1. bookVolume 67 (2018): Issue 1 (February 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Genetic diversity and stand structure of neighboring white willow (Salix alba L.) populations along fragmented riparian corridors: a case study

Published Online: 25 Aug 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 67 (2018) - Issue 1 (February 2018)
Page range: 79 - 88
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2509-8934
First Published
22 Feb 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Remnant riparian woodlands have an important landscape function, due to their ability to act as ecological corridors. In this study we used molecular markers to assess the genetic variation occurring within and between spontaneous white willow (Salix alba L.) riparian woodlands. Our main goal was to evaluate the extent to which the fragmentation of a woodland corridor along a heavily impacted river in northeastern Italy and stand structural conditions may have affected the population genetics. Although having different structures, the three examined white willow stands showed high estimates of genetic similarity, as well as low genetic differentiation between them, indicating that they shared a similar gene pool and that the stands could result from a common set of individual genotypes, and should be regarded as metapopulations. The magnitude of genetic diversity within each of the stands and genetic differentiation between them, despite their high sexual reproductive capacity associated with a highly marked gene flow, suggest that these stands are dynamic and capable of adaptive responses to possible changes in their fluvial environment. However, the factors influencing genetic diversity should be interpreted from a long-term perspective. Fluvial geomorphic patterns in regulated rivers may be modified to a degree that could lead to changes in dispersal processes, sexu­al reproduction vs. asexual propagation, and hence genetic diversity.

Keywords

Alsos IG, T Alm, S Normand and C Brochmann (2009) Past and future range shifts and loss of diversity in dwarf willow (Salix herbacea L.) inferred from genet­ics, fossils and modeling. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 18:223-239 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2008.00439.x10.1111/j.1466-8238.2008.00439.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Andersson E, C Nilsson and ME Johansson (2000) Effects of river fragmentation on plant dispersal and riparian flora. Regul River 16(1):83-89 https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1646(200001/02)16:1%3C83::aid-rr­r567%3E3.3.co;2-k10.1002/(sici)1099-1646(200001/02)16:1%3C83::aid-rrr567%3E3.3.co;2-kOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Aravanopoulos FA, AD Drouzas and PG Alizoti (2001) Electrophoretic and quan­titative variation in chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Hellenic populations in old-growth natural and coppice stands. For Snow Landsc Res 76:429-434Search in Google Scholar

Autorità di Bacino (2012) Progetto del Piano stralcio per la sicurezza idraulica del Bacino idrografico del Fiume Brenta. Documento preliminare. Venice, Italy: Segreteria Tecnico-Operativa dell’Autorità di BacinoSearch in Google Scholar

Barcaccia G, S Meneghetti, E Albertini, L Triest and M Lucchin (2003) Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and esti­mation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids. Heredity 90(2):169-180 https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.hdy.680021310.1038/sj.hdy.6800213Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Barcaccia G, S Meneghetti, M Lucchin and H de Jong (2014) Genetic segregation and genomic hybridization patterns support an allotetraploid structure and disomic inheritance for Salix species. Diversity 6(4):633-651 https://doi.org/10.3390/d604063310.3390/d6040633Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Barsoum N (2002) Relative contributions of sexual and asexual regeneration strategies in Populus nigra and Salix alba during the first years of establish­ment on a braided gravel bed river. Evol Ecol 15(4-6):255-279 https://doi.org/10.1023/a:101602873012910.1023/a:1016028730129Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Beismann H, JHA Barker, A Karp and T Speck (1997) AFLP analysis sheds light on distribution of two Salix species and their hybrid along a natural gradient. Mol Ecol 6(10):989-993 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1997.00273.x10.1046/j.1365-294x.1997.00273.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bensch S and M Akesson (2005) Ten years of AFLP in ecology and evolution: why so few animals? Mol Ecol 14(10):2899-2914 Berlin S, J Fogelqvist, M Lascoux, U Lagercrantz and AC Rönnberg-Wästljung (2011) Polymorphism and divergence in two willow species, Salix viminalis L. and Salix schwerinii E. Wolf. G3 1:387-400 https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.111.00053910.1534/g3.111.000539Search in Google Scholar

Broadmeadow S and TR Nisbet (2004) The effects of riparian forest management on the freshwater environment: a literature review of best management practice. Hydrol Earth Syst Sc 8(3):286-305 https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-8-286-200410.5194/hess-8-286-2004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

CABI (2018) Plantwise Technical Factsheed: white willow (Salix alba) Wallingford, UK https://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/Datasheet.aspx?dsid=48510 CABI InternationalSearch in Google Scholar

Chenault N, S Arnaud-Haond, M Juteau, R Valade, JL Almeida, M Villar, C Bastien and A Dowkiw (2011) SSR-based analysis of clonality, spatial genetic struc­ture and introgression from the Lombardy poplar into a natural population of Populus nigra L. along the Loire River. Tree Genet. Genomes 7(6):1249- 1262 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-011-0410-610.1007/s11295-011-0410-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Clark PJ and FC Evans (1954) Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spa­tial relationships in populations. Ecology 35(4):445-453 https://doi.org/10.2307/193103410.2307/1931034Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cliff AD and JK Ord (1981) Spatial processes: models and applications. London, UK: Pion LimitedSearch in Google Scholar

Costantini D, P Rocca and A Treu (2002) Piano Territoriale di Settore Medio Corso del Brenta. Padova: Provincia di Padova Settore AmbienteSearch in Google Scholar

Dice LR (1945) Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species. Ecology 26(3):297-302 https://doi.org/10.2307/193240910.2307/1932409Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Donnelly K (1978) Simulations to determine the variance and edge-effect of total nearest neighbour distance. In: Simulation methods in archaeology. Hodder I (ed) Cambridge: Cambridge University PressSearch in Google Scholar

Egelund B, C Pertoldi and AS Barfod (2012) Isolation and reduced gene flow among Faroese populations of tea-leaved willow (Salix phylicifolia, Salicace­ae). New J Botany 2:9-15 https://doi.org/10.1179/2042349712y.000000000310.1179/2042349712y.0000000003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Evanno G, S Regnaut and J Goudet (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of in­dividuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14(8):2611-2620 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294x.2005.02553.x10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02553.x15969739Search in Google Scholar

Falush D, M Stephens and JK Pritchard (2003) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data: linked loci and correlated allele frequencies. Genetics 164(4):1567-158710.1093/genetics/164.4.1567146264812930761Search in Google Scholar

Ferreira MT, FC Aguiar and C Nogueira (2005) Changes in Riparian woods over space and time: Influence of environment and land use. Forest Ecol Manag 212(1-3):145-159 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.01010.1016/j.foreco.2005.03.010Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Frankham R, JJD Ballou and DDA Briscoe (2010) Introduction to conservation ge­netics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo978051180900210.1017/cbo9780511809002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gergel SE, MD Dixon and MG Turner (2002) Consequences of human-altered floods: levees, floods, and floodplain forests along the Wisconsin River. Ecol Appl 12:1755-1770 https://doi.org/10.2307/309993610.2307/3099936Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hill WG (1974) Estimation of linkage disequilibrium in randomly mating popula­tions. Heredity 33(2):229-239 https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.1974.8910.1038/hdy.1974.894531429Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Imbert E and F Lefevre (2003) Dispersal and gene flow of Populus nigra (Salicace­ae) along a dynamic river system. J Ecol 91(3):447-456 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00772.x10.1046/j.1365-2745.2003.00772.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Inza MV, N Zelener, L Fornes and LA Gallo (2012) Effect of latitudinal gradient and impact of logging on genetic diversity of Cedrela lilloi along the Argentine Yungas rainforest. Ecol Evol 2:2722-2736 https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.33610.1002/ece3.336350162523170208Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Karrenberg S, PJ Edwards and J Kollmann (2002) The life history of Salicaceae liv­ing in the active zone of floodplains. Freshwater Biol 47(4):733-748 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00894.x10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00894.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kikuchi S, W Suzuki and N Sashimura (2011) Gene flow in an endangered willow Salix hukaoana (Salicaceae) in natural and fragmented riparian landscapes. Conserv Genet 12(1):79-89 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-009-9992-z10.1007/s10592-009-9992-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Klimo E and H Hager (eds) (2001) The floodplain forests in Europe: current situa­tion and perspectives. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV10.1163/9789004476547Search in Google Scholar

Lewis PO and D Zaykin (2001) Genetic Data Analysis: computer program for the analysis of allelic data. Version 1.0 (d16c). Free program distributed by the authorsSearch in Google Scholar

Martini P, L Carniello and C Avanzi (2004) Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sedimenttransport: the case of the Brenta River, Vene­to (Italy). Nat Hazard Earth Sys 4(1):165-181 https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-4-165-200410.5194/nhess-4-165-2004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

McDermott JM and BA McDonald (1993) Gene flow in plant pathosystems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 31:353-373 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.py.31.090193.00203310.1146/annurev.py.31.090193.002033Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Meneghetti S, G Barcaccia, P Paiero and M Lucchin (2007) Genetic characteriza­tion of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems. Plant Biosyst 141(3):283-291 https://doi.org/10.1080/1126350070162744810.1080/11263500701627448Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Merriam G (1984) Connectivity: a fundamental ecological characteristic of land­scape pattern. Proceedings of the International Association for Landscape Ecology 1:5-15Search in Google Scholar

Mirski P, E Brzosko, I Jędrzejczyk, J Kotowicz, B Ostrowiecka and A Wróblewska (2017) Genetic structure of dioecious and trioecious Salix myrsinifolia popu­lations at the border of geographic range. Tree Genetics & Genomes 13:1510.1007/s11295-016-1096-6Search in Google Scholar

Moran PAP (1950) Notes on continous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika 37:17- 23 https://doi.org/10.2307/233214210.2307/2332142Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Moretto J, E Rigon, L Mao, L Picco, F Delai and MA Lenzi (2014) Channel Adjust­ments and Island Dynamics in the Brenta River (Italy) over the Last 30 Years. River Res Appl 30(6):719-732 https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.267610.1002/rra.2676Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mosner E, S Liepelt, B Ziegenhagen and I Leyer (2012) Floodplain willows in fragmented river landscapes: Understanding spatio-temporal genetic patterns as a basis for restoration plantings. Biol Conserv 153:211-218 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.05.00510.1016/j.biocon.2012.05.005Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Muhar S, M Jungwirth, G Unfer, C Wiesner, M Poppe, S Schmutz, S Hohensinner and H Habersack (2008) Restoring riverine landscapes at the Drau River: successes and deficits in the context of ecological integrity. In: Gravel-bed rivers VI: from process understanding to river restoration. Habersack H, H Piégay and M Rinaldi (eds). Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp 779-803 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0928-2025(07)11164-010.1016/s0928-2025(07)11164-0Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Naiman RJ and H Decamps (1997) The ecology of interfaces: Riparian zones. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 28:621-658 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.62110.1146/annurev.ecolsys.28.1.621Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Naiman RJ, H Decamps and M Pollock (1993) The role of riparian corridors in maintaining regional biodiversity. Ecol Appl 3(2):209-212 https://doi.org/10.2307/194182210.2307/194182227759328Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nilsson C, RL Brown, R Jansson and DM Merritt (2010) The role of hydrochory in structuring riparian and wetland vegetation. Biol Rev 85(4):837-858 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185x.2010.00129.x10.1111/j.1469-185x.2010.00129.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nilsson C and R Jansson (1995) Floristic differences between riparian corridors of regulated and free-flowing boreal rivers. Regul River 11(1):55-66 https://doi.org/10.1002/rrr.345011010610.1002/rrr.3450110106Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Paffetti D, D Travaglini, A Buonamici, S Nocentini, GG Vendramin, R Giannini and C Vettori (2012) The influence of forest management on beech (Fagus syl­vatica L.) stand structure and genetic diversity. Forest Ecol Manag 284:34- 44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.02610.1016/j.foreco.2012.07.026Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Picco L, T Sitzia, L Mao, F Comiti and MA Lenzi (2015) Linking riparian woody communities and fluviomorphological characteristics in a regulated grav­el-bed river (Piave River - Northern Italy). Ecohydrology 9:101-112 https://doi.org/10.1002/eco.161610.1002/eco.1616Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pinay G, JC Clement and RJ Naiman (2002) Basic principles and ecological con­sequences of changing water regimes on nitrogen cycling in fluvial sys­tems. Environ Manage 30(4):481-491 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-002-2736-110.1007/s00267-002-2736-112481915Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pogorzelec M, K Glebocka, B Hawrylak-Novak and M Parzymies (2014) Repro­duction and diversity of the endangered Salix lapponum L. populations in Eastern Poland. Turk J Bot 38(14):1239-1247 https://doi.org/10.3906/bot-1405-11310.3906/bot-1405-113Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rajora OP and A Mosseler (2001) Challenges and opportunities for conservation of forest genetic resources. Euphytica 118(2):197-21210.1023/A:1004150525384Search in Google Scholar

Rathmacher G, M Niggemann, M Köhnen, B Ziegenhagen and R Bialozyt (2010) Short-distance gene flow in Populus nigra L. accounts for small-scale spatial genetic structures: implications for in situ conservation measures. Conserv Genet 11(4):1327-1338 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10592-009-9961-610.1007/s10592-009-9961-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ravazzolo D, L Mao, L Picco, T Sitzia and MA Lenzi (2015) Geomorphic effects of wood quantity and characteristics in three Italian gravel-bed rivers. Geo­morphology 246:79-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.06.01210.1016/j.geomorph.2015.06.012Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Richards K, J Brasington and F Hughes (2002) Geomorphic dynamics of flood­plains: ecological implications and a potential modelling strategy. Freshwa­ter Biol 47(4):559-579 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00920.x10.1046/j.1365-2427.2002.00920.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Richardson DM, PM Holmes, KJ Esler, SM Galatowitsch, JC Stromberg, SP Kirk­man, P Pysek and RJ Hobbs (2007) Riparian vegetation: degradation, alien plant invasions, and restoration prospects. Divers Distrib 13(1):126-139 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00314.x10.1111/j.1366-9516.2006.00314.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rohlf FJ (2008) NTSYSpc: Numerical Taxonomy System, ver. 2.20. Setauket, NY, USA: Exeter Publishing, Ltd.Search in Google Scholar

Sabo JL, R Sponseller, M Dixon, K Gade, T Harms, J Heffernan, A Jani, G Katz, C Soykan, J Watts and A Welter (2005) Riparian zones increase regional spe­cies richness by harboring different, not more, species. Ecology 86(1):56-62 https://doi.org/10.1890/04-066810.1890/04-0668Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Savolainen O and K Kärkkäinen (1992) Effect of forest management on gene pools. New Forest 6:329-345 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2815-5_1710.1007/978-94-011-2815-5_17Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sawada M (1999) ROOKCASE: An Excel 97/2000 Visual Basic (VB) Add-in for ex­ploring global and local spatial autocorrelation. Bull Ecol Soc Am 80(4):231- 234Search in Google Scholar

Sinclair DF (1985) On tests of spatial randomness using mean nearest neighbor distance. Ecology 66(3):1084-1085 https://doi.org/10.2307/194056810.2307/1940568Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sitzia T, L Picco, D Ravazzolo, F Comiti, L Mao and MA Lenzi (2016) Relationships between woody vegetation and geomorphological patterns in three grav­el-bed rivers with different intensities of anthropogenic disturbance. Adv Water Resour 93:193-204 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.11.01610.1016/j.advwatres.2015.11.016Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sjölund MJ and AS Jump (2015) Coppice management of forests impacts spatial genetic structure but not genetic diversity in European beech (Fagus sylvat­ica L.). Forest Ecol Manag 336:65-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.01510.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.015Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smulders MJM, MMP Cobben, P Arens and J Verboom (2009) Landscape genet­ics of fragmented forests: anticipating climate change by facilitating migra­tion. Iforest 2:128-132 https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0505-00210.3832/ifor0505-002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Smulders MJM, JE Cottrell, F Lefevre, J van der Schoot, P Arens, B Vosman, HE Tabbener, F Grassi, T Fossati, S Castiglione, V Krystufek, S Fluch, K Burg, B Vornam, A Pohl, K Gebhardt, N Alba, D Agundez, C Maestro, E Notivol, R Vo­losyanchuk, M Pospiskova, S Bordacs, J Bovenschen, BC van Dam, HP Koelewijn, D Halfmaerten, B Ivens, J van Slycken, AV Broeck, V Storme and W Boerjan (2008) Structure of the genetic diversity in black poplar (Populus nigra L.) populations across European river systems: Consequences for con­servation and restoration. Forest Ecol Manag 255(5-6):1388-1399 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.06310.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.063Search in Google Scholar

Sochor M, RJ Vasut, E Bartova, L Majesky and J Mracek (2013) Can gene flow among populations counteract the habitat loss of extremely fragile bio­topes? An example from the population genetic structure in Salix daphnoi­des. Tree Genet. Genomes 9(5):1193-1205 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11295-013-0628-610.1007/s11295-013-0628-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sork VL and PE Smouse (2006) Genetic analysis of landscape connectivity in tree populations. Landscape Ecol 21(6):821-836 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-005-5415-910.1007/s10980-005-5415-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Steiger J, E Tabacchi, S Dufour, D Corenblit and JL Peiry (2005) Hydrogeomor­phic processes affecting riparian habitat within alluvial channel-floodplain river systems: A review for the temperate zone. River Res Appl 21(7):719- 737 https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.87910.1002/rra.879Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Surian N (2009) Effects of human impact on braided river morphology: exam­ples from Northern Italy. In: Braided Rivers: Process, Deposits, Ecology and Management. Sambrook Smith GH, JL Best, CS Bristow and GE Petts (eds). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444304374.ch1610.1002/9781444304374.ch16Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Surian N and A Cisotto (2007) Channel adjustments, bedload transport and sed­iment sources in a gravel-bed river, Brenta River, Italy. Earth Surf Proc Land 32(11):1641-1656 https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.159110.1002/esp.1591Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Surian N and M Rinaldi (2003) Morphological response to river engineering and management in alluvial channels in Italy. Geomorphology 50(4):307-326 https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-555x(02)00219-210.1016/s0169-555x(02)00219-2Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tabacchi E, DL Correll, R Hauer, G Pinay, AM Planty-Tabacchi and RC Wissmar (1998) Development, maintenance and role of riparian vegetation in the river landscape. Freshwater Biol 40(3):497-516 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.1998.00381.x10.1046/j.1365-2427.1998.00381.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Van Puyvelde K and L Triest (2007) SRs indicate isolation by distance and spatial structuring in Salix alba populations along Alpine upstream rivers (Alto Adige and Upper Rhine). Belg J Bot 140:100-108Search in Google Scholar

Vanden Broeck A, V Storme, JE Cottrell, W Boerjan, E Van Bockstaele, P Quataert and J Van Slycken (2004) Gene flow between cultivated poplars and native black poplar (Populus nigra L.): a case study along the river Meuse on the Dutch-Belgian border. Forest Ecol Manag 197(1-3):307-310 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2004.05.02110.1016/j.foreco.2004.05.021Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Watt AS (1947) Pattern and process in plant community. J Ecol 35:1-22 https://doi.org/10.2307/225649710.2307/2256497Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wright S (1984) Evolution and the genetics of populations, Volume 4: Variability within and among natural populations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.2307/252996510.2307/2529965Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yeh FC, R-C Yang, TBJ Boyle, Z-H Ye and JX Mao (1997) POPGENE, the user-friend­ly shareware for population genetic analysis. Canada: Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of AlbertaSearch in Google Scholar

Young A, T Boyle and T Brown (1996) The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends Ecol Evol 11(10):413-418 https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(96)10045-8.10.1016/0169-5347(96)10045-8Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo