1. bookVolume 67 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The role of sampling strategy on apparent temporal stability of soil moisture under subtropical hydroclimatic conditions

Published Online: 26 Jun 2019
Page range: 260 - 270
Received: 23 Jan 2018
Accepted: 05 Sep 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Subtropical regions have clay-rich, weathered soils, and long dry periods followed by intense rainfall that produces large fluctuations in soil water content (SWC) and hydrological behavior. This complicates predictions of spatio-temporal dynamics, as datasets are typically collected at too coarse resolution and observations often represent a duration that is too short to capture temporal stability. The aim of the present study was to gain further insights into the role of temporal sampling scale on the observed temporal stability features of SWC order to aid the design of optimal SWC sampling strategies. This focused on both sampling frequency and total monitoring duration, as previous analyses have not considered both of these sampling aspects simultaneously. We collected relatively high resolution data of SWC (fortnightly over 3.5 years) for various soil depths and under contrasting crops (peanuts and citrus) at the red soil region of southeast China. The dataset was split into a three-year training period and a six-month evaluation period. Altogether 13 sampling frequencies (intervals ranging from 15 to 240 days) and eight monitoring duration periods (between three and 36 months) were derived from the training period to identify temporal stability features and the most time stable location (MTSL). The prediction accuracies of these MTSLs were tested using the independent evaluation data. Results showed that vegetation type did affect the spatio-temporal patterns of SWC, whereby the citrus site exhibited a stronger temporal variation and weaker temporal stability than the peanut site. However, the effects of both sampling frequency and observation duration were more pronounced, irrespective of the role of vegetation type or soil depth. With increasing sampling interval or decreasing monitoring duration, temporal stability of SWC was generally overestimated; by less than 10% when sampling interval increased from every 15 to 240 days and by up to 40% with duration decreasing from 36 to 3 months. Our results suggest that sampling strategies and trade-offs between sampling interval and duration should focus on capturing the main variability in hydro-climatological conditions. For subtropical conditions, we found that sampling once every 45 days over 24 months to be the minimum sampling strategy to ensure errors in SWC temporal stability of less than 10%.

Keywords

Biswas, A., 2014. Season- and depth-dependent time stability for characterizing representative monitoring locations of soil water storage in a hummocky landscape. Catena, 116, 38–50.10.1016/j.catena.2013.12.008Search in Google Scholar

Biswas, A., Si, B.C., 2011. Identifying scale specific controls of soil water storage in a hummocky landscape using wavelet coherency. Geoderma, 165, 50–59.10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.07.002Search in Google Scholar

Boulet, A., Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., González-Pelayo, O., Coelho, C.O.A., Ferreira, A.J.D., Keizer, J.J., 2015. Surface and subsurface flow in eucalyptus plantations in north-central Portugal. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 63, 193–200.10.1515/johh-2015-0015Search in Google Scholar

Brandyk, A., Kiczko, A., Majewski, G., Kleniewska, M., Krukowski, M., 2016. Uncertainty of Deardorff’s soil moisture model based on continuous TDR measurements for sandy loam soil. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 64, 23–29.10.1515/johh-2016-0007Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Brocca, L., Melone, F., Moramarco, T., Morbidelli, R., 2010. Spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture and its estimation across scales. Water Resour. Res., 46, W02516.10.1029/2009WR008016Search in Google Scholar

Burns, T.T., Berg, A.A., Cockburn, J., Tetlock, E., 2016. Regional scale spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture in a prairie region. Hydrol. Process., 30, 3639–3649.10.1002/hyp.10954Search in Google Scholar

Buttafuoco, G., Castrignanò, A., Castrignano, E., Dimase, A.C., 2005. Studying the spatial structure evolution of soil water content using multivariate geostatistics. J. Hydrol., 311, 202–218.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.01.018Search in Google Scholar

Canton, V., Rodríguez-Caballero, E., Contreras, S., Villagarcia, L., Li, X.Y., Solé-Benet, A., Domingo, F., 2016. Vertical and lateral soil moisture patterns on a Mediterranean karst hillslope. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 64, 209–217.10.1515/johh-2016-0030Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cassel, D.K., Wendroth, O., Nielsen, D.R., 2000. Assessing spatial variability in an agricultural experiment station field: opportunities arising from spatial dependence. Agron. J., 92, 706–714.10.2134/agronj2000.924706xSearch in Google Scholar

Cho, E., Zhang, A., Choi, M., 2016. The seasonal difference in soil moisture patterns considering the meteorological variables throughout the Korean peninsula. Terr. Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 27, 907–920.10.3319/TAO.2016.07.12.01Search in Google Scholar

Choi, M., Jacobs, J.M., 2007. Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints. Adv. Water Resour., 30, 883–896.10.1016/j.advwatres.2006.07.007Search in Google Scholar

Cosh, M.H., Jackson, T.J., Bindlish, R., Prueger, J.H., 2004. Watershed scale temporal and spatial stability of soil moisture and its role in validating satellite estimates. Remote Sens. Environ., 92, 427–435.10.1016/j.rse.2004.02.016Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cosh, M.H., Jackson, T.J., Starks, P., Heathman, G., 2006. Temporal stability of surface soil moisture in the Little Washita River watershed and its applications in satellite soil moisture product validation. J. Hydro., 323, 168–177.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.08.020Search in Google Scholar

Dumedah, G., Coulibaly, P., 2011. Evaluation of statistical methods for infilling missing values in high-resolution soil moisture data. J. Hydrol., 400, 95–102.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.01.028Search in Google Scholar

Fader, M., von Bloh, M., Shi, S., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., 2015. Modelling Mediterranean agro-ecosystems by including agricultural trees in the LPJmL model. Geosci. Model. Dev., 8, 3545–3561.10.5194/gmd-8-3545-2015Search in Google Scholar

Gao, L., Shao, M.A., Wang, Y.Q., 2012. Spatial scaling of saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils in a small water-shed on the Loess Plateau, China. J. Soils Sediments, 12, 863–875.10.1007/s11368-012-0511-3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gao, L., Shao, M.A., Peng, X.H., She, D.L., 2015a. Spatio-temporal variability and temporal stability of water contents distributed within soil profiles at a hillslope scale. Catena, 132, 29–36.10.1016/j.catena.2015.03.022Search in Google Scholar

Gao, L., Lv, Y.J., Wang, D.D., Tahir, M., Peng, X.H., 2015b. Can shallow-layer measurements at a single location be used to predict deep soil water storage at the slope scale? J. Hydrol., 531, 534–542.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.11.002Search in Google Scholar

Gao, L., Lv, Y.J., Wang, D.D., Tahir, M., Biswas, A., Peng, X.H., 2016a. Soil water storage prediction at high space-time resolution along an agricultural hillslope. Agric. Water Manag., 165, 122–130.10.1016/j.agwat.2015.11.012Search in Google Scholar

Gao, X.D., Zhao, X.N., Brocca, L., Lv, T., Huo, G.P., Wu, P.T., 2016b. Upscaling of soil moisture content from surface to profile: multistation testing of observation operators. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. DOI: 10.5194/hess-2016-617.10.5194/hess-2016-617Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gelhar, L.W., 1993. Stochastic Subsurface Hydrology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 390 p.Search in Google Scholar

Guber, A.K., Gish, T.J., Pachepsky, Y.A., van Genuchten, M.T., Daughtry, C.S.T., Nicholson, T.J., Cady, R.E., 2008. Temporal stability in soil water content patterns across agricultural fields. Catena, 73, 125–133.10.1016/j.catena.2007.09.010Search in Google Scholar

Heathman, G.C., Larose, M., Cosh, M.H., Bindlish, R., 2009. Surface and profile soil moisture spatio-temporal analysis during an excessive rainfall period in the Southern Great Plains, USA. Catena, 78, 159–169.10.1016/j.catena.2009.04.002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hu, W., Tallon, L.K., Si, B.C., 2012. Evaluation of time stability indices for soil water storage upscaling. J. Hydrol., 475, 229–241.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.09.050Search in Google Scholar

Hu, W., Si, B.C., 2016. Estimating spatially distributed soil water content at small watershed scales based on decomposition of temporal anomaly and time stability analysis. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 6467–6503.10.5194/hessd-12-6467-2015Search in Google Scholar

Jarasiunas, G., Kinderiene, L., 2016. Impact of agro-environmental systems on soil erosion processes and soil properties on hilly landscape in Western Lithuania. J. Environ. Eng. Landsc., 24, 60–69.10.3846/16486897.2015.1054289Search in Google Scholar

Jenkins, G.M., Watts, D.G., 1968. Spectral Analysis and its Applications. Holden-Day, San Francisco, 525 p.Search in Google Scholar

Junqueira Junior, J.A., Mello, C.R., Owens, P.R., Mello, J.M., Curi, N., Alves, G.J., 2017. Time-stability of soil water content (SWC) in an Atlantic Forest - Latosol site. Geoderma, 288, 64–78.10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.10.034Search in Google Scholar

Korres, W., Reichenau, T.G., Fiener, P., Koyama, C.N., Bogena, H.R., Cornelissen, T., Baatz, R., Herbst, M., Diekkrüger, B., Vereecken, H., Schneider, H., 2015. Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns – A meta-analysis using plot to catchment scale data. J. Hydrol., 520, 326–341.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.11.042Search in Google Scholar

Lai, R., 1998. Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 17, 319–464.10.1080/07352689891304249Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Lee, E., Kim, S., 2017. Pattern similarity based soil moisture analysis for three seasons on a steep hillslope. J. Hydrol., 551, 484–494.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.06.028Search in Google Scholar

Li, X.Z., Shao, M.A., Jia, X.X., Wei, X.R., 2016. Profile distribution of soil–water content and its temporal stability along a 1340-m long transect on the Loess Plateau, China. Catena, 137, 77–86.10.1016/j.catena.2015.09.005Search in Google Scholar

Liu, B.X., Shao, M.A., 2014. Estimation soil water storage using temporal stability in four land uses over 10 years on the Loess Plateau, China. J. Hydrol., 517, 974–984.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.06.003Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Fernández, J., Ceballos, A., 2005. Mean soil moisture estimation using temporal stability analysis. J. Hydrol., 312, 28–38.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.02.007Search in Google Scholar

Martínez, G., Pachepsky, Y.A., Vereecken, H., 2014. Temporal stability of soil water content as affected by climate and soil hydraulic properties: a simulation study. Hydrol. Process., 28, 1899–1915.10.1002/hyp.9737Search in Google Scholar

Martini, E., Wollschläger, U., Kögler, S., Behrens, T., Dietrich, P., Reinstorf, F., Schmidt, K., Weiler, M., Werban, U., Zacharias, S., 2015. Spatial and temporal dynamics of hillslope-scale soil moisture patterns: Characteristic states and transition mechanisms. Vadose Zone J., 14, 4, vzj2014.10.0150. DOI: 10.2136/vzj2014.10.0150.10.2136/vzj2014.10.0150Search in Google Scholar

Nasta, P., Penna, D., Brocca, L., Zuecco, G., Romano, N., 2018. Downscaling near-surface soil moisture from field to plot scale: A comparative analysis under different environmental conditions. J. Hydrol., 557, 97–108.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.12.017Search in Google Scholar

Pan, F., Pachepsky, Y., Jacques, D., Guber, A., Hill, R.L., 2012. Data assimilation with soil water content sensors and pedotransfer functions in soil water flow modeling. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 76, 829–844.10.2136/sssaj2011.0090Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rivera, D., Lillo, M., Granda, S., 2014. Representative locations from time series of soil water content using time stability and wavelet analysis. Environ. Monit. Assess., 186, 9075–9087.10.1007/s10661-014-4067-025249045Search in Google Scholar

Shen, Q., Gao, G.Y., Hu, W., Fu, B.J., 2016. Spatial-temporal variability of soil water content in a cropland shelterbelt-desert site in an arid inland river basin of Northwest China. J. Hydrol., 540, 873–885.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.07.005Search in Google Scholar

Soil Survey Staff, 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 11th ed. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, 338 p.Search in Google Scholar

Starks, P.J., Heathman, G.C., Jackson, T.J., Cosh, M.H., 2006. Temporal stability of soil moisture profile. J. Hydrol., 324, 400–411.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.024Search in Google Scholar

Stockinger, M.P., Bogena, H.R., Lücke, A., Diekkruger, B., Weiler, M., Vereecken, H., 2014. Seasonal soil moisture patterns: Controlling transit time distributions in a forested headwater catchment. Water Resour. Res., 50, 5270–5289.10.1002/2013WR014815Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tahir, M., Lv, Y.J., Gao, L., Hallett, P.D., Peng, X.H., 2016. Soil water dynamics and availability for citrus and peanut along a hillslope at the Sunjia Red Soil Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Soil Till. Res., 163, 110–118.10.1016/j.still.2016.05.017Search in Google Scholar

Vachaud, G., Passerat De Silans, A., Balabanis, P., Vauclin, M., 1985. Temporal stability of spatially measured soil water prob- ability density function. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 49, 822–828.10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900040006xSearch in Google Scholar

Vanderlinden, K., Vereecken, H., Hardelauf, H., Herbst, M., Martínez, G., Cosh, M.H., Pachepsky, Y., 2012. Temporal stability of soil water contents: A review of data and analysis. Vadose Zone J., 11, 4, vzj2011.0178. DOI: 10.2136/vzj2011.0178.10.2136/vzj2011.0178Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wang, T.J., Wedin, D.A., Franz, T.E., Hiller, J., 2015a. Effect of vegetation on the temporal stability of soil moisture in grass-stabilized semi-arid sand dunes. J. Hydrol., 521, 447–459.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.12.037Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Y.Q., Hu, W., Zhu, Y.J., Shao, M.A., Xiao, S., Zhang, C.C., 2015b. Vertical distribution and temporal stability of soil water in 21-m profiles under different land uses on the Loess Plateau in China. J. Hydrol., 527, 543–554.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.05.010Search in Google Scholar

Wang, T.J., Liu, Q., Franz, T.E., Li, R.P., Lang, Y.C., Fiebrich, C.A., 2017. Spatial patterns of soil moisture from two regional monitoring networks in the United States. J. Hydrol., 552, 578–585.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.035Search in Google Scholar

Western, A.W., Blöschl, G., 1999. On the spatial scaling of soil moisture. J. Hydrol., 217, 203–224.10.1016/S0022-1694(98)00232-7Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, P.P., Shao, M.A., Zhang, X.C., 2015. Scale-dependence of temporal stability of surface-soil moisture in a desert area in northwestern China. J. Hydrol., 527, 1034–1044.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.05.015Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, Z.B., Lin, L, Wang, Y., Peng, X.H., 2016. Temporal change in soil macropores measured using tension infiltrometer under different land uses and slope positions in subtropical China. J. Soils Sediments, 16, 854–863.10.1007/s11368-015-1295-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zhao, Y., Zhang, B., Hill, R., 2012. Water use assessment in alley cropping systems within subtropical China. Agroforest Syst., 84, 243–259.10.1007/s10457-011-9458-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zhu, Q., Zhou, Z.W., Duncan, E.W., Lv, L.G., Liao, K.H., Feng, H.H., 2017. Integrating real-time and manual monitored data to predict hillslope soil moisture dynamics with high spatio-temporal resolution using linear and non-linear models. J. Hydrol., 545, 1–11.10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.12.014Search in Google Scholar

Zreda, M., Shuttleworth, W., Zeng, X., Zweck, C., Desilets, D., Franz, T., Rosolem, R. 2012. COSMOS: the cosmic-ray soil moisture observing system. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 16, 4079–4099.10.5194/hess-16-4079-2012Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo