Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element on the Earth, and it has really a wide variety of applications, starting from use in refining, petrochemical industry, steel manufacturing, and ending with use in energy production and renewable gas (hereinafter – RG) blending for gradual replacement of natural gas in all sectors of the national economy. Being practically emission-free, if produced in sustainable way or from renewable energy sources (hereinafter – RES), hydrogen is regarded as one of the most promising energy sources for decarbonisation of practically the entire segment of industrial and energy production. Growing pressure of the European climate neutrality targets has triggered special interest in production, use, storage and transportation of hydrogen – especially the green one, which can be used in at least four fundamental ways: as a basic material, a fuel, an energy carrier and an energy storage medium. In the context of sector coupling, however, hydrogen facilitates decarbonisation of those industrial processes and economic sectors in which carbon dioxide (hereinafter – CO2) emissions can either not be reduced by electrification or this reduction would be minimal and linked to very high implementation costs. At the same time, development of an extensive hydrogen economy is the key to the achievement of the European climate protection targets, with the European Commission’s (hereinafter – EC) Hydrogen Strategy, a framework created in 2020 to develop and promote sustainable hydrogen economy in the European Union (hereinafter – EU), in its centre.
Green hydrogen also will take its legitimate place in the gaseous fuel diversification risk management strategy, as this gaseous fuel is not only one of the most perspective future energy sources, but also one of the most volatile and demanding sources. In the process of gaseous fuel diversification in the EU and worldwide, new logistical chains and supply – demand networks of green hydrogen will emerge. Therefore, adequate addressing of potential challenges of this new regional and global production, delivery and consumption framework will be of utmost importance for secure, safe and predictable functioning of future energy systems.