1. bookVolume 223 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2720-4286
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Doppler Effect in 2 × 2 to 4 × 4 Mimo Systems of Wireless Communication with Orthogonal Pilot Channel Estimation

Published Online: 31 Dec 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 223 (2020) - Issue 4 (December 2020)
Page range: 5 - 20
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2720-4286
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The Doppler effect in 2×2, 3×3, 4×4 MIMO wireless communication systems with channel estimation is studied. The orthogonal pilot signal approach is used for the channel estimation, where the Hadamard sequences are used for piloting, along with the eight alternative orthogonal sets similar to the Walsh set. MIMO transmissions are simulated for 10 cases of the frame length and pilot symbols per frame by no Doppler shift to 1100 Hz Doppler shift with a step of 100 Hz. Based on the simulation, it is ascertained that MIMO transmissions of shorter frames are less sensitive to the Doppler effect. Despite increasing the number of antennas does not mitigate the Doppler effect, and the bit-error rate performance of 4×4 MIMO systems worsens faster than that of 2×2 MIMO systems, it is better to use the maximum number of antennas. The Doppler effect does badly worsen the performance at highway and express train speeds (100 km/hr, and faster), leaving only possibility to further shorten transmissions. This, however, decreases the data rate, but the respective accuracy-versus-data-rate tradeoff must be acceptable.

Keywords

[1] Berger L. T., Schwager A., Pagani P., Schneider D. M., MIMO Power Line Communications: Narrow and Broadband Standards, EMC, and Advanced Processing. Devices, Circuits, and Systems, CRC Press, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Larsson E., Stoica P., Space-Time Block Coding For Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2003.10.1017/CBO9780511550065Search in Google Scholar

[3] Lee W. C. Y., Mobile Communications Engineering: Theory and Applications, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Naguib A. F., Tarokh V., Seshadri N., Calderbank A. R., Space-time codes for high data rate wireless communication: Mismatch analysis, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications, Montréal, Québec, Canada, 8–12 June 1997, pp. 309–313.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Pätzold M., Mobile Fading Channels, Wiley, 2002.10.1002/0470847808Search in Google Scholar

[6] Romanuke V. V., Computational method of building orthogonal binary functions bases for multichannel communication systems with code channels division, Mathematical Modeling and Computational Methods, Ternopil State Technical University, Ternopil, Ukraine, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Romanuke V. V., Generalization of the eight known orthonormal bases of binary functions to the eight orthonormal bases of binary surfaces, ‘Optoelectronic Information-Power Technologies’, 2007, No. 2, pp. 263–271.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Romanuke V. V., Simulation of code division by applying systems of orthogonal binary functions{wal(w,θ)}w=0L-1\left\{ {wal\left( {w,\theta } \right)} \right\}_{w = 0}^{L - 1}and{{romu(r,θ)}r=0L-1}u=18\left\{ {\left\{ {ro{m_u}\left( {r,\theta } \right)} \right\}_{r = 0}^{L - 1}} \right\}_{u = 1}^8in L-channeled CDMA-system, ‘Herald of Khmelnytskyi National University. Technical sciences’, 2008, No. 6, pp. 121–132.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Skolnik M., Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[10] Stern H., Mahmoud S., Communications Systems, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Tarokh V., Jafarkhami H., Calderbank A. R., Space-time block codes from orthogonal designs, ‘IEEE Transactions on Information Theory’, 1999, Vol. 45, No. 5, pp. 1456–1467.10.1109/18.771146Search in Google Scholar

[12] Tsoulos G., MIMO System Technology for Wireless Communications, CRC Press, 2006.10.1201/9781420005929Search in Google Scholar

[13] Walsh J. L. A closed set of normal orthogonal functions, ‘American Journal of Mathematics’, 1923, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 5–24.10.2307/2387224Search in Google Scholar

[14] Zhihua L., Qishan Z., Ordering of Walsh Functions, ‘IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility’, 1983, Vol. EMC-25, No. 2, pp. 115–119.10.1109/TEMC.1983.304153Search in Google Scholar

[15] Zhuang A., Lohan E. S., Renfors M., Comparison of decision-directed and pilot-aided algorithms for complex channel tap estimation in downlink WCDMA systems, Proceedings of 11th IEEE Personal and Indoor Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), Vol. 2, London, UK, September 2000, pp. 1121–1125.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo