1. bookVolume 26 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)
Journal Details
First Published
16 May 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

The Value of Urban Parks in Lodz

Published Online: 16 Apr 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 26 (2018) - Issue 1 (March 2018)
Page range: 73 - 88
Journal Details
First Published
16 May 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

An awareness of the role of public space is growing among the inhabitants of cities. This space is an integral part of our daily lives. It consists of places outside the home where we spend free time, i.e. the streets we walk on, the squares and greeneries where we meet, as well as playgrounds, parks and green areas where we rest and do sports. The quality of such space affects many aspects of human life.

Positive trends in terms of growing public awareness do not, however, seem to be reflected in the awareness and actions of public entities in Poland, strong evidence of which are the widely criticized amendments of regulations governing the felling of trees.

The goal of this article is to present the different dimensions of the value of urban parks, as well as to apply the direct use approach to measure the recreational value of the park system in Lodz. Expressing different aspects of the value of public space, especially parks, in monetary units and incorporating these values in spatial planning analysis can contribute to a significant improvement in the quality of life of urban dwellers and their perception of urban space.


JEL Classification

Active Living Research, 2010, The Economic Benefits of Open Space, Recreation Facilities and Walkable Community Design, http://www.activelivingresearch.org/files/Synthesis_Shoup-Ewing_March2010_0.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Baran M., 2014, Przestrzeń publiczna wizytówką miasta (Public Space as a Showcase of the City), Sztuka ogrodu sztuka krajobrazu (Artof the Garden, Art of the Landscape), No. 1[8], pp. 43-49.Search in Google Scholar

Bedimo-Rung A. L., Mowen A. J., Cohen D. A., 2005, The Significance of Parks to Physical Activity and Public Health A Conceptual Model, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, No. 28, pp. 159 –168.10.1016/j.amepre.2004.10.024Search in Google Scholar

Bożętka B., 2008, Systemy zieleni miejskiej w Polsce – ewolucja i problemy kształtowania (Urban Green Systems in Poland - Evolution and Problems of Shaping), Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu (Problems of Ecology of Landscape), No. 22, pp. 49–63.Search in Google Scholar

Baycan T., Nijkamp P., 2012, Critical Success Factors in Planning and Management of Urban Green Spaces in Europe, International Journal of Sustainable Society, No. 4, pp. 209–225.10.1504/IJSSOC.2012.047278Search in Google Scholar

Chiesura A., 2004, The role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City, Landscape and Urban Planning, No. 68, pp. 129–138.10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cömertler S., 2007, Rola terenów otwartych w podnoszeniu atrakcyjności i jakości życia miejskiego (The Role of Open Areas in Enhancing the Attractiveness and Quality of Urban Life), Czasopismo techniczne (Technical Journal), No. 1A, pp. 25-34.Search in Google Scholar

Crompton J. L., 2005, The Impact of Parks on Property Values: Empirical Evidence from the Past Two Decades in the United States, Managing Leisure, No. 10, pp. 203-218.10.1080/13606710500348060Search in Google Scholar

Cushman & Wakefield, 2011, European Cities Monitor, http://www.cushmanwakefield.co.uk/engb/research-and-insight/2012/european-cities-monitor-2011/.Search in Google Scholar

Czembrowski P., Kronenberg J., 2016, Hedonic Pricing and Different Urban Green Space Types and Sizes: Insights into the Discussion on Valuing Ecosystem Services, Landscape and Urban Planning, No. 146, pp. 11–19.10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.10.005Search in Google Scholar

Czochański J., 2010, Zachowanie i kształtowanie terenów zielonych na obszarach wielkich miast jako stymulatorów rozwoju i jakości życia (Preserving and Shaping Green Areas in Urban Areas as Stimulators of Development and Quality of Life), [in:] Lorens P., Martyniuk-Pęczek J. (red.), Problemy kształtowania przestrzeni publicznych (Problems of Shaping Public Spaces), Gdansk, Urbanista.Search in Google Scholar

de Brun C. (red.), 2007, The Economic Benefits of Land Conservation, The Trust for Public Land.Search in Google Scholar

Fausold C. J., Lilieholm R. J., 1996, The Economic Value of Open Space, http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/506_The-Economic-Value-of-Open-Space.Search in Google Scholar

Fuller R.A., Gaston K.J., 2009, The Scaling of Green Space Coverage in European Cities, BiologyLetters, no. 5, pp. 352–355.10.1098/rsbl.2009.0010Search in Google Scholar

Fundacja Sendzimira, 2011, Łódź Europejską Zieloną Stolicą do 2020 roku (Lodz – a European Green Capital to 2020), Lodz.Search in Google Scholar

Giedych R., 2003, Problemy z identyfikacją systemu terenów rekreacyjnych miast na przykładzie terenów zieleni Warszawy (Problems of Identifying the System of Recreational Areas of Cities on the Example of Green Areas of Warsaw), Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu (Problems of Ecology of Landscape), No. 11, pp. 277–283.Search in Google Scholar

Giergiczny M., Kronenberg J., 2012, Jak wycenić wartość przyrody w mieście? Wycena drzew przyulicznych w centrum Łodzi (How to Value the Value of Nature in the City? Valuation of the Trees in the Centre of Lodz), Zrównoważony Rozwój — Zastosowania (Sustainable Development – Applications), No. 3, pp. 73-89.Search in Google Scholar

Giergiczny M., Kronenberg J., 2014, From Valuation to Governance: Using Choice Experiment to Value Street Trees, AMBIO, No. 43, pp. 492–501.10.1007/s13280-014-0516-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Godzina P., 2015, Tereny zieleni publicznej w kontekście zrównoważonego rozwoju miasta (Public Green Spaces in the Context of Sustainable Urban Development), Prace Geograficzne (Geographical Works), No. 141, pp. 57–72.Search in Google Scholar

Gruehn D., 2008, Economic Valuation of Urban Open Spaces and their Contribution to Life Quality in European Cities, http://www.sse.geo.uni.lodz.pl/uploads/space8/gruehn.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Jakóbczyk-Gryszkiewicz J., Dyba W., Marcińczak S., Tanaś S., 2008, Zagospodarowanie terenów rekreacyjnych w Łodzi: plany, perspektywy (Development of Recreational Areas in Lodz: Plans, Prospects), Łódzkie Towarzystwo Naukowe, Lodz.Search in Google Scholar

Jim C. Y., Chen W. Y., 2006, Impacts of Urban Environmental Elements on Residential Housing Prices in Guangzhou (China), Landscape and Urban Planning, No. 78, pp. 422–434.10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.12.003Search in Google Scholar

Jim C. Y., Chen W. Y., 2007, Consumption Preferences and Environmental Externalities: A Hedonic Analysis of the Housing Market in Guangzhou, Geoforum, No. 38, pp. 414–431.10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.10.002Search in Google Scholar

Jim C. Y., Chen W. Y., 2010, External Effects of Neighbourhood Parks and Landscape Elements on High-Rise Residential Value, Land Use Policy, No. 27, pp. 662–670.10.1016/j.landusepol.2009.08.027Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kabisch N., Haase D., 2013, Green Spaces of European Cities Revisited for 1990–2006, Landscape and Urban Planning, no. 110, pp. 113–122.10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.10.017Search in Google Scholar

Kozloff H., 2012, The Payoff from Parks, http://urbanland.uli.org/Articles/2012/Aug/ul/KozloffParks.Search in Google Scholar

Luttik J., 2000, The Value of Trees, Water and Open Space as Reflected by House Prices in the Netherlands, Landscape and Urban Planning, No. 48, pp. 161-167.10.1016/S0169-2046(00)00039-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Maksymiuk G., 2013, Wpływ zielonej infrastruktury na wartość ekonomiczną nieruchomości (Impact of Green Infrastructure on the Economic Value of Real Estate), Problemy Ekologii Krajobrazu (Problems of Ecology of the Landscape), No. 36, pp. 145-153.Search in Google Scholar

Michniewicz-Ankiersztajn H., 2014, Rola zieleni w kształtowaniu przestrzeni miast europejskich w kontekście jakości życia ich mieszkańców (The Role of Greenery in the Shaping of European Cities' Spaces in Terms of the Quality of Life of their Inhabitants), Journal of Health Sciences, No. 4(13), pp. 130-140.Search in Google Scholar

Niewiadomski A., 2013, Struktura i znaczenie terenów zieleni w Łodzi na tle dużych ośrodków miejskich w Polsce (Structure and Importance of Green Areas in Lodz against the Background of Large Urban Centers in Poland), Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Geographica Physica, No. 12, pp. 33-47.10.18778/1427-9711.12.03Search in Google Scholar

Parks Forum, 2008, The Value of Parks, Parks Forum, Victoria.Search in Google Scholar

Price C., 2003, Quantifying the Aesthetic Benefits of Urban Forestry, Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, No. 1, pp. 123–133.10.1078/1618-8667-00013Search in Google Scholar

Saz Salazar S. del, Menendez M. G., 2007, Estimating the Non-market Benefits of an Urban Park: Does Proximity Matter?, Land Use Policy, No. 24, pp. 296–305.10.1016/j.landusepol.2005.05.011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sen A., 1999, Development as freedom, Anchor Books, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Sobczyńska K., 2014, Zieleń jako element współczesnego miasta i jej rola w przestrzeniach publicznych Poznania (Green as an Element of the Modern City and its Role in Public Spaces of Poznan), PhD thesis, Poznan.Search in Google Scholar

Sutkowska E., 2006, Współczesny kształt i znaczenie zieleni miejskiej jako zielonej przestrzeni publicznej w strukturze miasta – przestrzeń dla kreacji (Contemporary Shape and Importance of Urban Greenery as a Green Public Space in the City Structure - Space for Creation), Teka Komisji Architektury, Urbanistyki i Studiów Krajobrazowych – OL PAN (Urban Planning and Landscape Studies), pp. 184-192.Search in Google Scholar

Szczepanowska H. B., 2012, Miejsce terenów zieleni w strukturze zintegrowanego projektowania, zarządzania i oceny ekologicznej inwestycji miejskich (The Place of Green Spaces in the Structure of Integrated Design, Management and Ecological Assessment of Urban Investment), Człowiek i Środowisko (Human and Environment), No. 36 (1-2), pp. 25-49.Search in Google Scholar

Szczepanowska H. B., 2010, Korzyści z drzew na terenach miejskich (The Benefits of Trees in Urban Areas), Przegląd Komunalny (Municipal Overview), No. 11(230).Search in Google Scholar

Szczepanowska H. B., 2007, Ekologiczne, społeczne i ekonomiczne korzyści z drzew na terenach zurbanizowanych (Ecological, Social and Economic Benefits of Trees in Urbanized Areas), Człowiek i Środowisko (Human and the Environment), No. 31(3-4), pp. 5-26.Search in Google Scholar

Szumański M., Niemirski A., 2005, Projekt klasyfikacji obiektów terenów zieleni (Project of Classification of Green Areas), [in:] Giedych R., Szumañski M. (red.), Tereny zieleni jako przedmiot planowania miejscowego (wybór tekstów) (Green Areas as a Subject of Local Planning (Selection of Texts)), SGGW, Warsaw.Search in Google Scholar

The Greater Paris Investment Agency, KPMG, 2015, Global Cities Investment Monitor, https://www.kpmg.com/FR/fr/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/Global-Cities-Investment-Monitor-072015.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

The New Charter of Athens, 2003, The European Council of Town Planners, Alinea, Firen.Search in Google Scholar

The Trust for Public Land, 2010, The Economic Benefits of Denver’s Park and Recreation System, A Report by The Trust for Public Land’s Center for City Park Excellence for the City and County of Denver, The Trust for Public Land.Search in Google Scholar

The Trust for Public Land, 2009, Measuring the Economic Value of a City Park System, The Trust for Public Land, http://cloud.tpl.org/pubs/ccpe-econvalueparks-rpt.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

The Trust for Public Land and Philadelphia Parks Alliance, 2008, How Much Value Does the City of Philadelphia Receive from its Park and Recreation System? A Report by The Trust for Public Land’s Center for City Park Excellence For the Philadelphia Parks Alliance, The Trust for Public Land, http://www.tpl.org/publications/books-reports/ccpe-publications/philadelphia-park-value-report.html.Search in Google Scholar

Tyrväinen L., 2001, Economic Valuation of Urban Forest Benefits in Finland, Journal of Environmental Management, No. 62(1), pp. 75–92.10.1006/jema.2001.0421Search in Google Scholar

UN-HABITATUnited Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2012, State Of The World’s Cities 2012/2013 Prosperity of Cities, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/745habitat.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Urban Land Institute, 2011, Open Space: An Asset Without a Champion?, Gensler and the Urban Land Institute, http://www.gensler.com/uploads/documents/Open_Space_03_08_2011.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Ustawa z dnia 16 kwietnia 2004 r. o ochronie przyrody, Dz.U. 2016 nr 0 poz. 2134 z późn. zm. (Act of 16 April 2004 on Nature Protection, Journal of Laws, 2016, No. 0, item 2134, as amended).Search in Google Scholar

Ustawa z dnia 27 marca 2003 r. o planowaniu i zagospodarowaniu przestrzennym, Dz.U. 2017 nr 0 poz. 1073 z późn. zm. (Act of 27 March 2003 on Spatial Planning and Land Development, Journal of Laws, 2017, no. 0, item 1073, as amended).Search in Google Scholar

Wetli M., 2010, Leveraging Real Estate Value with Public Open Space, Development strategies, http://www.development-strategies.com.Search in Google Scholar

Wdowiarz-Bilska M., 2010, Miejsce pracy, zamieszkania i wypoczynku w przestrzeniach innowacyjnych (Workplace, Residence and Leisure in Innovative Spaces), Architektura. Czasopismo Techniczne (Architecture. Technical Journal), no. 3-A, pp. 261-268.Search in Google Scholar

Wolf K. L., 2004, Public Value of Nature: Economics of Urban Trees, Parks and Open Space, [in:] Miller, D.,Search in Google Scholar

Wise J. A. (red.). 2004, Design with Spirit: Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Environmental Design Research Association. Edmond, Environmental Design Research Association, Edmond.Search in Google Scholar

Żylicz T., Giergiczny M., 2013, Wycena pozaprodukcyjnych funkcji lasu. Raport końcowy (Valuation of Non-productive Forest Functions. Final Report), https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marek_Giergiczny/publication/269463740_Wycena_pozaprodukcyjnych_funkcji_lasu/links/548c7d290cf225bf669fa90a/Wycena-pozaprodukcyjnychfunkcji-lasu.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo