1. bookVolume 26 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-0707
First Published
19 Jul 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Relationship between head and neck injuries and helmet use in fatal motorcycle and moped crashes in Denmark

Published Online: 13 May 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 26 (2020) - Issue 1 (June 2020)
Page range: 1 - 7
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-0707
First Published
19 Jul 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Motorcycle- and moped crashes are prevalent in motorised societies and carry a significant risk of serious injury. Whereas helmet use has reduced the frequency and severity of head injuries, the association between helmet use and neck injury risk is less clear. In the present retrospective study, we examined the relationship between helmet use and various types of head and neck injuries resulting from fatal motorcycle and moped crashes during a 20-year period. Eighty-three cases were included of whom 56 were analysed in detail based on their confirmed use/non-use of helmet. Intracranial haemorrhage was the most common finding, followed by CNS disruption and skull fracture. There was a significantly lower prevalence of skull vault fractures and epidural haemorrhage in the helmeted cases. Injuries to the brainstem and cervical spine fracture/dislocation were more common in the helmeted cases, although this was likely a function of higher speeds among motorcycle riders rather than an effect of helmet use per se. Further investigation of these findings require additional detailed information regarding the nature and severity of the crash, as well as helmet use and type, in order to assess non-confounded associations with the anatomical distribution, type and severity of observed head and neck injuries.

Keywords

[1] Vejdirektoratet. Trafikulykker for året 2017. Vejdirektoratet 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Færdselssikkerhedskommisionen. Hver ulykke er én for meget - et fælles ansvar. Færdselssikkerhedskommisionens nationale handlingsplan 2013-2020. Rådet for Sikker Trafik 2013, Cool Gray.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Liu BC, Ivers R, Norton R, Boufous S, Blows S, Lo SK. Helmets for preventing injury in motorcycle riders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(1):CD004333.10.1002/14651858.CD004333.pub3Search in Google Scholar

[4] Moskal A, Martin JL, Laumon B. Helmet use and the risk of neck or cervical spine injury among users of motorized two-wheel vehicles. Inj Prev 2008;14(4):238-244.10.1136/ip.2007.018093Search in Google Scholar

[5] Goldstein JP. The effect of motorcycle helmet use on the probability of fatality and the severity of head and neck injuries: a latent variable framework. Eval Rev 1986;10(3):355-375.10.1177/0193841X8601000306Search in Google Scholar

[6] Krantz KP. Head and neck injuries to motorcycle and moped riders--with special regard to the effect of protective helmets. Injury 1985;16(4):253-258.10.1016/S0020-1383(85)80014-0Search in Google Scholar

[7] Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005 (Update 2008). Association for the Advancement of Automative Medicine 2008, Chicago, IL, USA.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Stoner HB, Heath DF, Yates DW, Frayn KN. Measuring the severity of injury. J R Soc Med 1980;73(1):19-22.10.1177/014107688007300105Search in Google Scholar

[9] Osler T, Baker SP, Long W. A modification of the injury severity score that both improves accuracy and simplifies scoring. J Trauma 1997;43(6):922-925.10.1097/00005373-199712000-000099420106Search in Google Scholar

[10] Lavoie A, Moore L, LeSage N, Liberman M, Sampalis JS. The Injury Severity Score or the New Injury Severity Score for predicting intensive care unit admission and hospital length of stay? Injury 2005;36(4):477-483.10.1016/j.injury.2004.09.03915755427Search in Google Scholar

(11] Freeman MD, Dobbertin K, Kohles SS, Uhrenholt L, Eriksson A. Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes. Forensic Sci Int 2012;222(1-3):228-233.10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.06.00322742739Search in Google Scholar

[12] Danmarks Statistik. Tilskadekomne og dræbte i færdselsuheld efter personskade, indblandede transportmidler, område og tid. Online http://www.statistikbanken.dk accessed October 31, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Auman KM, Kufera JA, Ballesteros MF, Smialek JE, Dischinger PC. Autopsy study of motorcyclist fatalities: the effect of the 1992 Maryland motorcycle helmet use law. Am J Public Health 2002;92(8):1352-1355.10.2105/AJPH.92.8.1352Search in Google Scholar

[14] Hitosugi M, Takatsu A, Shigeta A. Injuries of motorcyclists and bicyclists examined at autopsy. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1999;20(3):251-255.10.1097/00000433-199909000-0000710507793Search in Google Scholar

[15] Singleton MD. Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury. Traffic Inj Prev 2017;18(4):387-392.10.1080/15389588.2016.121127127585909Search in Google Scholar

[16] Whyte T, Gibson T, Anderson R, Eager D, Milthorpe B. Mechanisms of Head and Neck Injuries Sustained by Helmeted Motorcyclists in Fatal Real-World Crashes: Analysis of 47 In-Depth Cases. J Neurotrauma 2016;33(19):1802-1807.10.1089/neu.2015.420826910490Search in Google Scholar

[17] Zhang L, Yang KH, King AI. A proposed injury threshold for mild traumatic brain injury. J Biomech Eng 2004;126(2):226-236.10.1115/1.169144615179853Search in Google Scholar

[18] Huang J, Peng Y, Yang J, Otte D, Wang B. A study on correlation of pedestrian head injuries with physical parameters using in-depth traffic accident data and mathematical models. Accid Anal Prev 2018;119:91-103.10.1016/j.aap.2018.07.01230015170Search in Google Scholar

[19] King AI, Yang K, Zhang L, Hardy W, Viano DC. Is head injury caused by linear or angular acceleration? IRCOBI Conference Proceedings 2003. Lissabon, Portugal.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Rice TM, Troszak L, Erhardt T, Trent RB, Zhu M. Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality. Accid Anal Prev 2017;103:123-128.10.1016/j.aap.2017.04.002592470728431344Search in Google Scholar

[21] Sarkar S, Peek C, Kraus JF. Fatal injuries in motorcycle riders according to helmet use. J Trauma 1995;38(2):242-245.10.1097/00005373-199502000-000177869444Search in Google Scholar

[22] Hurt HH, Ouellet JV, Thom DR. Motorcycle accidents cause factors and identification of countermeasures: Vol I: Technical Report. 1981. Department of Transportation; Washington DC, US.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Behrensdorff I. Cyklisters brug af cykelhjelm og knallertkøreres brug af styrthjelm i bytrafik. 2009. Rådet for Større Færdselssikkerhed, 2100 København Ø, DK.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Havarikommissionen for Vejtrafikulykker. Motorcykler. 2009. Havarikommisionen for Vejtrafikulykker, Nofoprint.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Uhrenholt L, Gregersen M. Hvorfor obduceres så få trafikdræbte? Dansk Politi 2003;5:30-31.Search in Google Scholar

[26] Legrand L, Delabarde T, Souillard-Scemama R, Sec I, Plu I, Laborie JM et al. Comparison between postmortem computed tomography and autopsy in the detection of traumatic head injuries. J Neuroradiol 2020;47(1):5-12.10.1016/j.neurad.2019.03.00830954548Search in Google Scholar

[27] Jacobsen C, Bech BH, Lynnerup N. A comparative study of cranial, blunt trauma fractures as seen at medicolegal autopsy and by computed tomography. BMC Med Imaging 2009;9:18 doi:10.1186/1471-2342-9-1810.1186/1471-2342-9-18277045319835570Search in Google Scholar

[28] Uhrenholt L, Boel LW. Contributions from Forensic Imaging to the Investigation of Upper Cervical Fractures. J Forensic Sci 2010;55(6):1598-1602.10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01527.x20735707Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo