Leoš Janáček (1854–1928) was one of those composers whose work was in many respects closely connected with current social events and yet it carried a deep and timeless ethical message. Janáček’s activity as an artist, teacher and organiser reflected changes in the political and cultural paradigm disseminated in the European countries in the course of more than six decades. He himself went through an interesting inner development resulting from his studies, artistic and life experience, as well as his empathy related not only to his narrow individual but also a wider collective space. His relative isolation from the official artistic establishment of Prague gave him an opportunity to formulate his original views on the European, national, and regional identity. In addition to various literary forms, music composition remained his fundamental means of expression. In this context, this paper will attempt to define the basic directions in Janáček´s dynamic evolution and the areas in which his key values and priorities remained constant.