1. bookVolume 10 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-3773
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Disentangling the Moral Rightness of Securitization: Data Mining of the Process of Framing and Shaping of Poland-United States Relations

Published Online: 09 Jul 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 10 (2022) - Issue 1 (June 2022)
Page range: 35 - 58
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-3773
First Published
15 Dec 2015
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Since the democratic transition, Poland-United States relations have been framed by the Polish authorities as a strategic threat-management tool in the securitization process of Poland’s geopolitical position, particularly concerning the Russian Federation. We analyse the process of securitization regarding Poland-US relations through latent topic modelling of Polish parliamentary speeches in the years 1991–2017. We demonstrate that the discourse on Polish-US relations is heavily dominated by security topics, narrowly understood as military security. Furthermore, even when economic issues are discussed, they are frequently linked to military operations. Based on Floyd’s (2011, 2019) model of the moral rightness of securitization, we argue that the close relationship between securitizing moves (debates on Poland-US relations) and security practices (security events) suggests the basic sincerity of the securitizing actor, while the historical context reflected in the Polish collective memory strongly influences the audience’s frame of reference and strengthens the power of the securitizing actor. However, although the case fulfils Floyd’s (2019) criteria of morally right securitization, we have shown a historical disparity between the scope of securitizing moves with security practices and the existing level of threat. This demonstrates that the securitizing agent has been abusing securitization by exceeding the ‘least harmful option’, particularly due to the large asymmetry of power of the participants in the relationship, the securitization process stretched over a long period and the threat severity varying over time.

Keywords

Adams, M. L. (2009). Herbert Hoover and the Organization of the American Relief Eff ort in Poland (1919–1923), European Journal of American Studies 4(2), 1–16.10.4000/ejas.7627 Search in Google Scholar

Andžāns, M. & Sprūds, A. (2021). Securitization And Desecuritization Of Russia In The National Security And Defence Concepts Of Latvia (1995–2020), Journal of International Studies 14(1), 190–200.10.14254/2071-8330.2021/14-1/13 Search in Google Scholar

Balzacq, T. (2005). The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context, European Journal of International Relations 11(2), 171–201.10.1177/1354066105052960 Search in Google Scholar

Balzacq, T., Léonard, S. & Ruzicka, J. (2016). Securitization revisited: theory and cases, International Relations 30(4), 494–531.10.1177/0047117815596590 Search in Google Scholar

Baranowski, M. & Cichowski, B. (2015). Poland: Searching for a Strategic Response. In: Forbrig, J. (ed.), A Region Disunited?: Central European Responses to the Russia-Ukraine Crisis, German Marshall Fund of the United States, 34–38. Search in Google Scholar

Bischof, J. M. & Airoldi, E. M. (2012). Summarizing topical content with word frequency and exclusivity, ICML’12: Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Machine Learning, Edinburgh, 26 June-1 July, 201–208. Search in Google Scholar

Bocse, A.-M. (2020). From the United States with shale gas: Ukraine, energy securitization, and the reshaping of transatlantic energy relations, Energy Research & Social Science 69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2020.101553. Search in Google Scholar

Buzan, B., Wæver, O. & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A New Framework for Analysis, Lynne Rienner Publishers.10.1515/9781685853808 Search in Google Scholar

Buzan, B. & Wæver, O. (2003). Regions and Powers. The Structure of Regional Security, Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511491252 Search in Google Scholar

Cadier, D. (2021). Populist politics of representation and foreign policy: evidence from Poland, Comparative European Politics 19, 703–721.10.1057/s41295-021-00257-2 Search in Google Scholar

Campbell, J. L. (1998). Institutional Analysis and the Role of Ideas in Political Economy, Theory and Society 27(3), 377–409. Search in Google Scholar

Cordesman, A. (2018). The Comparative Threat from Terrorism Compared to Drug Poisoning, Suicide, Traffic Accidents, and Murder: 1999–2016, Center for Strategic & International Studies, July 23, https://www.csis.org/analysis/comparative-threat-terrorism-compared-drug-poisoning-suicide-traffic-accidents-and-murder Search in Google Scholar

de Londras, F. (2022). Just securitisation and transnational counterterrorism, European Journal of International Security 7, 266–270. Search in Google Scholar

Diamond, J. (2018). ‘Fort Trump’? Polish President urges US to consider opening base, CNN Politics, September 19, https://edition.cnn.com/2018/09/18/politics/fort-trump-andrzej-duda-poland/index.html Search in Google Scholar

Dudzińska, A. (2015). System zamknięty. Socjologiczna analiza procesu legislacyjnego, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar. Search in Google Scholar

Floyd, R. (2011). Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory, Security Dialogue 42(4–5), 427–439.10.1177/0967010611418712 Search in Google Scholar

Floyd, R. (2019). The Morality of Security: A Theory of Just Securitization, Cambridge University Press.10.1017/9781108667814 Search in Google Scholar

Floyd, R. (2022). The morality of security: A reply to critics and where to from here, European Journal of International Security 7, 275–281. Search in Google Scholar

Frister, R. (2019). Trudne polsko-izraelskie stosunki. Zaczęło się od dyplomacji na niby, Polityka, July 9, https://www.polityka.pl/tygodnikpolityka/klasykipolityki/1798370,1,trudne-polsko-izraelskie-stosunki-zaczelo-sie-od-dyplomacji-na-niby.read Search in Google Scholar

Gasztold, A. (2021). A conspiracy of silence: the CIA black sites in Poland, International Politics, https://doi.org/10.1057/s41311-021-00300-9 Search in Google Scholar

Goffman, E. (1986). Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience, Northeastern University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Graf, J. & Palowski, J. (2018). Stała obecność wojsk USA zmieni status bezpieczeństwa Polski, Defence24, June 5, https://www.defence24.pl/stala-obecnosc-usa-zmieni-status-bezpieczenstwa-polski-analiza Search in Google Scholar

Gray, H. & Franck, A. J. (2019). Refugees as/at risk: The gendered and racialized underpinnings of securitization in British media narratives, Security Dialogue 50(3), 275–291.10.1177/0967010619830590 Search in Google Scholar

Guzzini, S. (2011). Securitization as a Causal Mechanism, Security Dialogue 42(4–5), 329–341.10.1177/0967010611419000 Search in Google Scholar

Hillstrom, K. & Hillstrom, L. C. (2005). The Industrial Revolution in America: Iron and steel, ABC-CLIO. Search in Google Scholar

Hunzeker, M. & Lanoszka, A. (2018). The Case for a Permanent U. S. Military Presence in Poland, War on the Rocks, October 22, https://warontherocks.com/2018/10/the-case-for-a-permanent-u-s-military-presence-in-poland/ Search in Google Scholar

Huysmans, J. (2002). Defining Social Constructivism in Security Studies: The Normative Dilemma of Writing Security, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 27(1), 41–62.10.1177/03043754020270S104 Search in Google Scholar

Jakubowski, T. (2019). Jarosław Kaczyński: Unia nie jest organizacją, która zapewnia bezpieczeństwo, WNP.PL, October 11, https://www.wnp.pl/parlamentarny/ludzie/jaroslaw-kaczynski-unia-nie-jest-organizacja-ktora-zapewnia-bezpieczenstwo,42407.html Search in Google Scholar

Kuper, S. (2015). Our deadliest problem? Not terrorism, Financial Times, July 10, https://www.ft.com/content/125c9f54-24ec-11e5-9c4e-a775d2b173ca Search in Google Scholar

Kupiecki, R. (2016). The Poland-United States security relations in the light of asymmetry theory, Przegląd Strategiczny 9, 31–48.10.14746/ps.2016.1.3 Search in Google Scholar

Lamour, C. (2018). Mass media and border securitization in Europe: Investigating the metropolitan “Mediapolis” in an era of right-wing populism, Journal of Urban Aff airs 41(4), 535–550.10.1080/07352166.2018.1448227 Search in Google Scholar

Lanoszka, A. (2020). (2020) Poland in a time of geopolitical flux, Contemporary Politics 26(4), 458–474.10.1080/13569775.2020.1777042 Search in Google Scholar

Longhurst, K. (2013). Where from, where to? New and old configurations in Poland’s foreign and security policy priorities, Communist and Post-Communist Studies 46(3), 363–372.10.1016/j.postcomstud.2013.06.005 Search in Google Scholar

Lopez, T. (2021). Aegis Ashore in Poland on Target for 2022, U. S. Department of Defense, November 19, https://www.defense.gov/News/News-Stories/Article/Article/2849023/aegis-ashore-in-poland-on-target-for-2022/ Search in Google Scholar

Łukasiewicz, P. (2016). Szczyt NATO w Warszawie. Perspektywa i krytyczne spojrzenie z Polski, Heinrich Böll Stift ung, July 4, https://pl.boell.org/pl/2016/07/04/szczyt-nato-w-warszawie-perspektywa-i-krytyczne-spojrzenie-z-polski Search in Google Scholar

MacEachin, D. J. (2000). U. S. Intelligence and the Polish Crisis: 1980–1981, Central Intelligence Agency. Search in Google Scholar

McCourt, D. (2016). Practice Theory and Relationalism as the New Constructivism, International Studies Quarterly 60, 475–485.10.1093/isq/sqw036 Search in Google Scholar

Mimno, D., Wallach, H. M., Talley, E., Leenders, M. & McCallum, A. (2011). Optimizing Semantic Coherence in Topic Models, Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, Edinburgh, 27–31 July, 262–272. Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of National Defence (2016). The Concept of Defence of the Republic of Poland. https://www.gov.pl/web/national-defence/defence-concept11 Search in Google Scholar

Nye, J. S. (2003). Propaganda Isn’t the Way: Soft Power, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, January 10, https://www.belfercenter.org/publication/propaganda-isnt-way-soft-power Search in Google Scholar

Paszyn, M. (2016). Plan unii energetycznej autorstwa Donalda Tuska jako przykład polityki bezpieczeństwa energetycznego UE oraz jego znaczenie dla Polski, Studia Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego 1(9), 143–159.10.37055/sbn/129823 Search in Google Scholar

Pease, N. (1986). Poland, the United States, and the Stabilization of Europe, 1919–1933, Oxford University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Pochylska, A. & Terlikowski, M. (2015). Prospects for Polish–U. S. Defence Industrial Cooperation, PISM Policy Paper 13 (115), 1–6. Search in Google Scholar

Republic of Poland (2014). National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland. National Security Bureau, https://www.bbn.gov.pl/ftp/dok/01/NSS_RP.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Republic of Poland (2020). National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland, National Security Bureau, https://www.bbn.gov.pl/ftp/dokumenty/National_Security_Strategy_of_the_Republic_of_Poland_2020.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, M. E., Stewart, B. M. & Tingley, D. (2019). Package ‘stm’. Estimation of the Structural Topic Model, Journal of Statistical Soft ware 91(2), 1–40. Search in Google Scholar

Roe, P. (2022). Not necessarily securitisation, not completely security: Locating ‘just securitization theory’ in the logics of security, European Journal of International Security 7, 271–275. Search in Google Scholar

Ruzicka, J. (2019). Failed Securitization: Why It Matters, Polity 51(2), 365–377.10.1086/702213 Search in Google Scholar

Saeed, T. (2016). Islamophobia and Securitization: Religion, Ethnicity and the Female Voice, Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-3-319-32680-1 Search in Google Scholar

Sahu, A. K. (2021). From Securitization to Just Securitization and Just Desecuritization: Establishing Synergy between Ethics and Security, International Studies Review 23(2), 436–437.10.1093/isr/viaa072 Search in Google Scholar

Sjoberg, L. (2009). Gender and International Security, Routledge.10.4324/9780203866931 Search in Google Scholar

Smith, J. E. (2008). FDR. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Random House. Search in Google Scholar

Smura, T. (2018). Polityka zagraniczna i bezpieczeństwo zewnętrzne Polski. Badanie opinii publicznej, Fundacja im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego, https://pulaski.pl/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/e661d35d4de1cc10d22db11bfa2e4a07.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Smura, T. (2019). Relations between the United States and Poland: From Enemy to the Main Security Guarantor, In: Péczeli, A. (ed.), The Relations of Central European Countries with the United States, Dialóg Campus, 101–116. Search in Google Scholar

Stankiewicz, P. (2008). Invisible Risk. The Social Construction of Security, Polish Sociological Review 161(1), 55–72. Search in Google Scholar

Stott, C., West, O., Harrison, M. (2020). A Turning Point, Securitization, and Policing in the Context of Covid-19: Building a New Social Contract Between State and Nation?, Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 14(3), 574–578.10.1093/police/paaa021 Search in Google Scholar

Stratfor [unattributed]. (2019). In Poland, a Fixed U. S. Presence Will Warrant a Russian Response, Stratfor, June 7, https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/poland-fixed-us-presence-will-warrant-russian-response Search in Google Scholar

Szczerbiak, A. (2011). Poland Within the European Union. New Awkward Partner or New Heart of Europe?, Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Szopa, M. (2019). F-35, czyli pytania o koszt-efekt, Defence24, June 14, https://www.de-fence24.pl/f-35-czyli-pytania-o-koszt-efekt-analiza Search in Google Scholar

Szulecki, K. (2020). Securitization and state encroachment on the energy sector: Politics of exception in Poland’s energy governance, Energy Policy 136, doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2019.111066 Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Security Council. (2000). Security Council resolution 1325 [on women and peace and security], S/RES/1325, October 31, https://www.refworld.org/docid/3b-00f4672e.html Search in Google Scholar

van Baar, H., Ivasiuc, A. & Kreide, R. (Eds., 2019). The Securitization of the Roma in Europe, Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-3-319-77035-2 Search in Google Scholar

Vice, M. (2017). Publics worldwide unfavorable toward Putin, Russia. But few see Russian power and influence as a major threat, Pew Research Center, August 16, https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2017/08/16/publics-worldwide-unfavorable-toward-putin-russia/ Search in Google Scholar

Warner, J. & Boas, I. (2019). Securitization of climate change: How invoking global dangers for instrumental ends can backfire, Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space 37(8), 1471–1488.10.1177/2399654419834018 Search in Google Scholar

Wæver, O. (1995). Securitization and desecuritization, In: Lipschutz, R. D. (ed.), On Security, Columbia University Press, 46–86. Search in Google Scholar

Wæver, O. (2011). Politics, security, theory, Security Dialogue 42(4–5), 465–480.10.1177/0967010611418718 Search in Google Scholar

Williams, M. C. (2003). Words, Images, Enemies, Securitization, and International Politics, International Studies Quarterly 47(4), 511–531.10.1046/j.0020-8833.2003.00277.x Search in Google Scholar

Wilson, W. (1918). Address of the President of the United States, delivered at a joint session of the two houses of Congress, January 8, U. S. G. P.O., https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/000440597 Search in Google Scholar

Wolfendale, J. (2022). White supremacy as an existential threat: A response to Rita Floyd’s The Morality of Security: A Theory of Just Securitization, European Journal of International Security 7, 257–265.10.2139/ssrn.4036849 Search in Google Scholar

Zirn, C. & Stuckenschmidt, H. (2014). Multidimensional Topic Analysis in Political Texts, Data and Knowledge Engineering 90, 38–53.10.1016/j.datak.2013.07.003 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo