1. bookVolume 13 (2013): Issue 2 (April 2013)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Management of Truncated Data in Speech Transmission Evaluation for Pupils in Classrooms

Published Online: 03 Apr 2013
Volume & Issue: Volume 13 (2013) - Issue 2 (April 2013)
Page range: 75 - 82
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1335-8871
First Published
07 Mar 2008
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Speech intelligibility is a subjective performance index defined as the percentage of a message understood correctly. Often the results of speech intelligibility tests would suggest that conditions are acceptable, with Intelligibility Score (IS) of the order of 90% or more, while speech transmission performance may not be satisfactory. Subjective ratings of the Listening Easiness Score (LES), based on a discrete questionnaire, provide an alternative approach. A total of 239 primary school pupils, aged 7 to 11, evenly distributed among the grades, participated in the survey. The objective indicator Speech Transmission Index (STI) was also measured for each test setting in seven different positions in the laboratory classroom used for the test. Both IS and LES are inherently bounded, and their data distributions exhibit a significant accumulation of scores in the upper and lower parts. The resulting truncation problem has been addressed with a method based on the normal probability plot, enabling identification of mathematical models relating IS and LES to STI, as well as the estimation of related uncertainties. IS and LES exhibit substantially similar metrological capabilities, as, for both, model relative uncertainty does not exceed 4% and uncertainties in prediction of new observations are about twice as large.

Keywords

[1] Stevens, S.S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement. Science, 103 (2684), 677-680.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Barbato, G., Farné, S., Genta, G. (2008). Management of subjective evaluations represented by ordinal scales. In 12th IMEKO TC1 & TC7 Joint Symposium on Man,Science & Measurement, 3-5 September 2008. IMEKO, 89-94.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Astolfi, A., Bottalico, P., Barbato, G. (2012). Subjective and objective speech intelligibility investigations in primary school classrooms. Journalof Acoustical Society of America, 131 (1), 247-257.10.1121/1.366206022280588Search in Google Scholar

[4] Klein, J.P., Moeschberger, M.L. (2003). SurvivalAnalysis: Techniques for Censored and TruncatedData (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

[5] International Organization for Standardization (2003). Ergonomics-Assessment of speech communication. ISO 9921. Genève.Search in Google Scholar

[6] Houtgast, T., Steeneken, H.J.M. (1971). Evaluation of speech transmission channels by using artificial signals. Acustica, 25, 355-367.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Steeneken, H.J.M., Houtgast, T. (1980). A physical method for measuring speech-transmission quality. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 67, 318-326.10.1121/1.3844647354199Search in Google Scholar

[8] European Committee for Standardization (2011). Objective rating of speech intelligibility by speechtransmission index. EN 60268-16. Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Sato, H., Yoshino, H., Nagatomo, M. (1998). Relationship between speech transmission index and easiness of speech perception in reverberatory fields. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 103 (5), 2999.10.1121/1.421726Search in Google Scholar

[10] Sato, H., Morimoto, M., Sato, H., Wada, M. (2008). Relationship between listening difficulty and acoustical objective measures in reverberant sound fields. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 123 (4), 2087-2093.10.1121/1.288575018397016Search in Google Scholar

[11] Morimoto, M., Sato, H., Kobayashi, M. (2004). Listening difficulty as a subjective measure for evaluation of speech transmission performance in public spaces. Journal of Acoustical Society ofAmerica, 116 (3), 1607-1613.10.1121/1.177527615478426Search in Google Scholar

[12] Sato, H., Bradley, J.S., Morimoto, M. (2005). Using listening difficulty ratings of conditions for speech communication in rooms. Journal of AcousticalSociety of America, 117 (3), 1157-1167.10.1121/1.184993615807005Search in Google Scholar

[13] Prodi, N., Visentin, C., Farnetani, A. (2010). Intelligibility, listening difficulty and listening efficiency in auralized classrooms. Journal ofAcoustical Society of America, 128 (1), 172-181.10.1121/1.343656320649212Search in Google Scholar

[14] Prodi, N., Visentin, C., Feletti, A. (2013). On the perception of speech in primary school classrooms: Ranking of noise interference and of age influence. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 133 (1), 255-268.10.1121/1.477025923297900Search in Google Scholar

[15] International Organization for Standardization (1991). Acoustics - The construction and calibration of speechintelligibility tests. ISO TR 4870. Genève.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Bonaventura, P., Paoloni, A., Canavesio, F., Usai, P. (1986). Development of a diagnostic intelligibility testin the Italian language. Roma: Fondazione Ugo Bordoni. (Technical Report 3C1286).Search in Google Scholar

[17] Aurora site (last viewed February 24, 2013). http://pcfarina.eng.unipr.it/Aurora_XP/STI.htm.Search in Google Scholar

[18] International Organization for Standardization (2009). Acoustics - Measurement of room acoustic parameters- Part 1: Performance spaces. ISO 3382-1. Genève.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Tukey, J.W. (1977). Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Search in Google Scholar

[20] Hofmann, D., Linss, G. (2003). Challenges and chances of internet metrology. Measurement ScienceReview, 3 (1), 1-17.Search in Google Scholar

[21] NIST/SEMATECH. e-Handbook of StatisticalMethods. http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/, February 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Bork, I. (2000). A comparison of room simulation software: The 2nd round robin on room acoustic computer simulation. Acustica, 86, 943-956.Search in Google Scholar

[23] Johnson, L.G. (1964). Theory and Technique ofVariation Research. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology (2008). Evaluation of measurement data - Guide to theexpression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM). JCGM 100:2008. Sèvres.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo