1. bookVolume 40 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)
Journal Details
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

A dendrochronological analysis of Pinus pinea L. on the Italian mid-Tyrrhenian coast

Published Online: 27 Dec 2012
Volume & Issue: Volume 40 (2013) - Issue 1 (March 2013)
Page range: 77 - 89
Journal Details
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

In order to assess the response of the radial growth of Pinus pinea L. to climatic variability in Central Italy, dendrochronological and dendroclimatological analyses were carried out on five different populations scattered along the Tyrrhenian coasts of the peninsula. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the ecological demands of this species, particularly in the study area.

For each site total ring, early-, and late-wood width chronologies were developed.

Multidimensional analyses were performed for the three tree-ring datasets in order to analyze the relations between sites chronologies. Both Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classifications highlighted an important difference of one site in respect to the other, probably due to site characteristics.

Correlation functions were performed to infer the main climatic factors controlling the radial growth of the species. For a comparative study, we limited our attention to the common interval 1926–2003 (78 years) in which the response of the tree-ring chronologies to climate at both local and regional scale was investigated.

Positive moisture balance in the late spring-summer period of the year of growth is the climatic driver of P. pinea radial growth in the study area. Moreover, this study shows how low summer temperatures strongly favor the radial growth of the species.


[1] Akkemik U, 2000. Dendroclimatology of Umbrella pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Istanbul, Turkey. Tree-Ring Bullettin 56:17–20. Search in Google Scholar

[2] Aniol RW, 1983. Tree-ring analysis using CATRAS. Dendrochronologia 1: 45–53. Search in Google Scholar

[3] Aniol RW, 1987. A new device for computer assisted measurement of tree-ring widths. Dendrochronologia 5:135–141. Search in Google Scholar

[4] Ashmann H, 1973. Distribution and Peculiarity of Mediterranean Ecosystems. In Mediterranean Type Ecosystems — Origin and Structure, di Castri F. and Mooney H.A., eds, Berlin, Springer: 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-65520-3_210.1007/978-3-642-65520-3_2Search in Google Scholar

[5] Attolini MR, Calvani F, Galli M, Nanni T, Ruggiero L, Schaer E and Zuanni F, 1990. The relationship between climatic variables and wood structure in Pinus halepensis Mill. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 41: 121–127, DOI 10.1007/BF00866435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0086643510.1007/BF00866435Search in Google Scholar

[6] Awada T, Radoglou K, Fotelli MN and Constantinidou HIA, 2003. Ecophysiology of seedlings of three Mediterranean pine species in contrasting light regimes. Tree Physiology 23(1): 33–41, DOI 10.1093/treephys/23.1.33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/23.1.3310.1093/treephys/23.1.33Search in Google Scholar

[7] Ayrilmis N, Buyuksari U, Avci E and Koc E, 2009. Utilization of pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone in manufacture of wood based composite. Forest Ecology and Management 259(1): 65–70, DOI 10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.043. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.04310.1016/j.foreco.2009.09.043Search in Google Scholar

[8] Bagnouls F and Gaussen H, 1953. Saison sèche et indice xérothermique. Bulletin de la Société d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse 88: 193–240. Search in Google Scholar

[9] Bellarosa R, Codipietro P, Piovesan G and Schirone B, 1996. Degradation, rehabilitation and sustainable management of a dunal ecosystem in central Italy. Land Degradation & Development 7(4): 297–311, DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199612)7:4〈297::AID-LDR235〉3.0.CO;2-M. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199612)7:4<297::AID-LDR235>3.0.CO;2-M10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199612)7:4<297::AID-LDR235>3.0.CO;2-MSearch in Google Scholar

[10] Biondi F, 1992. Development of a tree-ring network for the Italian Peninsula. Tree-Ring Bullettin 52: 15–29. Search in Google Scholar

[11] Biondi F and Waikul K, 2004. DENDROCLIM2002: a C++ program for statistical calibration of climate signals in tree-ring chronologies. Computers & Geosciences 30(3): 303–311, DOI 10.1016/j.cageo.2003.11.004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2003.11.00410.1016/j.cageo.2003.11.004Search in Google Scholar

[12] Bogino SM and Bravo F, 2008. Growth response of Pinus pinaster Ait. to climatic variables in central Spanish forests. Annals of Forest Science 65(5): 506. DOI 10.1051/forest:2008025. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:200802510.1051/forest:2008025Search in Google Scholar

[13] Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Monti F and Nanni T, 2006. Temperature and precipitation variability in Italy in the last two centuries from homogenized instrumental time series. International Journal of Climatology 26(3): 345–381, DOI 10.1002/joc.1251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.125110.1002/joc.1251Search in Google Scholar

[14] Camiz S, Denimal JJ and Pillar VDP, 2006. Hierarchical Factor Classification of Variables in Ecology. Community Ecology 7(2): 165–179, DOI 10.1556/ComEc.7.2006.2.4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/ComEc.7.2006.2.410.1556/ComEc.7.2006.2.4Search in Google Scholar

[15] Camiz S and Pillar VDP, 2007. Comparison of Single and Complete Linkage Clustering with the Hierarchical Factor Classification of Variables. Community Ecology 8(1): 25–30, DOI 10.1556/ComEc.8.2007.1.4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/ComEc.8.2007.1.410.1556/ComEc.8.2007.1.4Search in Google Scholar

[16] Campelo F, Nabais C, Freitas H and Gutiérrez E, 2006. Climatic significance of tree-ring width and intra-annual density fluctuations in Pinus pinea from a dry Mediterranean area in Portugal. Annals of Forest Science 64(2): 229–238, DOI 10.1051/forest:2006107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:200610710.1051/forest:2006107Search in Google Scholar

[17] Cherubini P, 1993. Studio dendroecologico su Pinus Pinea L. in due differenti stazioni sulla costa mediterranea in Toscana (Italia). Dendrochronologia 11: 87–99. Search in Google Scholar

[18] Cook ER and Jacoby GC Jr, 1977. Tree-ring-drought relationships in the Hudson Valley, New York. Science 198: 399–401, DOI 10.1126/science.198.4315.399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.198.4315.39910.1126/science.198.4315.39917809441Search in Google Scholar

[19] Cook ER and Peters K, 1997. Calculating unbiased tree-ring indices for the study of climatic and environmental change. The Holocene 7(3): 361–370, DOI 10.1177/095968369700700314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09596836970070031410.1177/095968369700700314Search in Google Scholar

[20] Cook ER and Krusic PJ, 2006. Program ARSTAN 40c. Tree-ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY. Search in Google Scholar

[21] Critchfield WB and Little EL, 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Miscellaneous Publication 991. 10.5962/bhl.title.66393Search in Google Scholar

[22] Dai A, Trenberth KE and Qian T, 2004. A global dataset of Palmer drought severity index for 1870–2002: relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 1117–1130, DOI 10.1175/JHM-386.1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JHM-386.110.1175/JHM-386.1Search in Google Scholar

[23] de Lillis M and Fontanella A, 1992. Comparative phenology and growth in different species of the Mediterranean maquis of central Italy. Vegetatio 99–100: 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0011821310.1007/BF00118213Search in Google Scholar

[24] De Luis M, Novak K, Cufar K and Raventós J, 2009. Size mediated climate-growth relationships in Pinus halepensis and Pinus pinea. Trees — Structure and Function 23(5): 1065–1073, DOI 10.1007/s00468-009-0349-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-009-0349-510.1007/s00468-009-0349-5Search in Google Scholar

[25] Denimal JJ, 2001. Hierarchical Factorial Analysis, Actes du 10th Inter-national Symposium on Applied Stochastic Models and Data Analysis, Compiègne, 12–15 Juin 2001. Search in Google Scholar

[26] Domec JC and Gartner BL, 2002. How do water transport and water storage differ in coniferous earlywood and latewood? Journal of Experimental Botany 53(379): 2369–2379. DOI 10.1093/jxb/erf100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erf10010.1093/jxb/erf10012432029Search in Google Scholar

[27] Fritts HC, 1976. Tree Rings and Climate. Academic Press. London, UK. 576 pp. Search in Google Scholar

[28] Gabbrielli A, 1993. Origine delle pinete litoranee in Toscana. (Origin of coastal pine forests in Tuscany) Conference Proceedings: Salvaguardia delle pinete litoranee (Preservation of coastal pine forests), Grosseto, Italy, 21‐22 October 1993, 13–20. Search in Google Scholar

[29] García-Herrera R, Luterbacher J, Lionello P, González-Rouco F, Ribera P, Rodo X, Kull C and Zerefos C, 2007. Reconstruction of past Mediterranean climate. EOS, 88(9): 111, DOI 10.1029/2007EO090010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2007EO09001010.1029/2007EO090010Search in Google Scholar

[30] Giorgi F, 2006. Climate change hotspots. Geophysical Research Letters 33: L08707, DOI 10.1029/2006GL025734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2006GL02573410.1029/2006GL025734Search in Google Scholar

[31] Guiot J, 1991. The bootstrapped response function. Tree-Ring Bullettin 51: 39–41. Search in Google Scholar

[32] Guttman L, 1954. Some necessary conditions for common factor analysis. Psychometrika 19: 149–162, DOI 10.1007/BF02289162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0228916210.1007/BF02289162Search in Google Scholar

[33] Helama S, Lindholm M, Timonen M and Eronen M, 2004. Detection of climate signal in dendrochronological data analysis: a comparison of tree-ring standardization methods. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 79(3–4): 239–254, DOI 10.1007/s00704-004-0077-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-004-0077-010.1007/s00704-004-0077-0Search in Google Scholar

[34] Holmes R, 1983. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Bullettin 43:69–75. Search in Google Scholar

[35] Jolliffe IT, 1986. Principal Components Analysis, Berlin, Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-1904-810.1007/978-1-4757-1904-8Search in Google Scholar

[36] Kaennel M and Schweingruber FH, 1995. Multilingual glossary of dendrochronology. Terms and definitions in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Russian. Bern: Paul Haupt Verlag. Search in Google Scholar

[37] Kozlowski TT, Kramer PJ and Pallardy SG, 1991. The physiological ecology of woody plants, Academic Press, New York. 10.1016/B978-0-12-424160-2.50005-7Search in Google Scholar

[38] IPCC WG I, 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I. In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL, eds, Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Search in Google Scholar

[39] Lavee H, Imeson AC and Sarah P, 1998. The impact of climate change on geomorphology and desertification along a Mediterranean — arid transect. Land Degradation and Develpopment. 9(5): 407–422, DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199809/10)9:5〈407::AID-LDR302〉3.0.CO;2-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199809/10)9:5<407::AID-LDR302>3.0.CO;2-610.1002/(SICI)1099-145X(199809/10)9:5<407::AID-LDR302>3.0.CO;2-6Search in Google Scholar

[40] Lebart L, Morineau A, Lambert T and Pleuvret P, 1999. SPAD Système Pour l’Analyse des Données, version 5.5, Paris, CISIA-CERESTA. Search in Google Scholar

[41] Legendre P and Legendre L, 1998. Numerical Ecology, 2nd Ed., Amsterdam, Elsevier. Search in Google Scholar

[42] Liphschitz N, Lev-Yadun S, Rosen E and Waisel Y, 1984. The annual rhythm of activity of the lateral meristems (cambium and phellogen) in Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L., IAWA Bulletin 5: 263–274. 10.1163/22941932-90000413Search in Google Scholar

[43] Meko D, Cook ER, Stahle DW, Stockton CW and Hughes MK, 1993. Spatial patterns of tree-growth anomalies in the United States and southeastern Canada. Journal of Climate 6: 1773–1786, DOI 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006〈1773:SPOTGA〉2.0.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1773:SPOTGA>2.0.CO;210.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1773:SPOTGA>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

[44] Moussouris Y and Regato P, 1999. Forest harvest: an overview of non timber forest products in the Mediterranean Region. WWF Mediterranean Programme, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5593e/x5593e00.htm Search in Google Scholar

[45] Mutke S, Gordo J, Climent J and Gil L, 2003. Shoot growth and phenology modeling of grafted Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in inner Spain. Annals of Forest Science 60: 527–537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/forest:200304610.1051/forest:2003046Search in Google Scholar

[46] Mutke S, Gordo J and Gil L, 2005. Variability of Mediterranean Stone pine cone production: Yield loss as response to climate change. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 132(3–4): 263–272, DOI 10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.08.002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.08.00210.1016/j.agrformet.2005.08.002Search in Google Scholar

[47] Olivar J, Bogino S, Spiecker H and Bravo F, 2012. Climate impact on growth dynamic and intra-annual density fluctuations in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees of different crown classes. Dendrochronologia 30(1): 35–47, DOI 10.1016/j.dendro.2011.06.001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2011.06.00110.1016/j.dendro.2011.06.001Search in Google Scholar

[48] Oliveras I, Martínez-Vilalta J, Jimenez-Ortiz T, Lledó MJ, Escarré A and Piñol J, 2003. Hydraulic properties of Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea and Tetraclinis articulata in a dune ecosystem of Eastern Spain. Plant Ecology 169(1): 131–141, DOI 10.1023/A:1026223516580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:102622351658010.1023/A:1026223516580Search in Google Scholar

[49] Orlóci L, 1978. Multivariate Analysis in Vegetation Research, The Hague, Junk. Search in Google Scholar

[50] Palmer JG, 1965. Meteorological drought. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. Search in Google Scholar

[51] Papadopoulos AM, Tolica K, Pantera A and Maheras P, 2009. Investigation of the annual variability of the Aleppo pine tree-ring width: the relationship with the climatic conditions in the Attica basin. Global Nest Journal 11: 583–592. 10.30955/gnj.000460Search in Google Scholar

[52] Rathgeber C, Misson L, Nicault A and Guiot J, 2005. Bioclimatic model of tree radial growth: application to French Mediterranean Aleppo pine forests. Trees — Structure and Function 19(2): 162–176, DOI 10.1007/s00468-004-0378-z. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-004-0378-z10.1007/s00468-004-0378-zSearch in Google Scholar

[53] Richardson DM, 1996. Ecology and Biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. Capetown. 527 pp. Search in Google Scholar

[54] Specht RL, 1981. Primary production in Mediterranean climate ecosystems regenerating after fire. In Mediterraneantype Shrublands, di Castri F., Goodall DW and Specht RL, eds, pp. 257–267. Ecosystems of the world 11, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Search in Google Scholar

[55] Stokes M and Smiley T, 1968. An introduction to tree-ring dating. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 73 pp. Search in Google Scholar

[56] Teobaldelli M, Mencuccini M and Piussi P, 2004. Water table salinity, rainfall and water use by umbrella pine trees (Pinus pinea L.) Plant Ecology 171(1–2): 23–33, DOI 10.1023/B:VEGE.0000029384.40192.cc. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:VEGE.0000029384.40192.cc10.1023/B:VEGE.0000029384.40192.ccSearch in Google Scholar

[57] Toreti A and Desiato F, 2008. Temperature trend over Italy from 1961 to 2004. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 91(1–4): 51–58, DOI 10.1007/s00704-006-0289-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00704-006-0289-610.1007/s00704-006-0289-6Search in Google Scholar

[58] Tukey JW, 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading (Mass): Addison-Wesley. Search in Google Scholar

[59] Walter H, 1973. Die Vegetation der Erde in ökophysiologischer Betrachtung. Jena, Fischer 3 vol l. Search in Google Scholar

[60] Whittaker RH (Ed.), 1973. Handbook of Vegetation Science. V Ordination and classification of vegetation. Junk, The Hague. Search in Google Scholar

[61] Vieira J, Campelo F and Nabais C, 2009. Age-dependent responses of tree-ring growth and intra-annual density fluctuations of Pinus pinaster to Mediterranean climate. Trees — Structure and Function 23(2): 257–265, DOI 10.1007/s00468-008-0273-0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00468-008-0273-010.1007/s00468-008-0273-0Search in Google Scholar

[62] Wigley TML, Briffa KR and Jones PD, 1984. On the average value of correlated time series, with applications in dendroclimatology and hydrometeorology. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 23(2): 201–213, DOI 10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023〈0201:OTAVOC〉2.0.CO;2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<0201:OTAVOC>2.0.CO;210.1175/1520-0450(1984)023<0201:OTAVOC>2.0.CO;2Search in Google Scholar

[63] Zohary, 1973. Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo