1. bookVolume 8 (2014): Issue 2014 (January 2014)
    Proceedings from VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2644-5247
ISSN
1337-3463
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Survival rate and mortality of juvenile and immature eastern imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) from Bulgaria studied by satellite telemetry

Published Online: 26 Mar 2014
Volume & Issue: Volume 8 (2014) - Issue 2014 (January 2014) - Proceedings from VII. International Conference on the Conservation of the Eastern Imperial Eagle, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2013
Page range: 53 - 60
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2644-5247
ISSN
1337-3463
First Published
09 Nov 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

A long-living species like A. heliaca has a natal dispersal period lasting several years. This period is crucial for the survival and conservation of the eagles. In this study we present mortality factors and the survival rate of juvenile and immature A. heliaca from Bulgaria as established by satellite telemetry. A total of 20 juvenile A. heliaca were fitted with GPS/Argos transmitters in their nests in Bulgaria. Fourteen birds were tracked till their death and the bodies were found. Tracking allows the survival rate of juvenile and immature A. heliaca to be estimated for the first time. It is 59.1% for the first calendar year, 83.3% for the second calendar year and 80.0% for the third calendar year. The main mortality factor for juvenile and immature A. heliaca from the Bulgarian population is electrocution, which caused 59.0% of the mortality cases. Other threats identified are shooting, poisoning and collisions. Most of the fatalities of these tracked eagles occurred in Bulgaria (50%) and Turkey (43%). Thus, Turkey is a key country for conservation of the Bulgarian population ofA. heliaca during its dispersal period. Eagles from Bulgaria have been recorded dispersing further south, to Sudan and Saudi Arabia. Conservation efforts are needed both inside and outside Bulgaria in order to reduce mortality. International collaboration and the exchange of experiences should be part of any conservation strategy or plans focused on the eastern imperial eagle.

Keywords

Bagyura J, Szitta T, Haraszthy L, Firmánszky G, Viszló L, Kovács A, Demeter I & Horváth M2002: Population increase of eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Hungary between 1 980 and 2000. Aquila 1 07-1 08: 1 33-1 44.Search in Google Scholar

BirdLife International 201 3: Species factsheet: Aquila heliaca. Retrieved December 1 , 201 3, from http://www.birdlife.org.Search in Google Scholar

Danko Š 1 996: Beringungsergebnisse am Kaiseradler Aquila heliaca im Nordwesten des Brutareals, 389-403. In: Meyburg B-U & Chancellor Rd (eds), Eagle Studies. World Working Group on Birds of Prey (WWGBP), Berlin, London & Paris, 549.Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev D 2011 : Iztochniyat tsarski orel (Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny, 1 809) (Accipitridae - Aves) v Balgariya - razprostranenie, biologiya, ekologiya, chislenost i merki za opazvane [Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca heliaca Savigny, 1 809) (Accipitridae - Aves) in Bulgaria - distribution, biology, ecology, numbers, and conservation measures]. Synopsis of the PhD. thesis. BASNMNH, Sofia, 39. [In Bulgarian] Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev D, Horváth M, Kovács A, Stoychev S & Karyakin I 2011 .: Status and population trend of the eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Europe in the period 2000-201 0. Acta zoologica Bulgarica Supplementum 3: 5-1 4.Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev D, Gradev G, Stoychev S, Ivanov I, Petrov T & Marin S 2011 b: Increase of the population of the eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Bulgaria. Acta zoologica Bulgarica Supplementum 3: 41-54.Search in Google Scholar

Galabov Z 1 982: Fiziogeografski rayoni [Physiographic regions], 11 5-21 5. In: Galabov Z (ed), Geografiya na Balgariya , tom 3. Fiziogeografiya [Geography of Bulgaria, vol. 3. Physiography]. BAS, Sofia, 31 5. [In Bulgarian] Search in Google Scholar

Gradev G, Matarranz V, Dobreva E, Popov D, Marin S, Ivanov I & Zhelev P 2011 : First results of the tracking of eastern imperial eagles(Aquila heliaca) tagged with radio-transmitters in Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica Supplementum 3: 21-28.Search in Google Scholar

Gradev G, Zhelev P, Marin S 201 4: Identifying the home range of breeding pairs of eastern imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) through radio-tracking in Bulgaria. Slovak Raptor Journa 8(1 ): 63.Search in Google Scholar

IUCN 201 3: IUCN Red list of threatened species. Version 201 3.2. Retrieved December 1 , 201 3 from www.iucnredlist.org.Search in Google Scholar

Katzner T, Bragin E & Milner-Gulland E 2006: Modeling populations of long-lived birds of prey for conservation: a study of imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) in Kazakhstan. Biological Conservation 1 32: 322-335. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.-2006.04.024.Search in Google Scholar

Kenward R 2001 : A manual for wildlife radio tagging. 2nd edition. Academic Press, New York, 350.Search in Google Scholar

Ortega E, Manosa S, Margalida A, Sanchez R, Oria J & Gonzalez L 2009: A demographic description of the recovery of the vulnerable Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti. Oryx 43: 11 3-1 21 . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307991048.10.1017/S0030605307991048Search in Google Scholar

Meyburg B-U, Haraszthy L, Meyburg C & Viszlo L 1 995: Satelliten und Bodentelemetrie A. heliaca binemjungen Kaiseradler Aquila heliaca: Familien auflösung und Dispersion. Vogelwelt 11 6: 1 53-1 57.Search in Google Scholar

Petrov T & Stoychev S 2002: Natsionalen plan za deystvie za tsarskiya orel (A. heliaca) v Balgariya [National Action Plan for the imperial eagle (A. heliaca)], 1 32-1 61 . In: Iankov P (ed), Global threatened birds in Bulgaria. National Action plans for the conservation. Part 1 . BSPB-MOSV, Conservation Series, Book 4, BSPB, Sofia, 227. [In Bulgarian] Search in Google Scholar

Stoychev S, Ivanov I, Petrov T, Marin S, Demerdzhiev D, Gradev G & Domuschiev D 2004: Status of the eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Bulgaria between 1 994 and 2002, 653-660. In: Chancellor RD & Meyburg B-U (eds): Raptors worldwide. Proceedings of the VI world conference on birds of prey and owls. Budapest, Hungary 1 8-23 May 2003World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls & MME/BirdLife Hungary, Berlin & Budapest, 867.Search in Google Scholar

Stoychev S, Demerdzhiev D & Petrov T 201 3: Plan za deystvie za opazvane na krastatiya orel (A. heliaca) v Balgariya 201 3-2022 [National Action plan for the conservation of the eastern imperial eagle (A. heliaca) in Bulgaria 201 3-2022]. Ministry of Environment andWater, Sofia, 76. [In Bulgarian] Search in Google Scholar

Voos KH 1 960: Atlas of European birds. Nelson, Edinburgh, 284. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo