hautot, D., Khan, N., Dobson, J. (2008). Increased levels of magnetic iron compounds in Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 13, 49-52.10.3233/JAD-2008-13105Search in Google Scholar

Dobson, J. (2002). Investigation of age-related variations in biogenic magnetite levels in the human hippocampus. Experimental Brain Research, 144, 122-126.10.1007/s00221-002-1066-0Search in Google Scholar

Bartzokis, G., Sultzer, D., Cummings, J., Holt, L.E., Hance, D.B., Henderson, V.W., Mintz, J. (2000). In vivo evaluation of brain iron in Alzheimer disease using MRI. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 47-53.10.1001/archpsyc.57.1.47Search in Google Scholar

Vaughan, T.E., Weaver, J.C. (1996). Energetic constraints on the creation of cell membrane pore by magnetic particles. Biophysical Journal, 71, 616-622.10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79262-7Search in Google Scholar

Strbak, O., Gogola, D., Frollo, I. (2011). Cube model approach in simulating of magnetite nanoparticles behaviour in external magnetic fields. In MESUREMENT 2011: 8th International Conference on Measurement, April 27-30, 2011. Bratislava: Institute of Measurement Science SAS.Search in Google Scholar

Huang, D.J. et al. (2004). Spin and orbital magnetic moments of Fe3O4. Physical Review Letters, 93 (7), 077204.10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.07720415324271Search in Google Scholar

Goya, G., Berquo, T., Fonseca, F., Morales, M. (2003). Static and dynamic magnetic properties of spherical magnetite nanoparticles. Journal of Applied Physics, 94 (5), 3520-3528.10.1063/1.1599959Search in Google Scholar

Chen, C.H., Abate, A.R., Lee, D., Terentjev, E.M., Weitz, D.A. (2009). Microfluidic Assembley of magnetic hydrogel particles with uniformly anisotropic structure. Advanced Materials, 21, 3201-3204.10.1002/adma.200900499Search in Google Scholar

Shellock, F.G. (2001). Metallic neurosurgical implants: evaluation of magnetic field interactions, heating and artifacts at 1.5-Tesla. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 14, 295-299.10.1002/jmri.118511536406Search in Google Scholar

New, P.F.J., Rosen, B.R., Brady, T.J. et al. (1983). Potential hazards and artifacts of ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic surgical and dental materials and devices in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Radiology, 147, 139-148.10.1148/radiology.147.1.6828719Search in Google Scholar

Kalambur, V.S., Han, B., Hammer, B.E., Shield, T.W., Bischof, J.C. (2005). In vitro characterization of movement, heating and visualization of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Nanotechnology, 16, 1221-1233.10.1088/0957-4484/16/8/041Search in Google Scholar

Naeeni, H.A., Haghpanahi, M. (2009). Viscoelastic modeling of brain MRE using FE method. Engineering and Technology, 54, 726-729.Search in Google Scholar

Glover, P.M. (2009). Interaction of MRI field gradients with the human body. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 54, R99-R115.10.1088/0031-9155/54/21/R01Search in Google Scholar

Triventi, M., Mattei, E., Calcagnini, G., Censi, F., Bartolini, P., Kainz, W., Bassen, H. (2007). Magnetic resonance induced heating of implantable leads. Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanita, 43 (3), 229-240.Search in Google Scholar

Wolke, R.L. (2009). Bond energy. Retrieved from http://science.jrank.org/pages/984/Bond-Energy.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

Turcu, R., Pana, O., Nan, A., Craciunescu, I., Chauver, O., Payen, C. (2008). Polypyrrole coated magnetite nanoparticles from water based nanofluids. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 41, 245002.Search in Google Scholar

Cavopol, A.V., Wamil, A.W., Holcomb, R.R., McLean, M.J. (1995). Measurement and analysis of static magnetic fields that block action potentials in cultured neurons. Bioelectromagnetics, 16, 197-206.10.1002/bem.2250160308Search in Google Scholar

Timko, M. et al. (2009). Magnetite properties and heating effects in bacterial magnetite nanoparticles. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 321, 1521-1524.10.1016/j.jmmm.2009.02.077Search in Google Scholar

Kirschvink, J.L., Walker, M.M., Diebel, C.E. (2001). Magnetite-based magnetoreception. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 462-467.10.1016/S0959-4388(00)00235-XSearch in Google Scholar

Weaver, J.C. (2002). Understanding conditions for which biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic field can be expected. Bioelectrochemistry, 56, 207-209.10.1016/S1567-5394(02)00038-5Search in Google Scholar

Kirschvink, J.L. (1994). Rock magnetism linked to human brain magnetite. Transaction American Geophysical Union, 75, 178-179.10.1029/94EO00859Search in Google Scholar

Warnke, U. (2007) Birds, Bees and Mankind: Destroying Nature by ‘Electrosmog’. A Brochure Series by the Competence Initiative for the Protection of Humanity, Enviroment and Democracy.Search in Google Scholar

Starcuk, Z., Bartusek, K., et al (2006). Evaluation of MRI artifacts caused by metallic dental implants and classification of the dental material in use. Measurement Science Review 6(2), 24-27.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo