Open Access

GHG Emissions Assessment as Part of MSW Green Cluster Design: Case of Large Cities in Russia and Kazakhstan


The increasing pressure on the environment and the exhaustion of non-renewable natural resources has led to the emergence of a new type of clusters – green clusters. In green clusters, the purpose of combining entities into a cluster is not only to increase their competitiveness, but also to increase the efficiency of using natural resources and reduce the impact on the environment. Companies of various types of activities get united into green clusters; this article considers green clusters in the field of municipal solid waste (MSW) management. The authors described two green clusters in project in the field of MSW management in two large cities – Yekaterinburg (Russia) and Almaty (Kazakhstan). The main difference between these clusters is the ratio between waste management practices. Further, using the IPCC methodology for calculating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the authors analysed GHG emissions per tonne of MSW in both clusters. The calculations have shown that the green cluster of Yekaterinburg is more stable and efficient – the carbon content of 1 tonne of processed MSW in Yekaterinburg is 22.4 % lower than it is in Almaty (329.5 kg CO2eq/tonne of MSW in Yekaterinburg and 424.1 kg CO2eq/tonne of MSW in Almaty). To reduce the MSW green clusters’ climatic impact, it is necessary to organize a full-fledged separate collection of different types of waste at the household level; to stimulate waste recycling activities; to reduce the use of non-recyclable packaging, including the implementation of extended producer responsibility; to reduce energy utilization, especially at the waste incineration plants; to stimulate the use of organic waste shredders. The practical examples discussed in this article and the conclusions obtained can be useful to decision makers regarding the design and development of green clusters in the field of MSW management in large cities. The study relies on the research data of the project ‘Enhancement of the State Regulation Policy for Intensifying Clusterization of Industrial Regions’ supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Publication timeframe:
2 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, other