1. bookVolume 27 (2021): Issue 2 (August 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
24 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
access type Open Access

Slumping as a record of regional tectonics and palaeoslope changes in the Satpura Basin, central India

Published Online: 17 Sep 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 27 (2021) - Issue 2 (August 2021)
Page range: 93 - 103
Received: 17 May 2021
Accepted: 01 Aug 2021
Journal Details
First Published
24 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
3 times per year

Soft-sediment deformation structures play an important role in interpreting regional tectonics and basin evolution during slumping events. The Satpura Basin is interpreted as pull-apart with a monoclinal northerly palaeoslope throughout its evolution. The basin formed as a result of sinistral strike-slip faulting, induced by the ENE–WSW-trending Son-Narmada South fault in the north and the Tapti North fault in the south. We have analysed the slump folds within the basalmost Talchir Formation and related these to regional tectonics and palaeoslope changes in the Satpura Basin. The glaciofluvial strata of the Talchir Formation, exposed in the southern part of the Satpura Basin, record intricacies of folds created during slumping. Several fold styles can be distinguished, within alternations of competent sandstone and incompetent shale layers, some of which indicate buckling. Upright folds, resulting from pure shear, underwent rotation of their axial planes and fold axes during simple shear-dominated progressive deformation when the slump moved downslope. The soft-sediment deformation structures that we have studied show refolding patterns that closely resemble comparable folds known from lithified rocks. These layers with refolded structures are overlain by unde-formed sediments, which proves that they are the product of a single ongoing slumping process, rather than of successive deformation events. Our analysis of their fold axes and axial planes, together with fold vergences and thrust directions within the slumps, suggests a mean slumping direction towards the southwest. Analyses of slump folds and their relationship with regional tectonics have allowed us to reinterpret basin evolution history. The southwesterly trending palaeoslope of the basin suggest that the slope of the basin was not uniform throughout its evolution. At the opening, the oblique slip fault, which trended NE–SW, generated due to movement along the ENE–WSW basin bounding faults, was more active and triggered slumping event within the Talchir deposits in the basin. With progressive overlapping of the basin-bounding faults, the Satpura Basin gradually tilted towards the north.


Alfaro, P., Delgado, J., Estevez, A., Molina, J.M., Moretti, M. & Soria, J.M., 2002. Liquefaction and fluidization structures in Messinian storm deposits (Bajo Segura Basin, Betic Cordillera, southern Spain). International Journal of Earth Sciences 91, 505–513.10.1007/s00531-001-0241-z Search in Google Scholar

Allen, J.R.L., 1984. Sedimentary Structures: Their Character and Physical Basis. Unabridged two-volume edition. Developments in Sedimentology 30. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 593 and 663 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Allen, J.R.L., 1986. Earthquake magnitude–frequency, epicentral distance, and soft sediment deformation in sedimentary basins. Sedimentary Geology 46, 67–75.10.1016/0037-0738(86)90006-0 Search in Google Scholar

Alsop, G.I., Marco, S., Levi, T. & Weinberger, R., 2017. Fold and thrust systems in Mass Transport Deposits. Journal of Structural Geology 94, 98–115.10.1016/j.jsg.2016.11.008 Search in Google Scholar

Alsop, G.I., Weinberger, R., Marco, S. & Levi, T., 2019. Folding during soft-sediment deformation. Journal of Geological Society 487, 81–104.10.1144/SP487.1 Search in Google Scholar

Biswas, S.K., 1999. A review on the evolution of rift basins in India during Gondwana with special reference to western Indian basins and their hydrocarbon prospects. [In:] Sahni, A. & Loyal, R.S. (Eds): Gondwana Assembly: New Issues and Perspectives. Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy. Special Issue, 261–283. Search in Google Scholar

Biswas, S.K., Bhasin, A.L. & Ram, J., 1993. Classification of Indian Sedimentary Basins in the Framework of Plate Tectonics. Proceedings of the Second Seminar in Petroliferous Basins of India 1, 1–46. Search in Google Scholar

Byun, U.H., Van Loon, A.J., Kwon, Y.K. & Kyoungtae, K., 2019. A new type of slumping-induced soft-sediment deformation structure: the envelope structure. Geologos 25, 111–124.10.2478/logos-2019-0011 Search in Google Scholar

Casshyap, S., & Khan, A., 2000. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gondwanan Satpura Basin of central India: evidence of pre-Trap doming, rifting and palaeoslope reversal. Journal of African Earth Science, 31, 65–76.10.1016/S0899-5362(00)00073-7 Search in Google Scholar

Chakraborty, C. & Ghosh, S.K., 2005. Pull-apart origin of the Satpura Gondwana Basin, central India. Journal of Earth System Sciences 114, 259–273.10.1007/BF02702949 Search in Google Scholar

Chakraborty, C. & Ghosh, S.K., 2008. Pattern of sedimentation during the Late Paleozoic, Gondwanaland glaciations: An example from the Talchir Formation, Satpura Gondwana Basin, Central India. Journal of Earth System Sciences 117, 499–519.10.1007/s12040-008-0049-3 Search in Google Scholar

Chakraborty, C., Ghosh, S.K. & Chakraborty, T., 2003. Depositional Record of Tidal-Flat Sedimentation in the Permian Coal Measures of Central India: Barakar Formation, Mohpani Coalfield, Satpura Gondwana Basin. Gondwana Research 6, 817–827.10.1016/S1342-937X(05)71027-3 Search in Google Scholar

Crookshank, H., 1936. Geology of the northern slopes of the Satpura between the Moran and Sher rivers. Memoir of Geological Survey of India 66, 173–381. Search in Google Scholar

Dasgupta, P., 2008. Experimental decipherment of the soft sediment deformation observed in the upper part of the Talchir Formation (Lower Permian), Jharia Basin, India. Sedimentary Geology 205, 100–110.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2008.01.006 Search in Google Scholar

Elliot, D., 1965. The quatitative mapping of the directional minor structures. The Journal of Geology 73, 865–880.10.1086/627124 Search in Google Scholar

Elliot, C.G. & Williams, P.F., 1988. Sediment slump structures: a review of diagonastic criteria and application to an example from Newfoundland. Journal of Structural Geology 10, 171–182.10.1016/0191-8141(88)90114-9 Search in Google Scholar

Ettensohn, F.R., Rast, N. & Brett, C.E., 2002. Ancient seismites. Geological Society of America Special Paper 359, 177–190.10.1130/SPE359 Search in Google Scholar

Farrell, S.G. & Eaton, S., 1987. Slump strain in the Tertiary of Cyprus and the Spanish Pyrenees. Definition of paleoslopes and models of soft sediment deformation. [In:] Jones, M.F. & Preston, R.M.F. (Eds): Deformation of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Geological Society London, Special Publications 29, 181–196.10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.029.01.15 Search in Google Scholar

Hubert-Ferrari, A., El-Ouahabi, M., Garcia-Moreno, D., Avsar, U., Altinok, S., Schmidt, S. & Cagatay, N., 2017. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey). Sedimentology 64, 1322–1353.10.1111/sed.12355 Search in Google Scholar

Hudleston, P.J., 1973. An analysis of ‘single layer’ folds developed experimentally in viscous media. Tectono-physics 16, 189–214.10.1016/0040-1951(73)90012-7 Search in Google Scholar

Knipe, R.J., 1986. Deformation mechanism path diagrams for sediment undergoing lithification. [In:] Moore, J.C. (Ed.): Structural Fabric in Deep Sea Drilling Project Cores From Forearcs. Geological Society of America Memoirs 166, 151–160.10.1130/MEM166-p151 Search in Google Scholar

Leeder, M.R., 1987. Sediment deformation structures and the palaeotectonic analysis of sedimentary basins, with a case-study from the Carboniferous of northern England. [In:] Jones, M.E. & Preston, R.M.F. (Eds): Deformation of Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Geological Society, London, Special Publication 29, 137–146.10.1144/GSL.SP.1987.029.01.12 Search in Google Scholar

Lowe, D.R., 1975. Water-escape structures in coarse-grained sediments. Sedimentology 22, 157–204.10.1111/j.1365-3091.1975.tb00290.x Search in Google Scholar

Maltman, A., 1984. On the term soft-sediment deformation. Journal of Structural Geology 6, 589–592.10.1016/0191-8141(84)90069-5 Search in Google Scholar

Maltman, A., 1994a. Deformation structures preserved in rocks. [In:] Maltman, A. (Ed.): The Geological Deformation of Sediments. Chapman & Hall, London, 261–307.10.1007/978-94-011-0731-0_9 Search in Google Scholar

Maltman, A., 1994b. Introduction and overview. [In:] Maltman, A. (Ed.): The Geological Deformation of Sediments. Chapman & Hall, London, 1–35.10.1007/978-94-011-0731-0_1 Search in Google Scholar

Maltman, A.J., Hubbard, B. & Hambrey, M.J. (Eds), 2000. Deformation of Glacial Materials. Geological Society of London. Special Publication 176.10.1144/GSL.SP.2000.176.01.01 Search in Google Scholar

Mazumder, R., Van Loon, A.J. & Arima, M., 2006. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Earth’s oldest seismites. Sedimentary Geology 186, 19–26.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2005.12.002 Search in Google Scholar

Mazumder, R., Van Loon, A.J., Malviya, V.P., Arima, M. & Ogawa, Y., 2016. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the Mio-Pliocene Misaki Formation within alternating deep sea clays and volcanic ashes (Miura Peninsula, Japan). Sedimentary Geology 344, 323–335.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.02.010 Search in Google Scholar

Meddlicott, H.B., 1873. The Shahpur Coalfield with a note on coal exploration in Narmada region. Records of Geological Survey of India 18, 65–86. Search in Google Scholar

Moretti, M., Owen, G. & Tropeano, M., 2011. Soft-sediment deformation induced by sinkhole activity in shallow marine environments: a fossil example in the Apulian foreland (southern Italy). Sedimentary Geology 235, 331–342.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.09.012 Search in Google Scholar

Obermeier, S.F., 1996. Using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis. [In:] McCalpin, J.P. (Ed.): Paleoseismology. International Geophysics Series 62, 331–396.10.1016/S0074-6142(96)80074-X Search in Google Scholar

Ortner, H., 2007. Styles of soft-sediment deformation on top of a growing fold system in the Gosau Group at Muttekopf, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria: slumping versus tectonic deformation. Sedimentary Geology 196, 99–118.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2006.05.028 Search in Google Scholar

Ortner, H. & Kilian, S., 2016. Sediment creep on slopes in pelagic limestones: Upper Jurassic of Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. Sedimentary Geology 344, 350–363.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2016.03.013 Search in Google Scholar

Owen, G. & Moretti, M., 2011. Identifying triggers for liquefaction-induced soft-sediment deformation in sands. Sedimentary Geology 235, 141–147.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2010.10.003 Search in Google Scholar

Perucca, L.P., Godoy, E. & Pantano, A., 2014. Late Pleistocene-Holocene earthquake-induced slumps and soft-sediment deformation structures in the Acequion River valley, Central Precordillera, Argentina. Geologos 20, 147–156.10.2478/logos-2014-0007 Search in Google Scholar

Peters, J., & Singh, S.K., 2001. Satpura basin – an example of pre-rift, syn-rift, post-rift Gondwana sedimentation in India. Journal of Geological Society of India 57, 309–320. Search in Google Scholar

Pratt, B.R., 1994. Seismites in the Mesoproterozoic Altyn Formation (Belt Supergroup), Montana: a test for tec-tonic control of peritidal carbonate cyclicity. Geology 22, 1091–1094.10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<1091:SITMAF>2.3.CO;2 Search in Google Scholar

Price, N.J. & Cosgrove, J.W., 1990. Analysis of Geological Structures. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 502 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Radhakrishna, B.P. & Naqvi, S.M., 1986. Precambrian continental crust of India and its evolution. The Journal of Geology 94, 145–166.10.1086/629020 Search in Google Scholar

Raja Rao, C.S., 1983. Coalfields of India. Vol. III. Coal resources of Madhya Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Geological Survey of India Bulletin Series A, 45, 248–285. Search in Google Scholar

Ramsay, J.G., 1962. Interference patterns produced by the superposition of folds of ‘similar’ type. Journal of Geology 60, 466–481.10.1086/626837 Search in Google Scholar

Ramsay, J.G., 1967. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. McGraw Hill, New York, 568 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Ramsay, J.G. & Huber, M.I., 1987. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology. Vol. 2. Folds and Fractures. Academic Press, London, 391 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Seilacher, A., 1969. Fault-graded beds interpreted as seismites. Sedimentology 13, 155–159.10.1111/j.1365-3091.1969.tb01125.x Search in Google Scholar

Twiss, R.J. & Moores, E.M., 2007. Structural Geology. 2nd ed. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York, 736 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Üner, S., 2014. Seismogenic structures in Quaternary lacustrine deposits of Lake Van (eastern Turkey). Geologos 20, 79–87.10.2478/logos-2014-0011 Search in Google Scholar

Van Loon, A.J., 2009. Soft-sediment deformation structures in siliciclastic sediments: an overview. Geologos 15, 3–55. Search in Google Scholar

Van Loon, A.J. (Ed.), 2014. Seismites and their soft-sediment deformation structures. Geologos 20, 61–166.10.2478/logos-2014-0005 Search in Google Scholar

Waldron, J.W.F. & Gagnon, J.F., 2011. Recognizing soft-sediment structures in deformed rocks of orogens. Journal of Structural Geology 33, 271–279.10.1016/j.jsg.2010.06.015 Search in Google Scholar

Woodcock, N.H., 1976. Structural style in slump sheets: Ludlow Series, Powys, Wales. Journal of Geological Society, London 132, 399–415.10.1144/gsjgs.132.4.0399 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo