1. bookVolume 14 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2228-0987
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

“Not Even All Physicians Know Chinese Medicine!”: Analysing the Legitimation Strategies of Chinese Medicine in the Estonian Media

Published Online: 15 Jun 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 14 (2020) - Issue 1 (June 2020)
Page range: 1 - 24
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2228-0987
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

To exemplify the legitimation processes of a pluralistic health field this article focuses on representations of Chinese medicine and its most popular spokes-person, Rene Bürkland, in the Estonian media. From 320 media texts published between 2009 and 2018 we chose 12 for close analysis with the aim of detecting specific discourses, untangling implicit meanings, and demonstrating the complexity of the rhetorical formulations used to legitimate Chinese medicine. We identified five key discourses – discourses of Bürkland’s charisma, holistic health, individual autonomy, subtle body, and integrative medicine – underpinning various legitimation strategies which aim to change the position of Chinese medicine from alternative to integrative. Our study reveals that the absence of scientific rhetoric together with key discourses has left Chinese medicine and its spokesperson without the attention of biggest critics of CAM and, therefore, has secured a positive image for Chinese medicine in the public discourse.

Keywords

ACIMH = Academic Consortium for Integrative Medicine and Health. https://imconsortium.org/about/introduction/ (accessed January 11, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, Joan and Sheryl Reimer Kirkham. 1999. Discourses on Health: A Critical Perspective. – A Cross-Cultural Dialogue on Health Care Ethics, edited by Harold Coward and Pinit Ratanakul. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 47–67.Search in Google Scholar

Baer, Hans A. 2008. The Emergence of Integrative Medicine in Australia. The Growing Interest of Biomedicine and Nursing in Complementary Medicine in a Southern Developed Society. – Medical Anthropology Quarterly 22 (1): 52–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1387.2008.00003.x.10.1111/j.1548-1387.2008.00003.xSearch in Google Scholar

Barcan, Ruth. 2011. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Bodies, Therapies, Senses. Oxford; New York, NY: Berg.Search in Google Scholar

Benelli, Eva. 2003. The Role of the Media in Steering Public Opinion on Healthcare Issues. –Health Policy 63 (2): 179–186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-8510(02)00064-7.10.1016/S0168-8510(02)00064-7Search in Google Scholar

Bligh, Michelle and Jill Robinson. 2010. Was Gandhi “Charismatic”? Exploring the Rhetorical Leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. – The Leadership Quarterly 21: 844–855. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.07.011.10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.07.011Search in Google Scholar

Boss, George P. 1976. Essential Attributes of the Concept of Charisma. – Southern Speech Communication Journal 41 (3): 300–313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10417947609372316.10.1080/10417947609372316Search in Google Scholar

Briggs, Charles and Daniel Hallin. 2016. Making Health Public: How News Coverage Is Remaking Media, Medicine, and Contemporary Life. London; New York, NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315658049.10.4324/9781315658049Search in Google Scholar

Bryman, Alan. 1992. Charisma, and Leadership in Organizations. London: Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Bürkland, Rene. 2014. Tervise alkeemia. Hiina meditsiiniline lähenemine tervisele ja haigustele. Tallinn: Pilgrim.Search in Google Scholar

Bürkland, Rene. 2016. Tark tee terviseni. Hiina toitumisteraapia tervise tugevdamiseks ja haigustest para nemiseks. Tallinn: Pilgrim.Search in Google Scholar

Caldwell, Elizabeth Frances. 2017. Quackademia? Mass-Media Delegitimation of Homeopathy Education. – Science as Culture 26 (3): 380–407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09505431.2017.1316253.10.1080/09505431.2017.1316253Search in Google Scholar

Cant, Sarah and Ursula Sharma. 1999. A New Medical Pluralism? Alternative Medicine, Doctors, Patients and the State. London; New York, NY: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Coulter, Ian. 2004. Integration and Paradigm Clash: The Practical Difficulties of Integrative Medicine. – The Mainstreaming of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, edited by Philip Tovey, Gary Easthope and Jon Adams. New York, NY; London: Routledge, 103–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203987902-10.10.4324/9780203987902-10Search in Google Scholar

Crant, J. Michael and Thomas S. Bateman. 2000. Charismatic Leadership Viewed from above: The Impact of Proactive Personality. – Journal of Organizational Behaviour 21: 63–75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200002)21:1<63::AID-JOB8>3.0.CO;2-J.10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200002)21:1<63::AID-JOB8>3.0.CO;2-JSearch in Google Scholar

Crawford, Robert. 1980. Healthism and the Medicalization of Everyday Life. – International Journal of Health Services 10 (3): 365–388. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2190/3H2H-3XJN-3KAY-G9NY.10.2190/3H2H-3XJN-3KAY-G9NYSearch in Google Scholar

Denny, Keith 1999. Evidence-Based Medicine and Medical Authority. – Journal of Medical Humanities 20 (4): 247–263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022924404779.10.1023/A:1022924404779Search in Google Scholar

EAYS = The Estonian Medical Students’ Association. https://eays.ee/ (accessed January 11, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Ernst, Edzard. 2011. How Much of CAM Is Based on Research Evidence? – Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep044.10.1093/ecam/nep044Search in Google Scholar

Ernst, Edzard and Thomas Weihmayr. 2000. UK and German Media Differ over Complementary Medicine. – British Medical Journal Clinical Research 321: 707.Search in Google Scholar

EUROCAM = What Is CAM. – EUROCAM. https://cam-europe.eu/foundation-of-cam-umbrella-organisations/what-is-complementary-and-alternative-medicine (accessed January 11, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Fairclough, Norman. 2003. Analysing Discourse. Textual Analysis for Social Research. London; New York, NY: Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203697078.10.4324/9780203697078Search in Google Scholar

Fries, Christopher J. 2009. Bourdieu’s Reflexive Sociology as a Basis for Mixed Methods Research: An Application to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. – Journal of Mixed Methods Research 3(4): 326–348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689809336660.10.1177/1558689809336660Search in Google Scholar

Hammer, Olav. 2001. Claiming Knowledge: Strategies of Epistemology from Theosophy to the New Age. Leiden; Boston, MA; Köln: Brill.10.1163/9789004493995Search in Google Scholar

Harnett, Susan and Jane Morgan-Daniel. 2018. Health Literacy Considerations for Users of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. – Journal of Consumer Health on the Internet 22 (1): 63–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15398285.2018.1415593.10.1080/15398285.2018.1415593Search in Google Scholar

den Hartog, Deanne N. and Robert M. Verburg. 1997. Charisma and Rhetoric: Communicative Techniques of International Business Leaders. – Leadership Quarterly 8 (4): 355–391. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90020-5.10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90020-5Search in Google Scholar

Health Board. 2019a. Algab terviseameti kampaania “Tervis pole naljaasi”. – Terviseamet. https://www.terviseamet.ee/et/uudised/algab-terviseameti-kampaania-tervis-pole-naljaasi (accessed April 27, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Health Board. 2019b. Ebaravi. – Terviseamet. https://www.terviseamet.ee/et/ebaravi (accessed April 27, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Hjarvard, Stig. 2008. The Mediatization of Society. – Nordicom Review 29 (2): 105–134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/nor-2017-0181.10.1515/nor-2017-0181Search in Google Scholar

Hoenders, H. J. Rogier; Martin T. Appelo, Erik van den Brink, Bregje M. A. Hartogs and Joop Tvm de Jong. 2011. The Dutch Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Protocol: To Ensure the Safe and Effective Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine within Dutch Mental Health Care. – The Journal of Alternative and Compementary Medicine 17 (12): 1197–1201. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0762.10.1089/acm.2010.0762Search in Google Scholar

Hollenberg, Daniel and Linda Muzzin. 2010. Epistemological Challenges to Integrative Medicine: An Anticolonial Perspective on the Combination of Complementary/Alternative Medicine with Biomedicine. – Health Sociology Review 19 (1): 34–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5172/hesr.2010.19.1.034.10.5172/hesr.2010.19.1.034Search in Google Scholar

House, Robert J.; William D. Spangler and James Woycke. 1991. Personality and Charisma in the U.S. Presidency: A Psychological Theory of Leader Effectiveness. – Administrative Science Quarterly 36: 364–396. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2393201.10.2307/2393201Search in Google Scholar

Hughes, Kahryn. 2004. Health as Individual Responsibility: Possibilities and Personal Struggle. – The Mainstreaming of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, edited by Philip Tovey, Gary Easthope and Jon Adams. New York, NY; London: Routledge, 25–46.Search in Google Scholar

Ilves, Liis. 2017. Haigekassa Hiina meditsiini praktiseerimisest: arst peab patsienti ravima arstiteaduse reeglite järgi. – Med24. https://www.med24.ee/uudised/haigekassa-hiina-meditsiini-praktiseerimisest-arst-peab-patsienti-ravima-arstiteaduse#com%E2%80%A6 (accessed January 11, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Jensen, Bjarne Bruun. 1997. A Case of Two Paradigms within Health Education. – Health Education Research 12 (4): 419–428. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/her/12.4.419.10.1093/her/12.4.419Search in Google Scholar

Johnston, Jay. 2010. Subtle Anatomy: The Bio-metaphysics of Alternative Therapies. – International Studies in Religion and Society 11. Medicine, Religion, and the Body, edited by Elizabeth Burns Coleman and Kevin White. Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill, 69–78. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/ej.9789004179707.i-300.28.10.1163/ej.9789004179707.i-300.28Search in Google Scholar

Johnston, Jay and Ruth Barcan. 2006. Subtle Transformations: Imagining the Body in Alternative Health Practices. – International Journal of Cultural Studies 9 (1): 25–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877906061163.10.1177/1367877906061163Search in Google Scholar

Kelly, Bridget; Robert Hornik, Anca Romantan, J. Sanford Schwartz, Katrina Armstrong, Angela DeMichele, Martin Fishbein, Stacy Gray, Shawnika Hull, Annice Kim, Rebekah Nagler, Jeff Niederdeppe, A. Susana Ramírez, Aaron Smith-McLallen and Norman Wong. 2010. Cancer Information Scanning and Seeking in the General Population. – Journal of Health Communication 15 (7): 734–753. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2010.514029.10.1080/10810730.2010.514029Search in Google Scholar

Kelner, Merrijoy; Beverly Wellman, Heather Boon and Sandy Welsh. 2004. Responses of Established Healthcare to the Professionalization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Ontario. – Social Science and Medicine (59): 915–930. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.12.017.10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.12.017Search in Google Scholar

Keshet, Yael. 2009. The Untenable Boundaries of Biomedical Knowledge: Epistemologies and Rhetoric Strategies in the Debate over Evaluating Complementary and Alternative Medicine. – Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 13 (2): 131–155. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459308099681.10.1177/1363459308099681Search in Google Scholar

Keshet, Yael. 2013. Dual Embedded Agency: Physicians Implement Integrative Medicine in Health-care Organizations. – Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 17 (6): 605–621. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459312472084.10.1177/1363459312472084Search in Google Scholar

Koppel, Katre. 2018. “My Dream Is to Bring Together Chinese and Western Medicine”: Why Chinese Medicine Is Making Its Way into Estonian Healthcare. – Curare. Journal of Medical Anthropology 41 (1–2): 63–78.Search in Google Scholar

Koppel, Katre and Marko Uibu. Forthcoming. From Alternative Healing to Holistic Well-Being: Media Representation Analysis of Three Significant Estonian Medical Doctors.Search in Google Scholar

Korp, Peter. 2010. Problems of the Healthy Lifestyle Discourse. – Sociology Compass 4 (9): 800–810. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00313.x.10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00313.xSearch in Google Scholar

Krotz, Friedrich. 2017. Explaining the Mediatisation Approach. – Javnost – The Public 24 (2): 103–118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2017.1298556.10.1080/13183222.2017.1298556Search in Google Scholar

Kuckartz, Udo. 2014. Qualitative Text Analysis. Los Angeles, CA; London; New Delhi; Singapore; Washington, DC: Sage.Search in Google Scholar

van Leeuwen, Theo. 2007. Legitimation in Discourse and Communication. – Discourse and Communication 1 (1): 91–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481307071986.10.1177/1750481307071986Search in Google Scholar

van Leeuwen, Theo. 2008. Discourse and Practice: New Tools for Critical Discourse Analysis. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195323306.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Leung, Shirley; Kylie Chan and Lisa Song. 2006. Publishing Trends in Chinese Medicine and Related Subjects Documented in WorldCat. – Health Information and Libraries Journal 23 (1): 13–22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-1842.2006.00636.x.10.1111/j.1471-1842.2006.00636.xSearch in Google Scholar

Lewis, Monique. 2019. De-legitimising Complementary Medicine: Framings of the Friends of Science in Medicine-CAM Debate in Australian Media Reports. – Sociology of Health and Illness 41: 831–851. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12865.10.1111/1467-9566.12865Search in Google Scholar

Lubi, Kadi; Triin Vihalemm and Pille Taba. 2016. Patients’ Interpretation of CAM-Related Information: Manoeuvring Between Patient and Consumer Positionings. – The Power of the Media in Health Communication, edited by Valentina Marinescu and Bianca Mitu. Oxon: Routledge, 73−90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315554068-6.10.4324/9781315554068-6Search in Google Scholar

Lundby, Knut. 2014. Mediatization of Communication. Handbooks of Communication Science 21. Berlin; Boston, MA: De Gruyter. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110272215.10.1515/9783110272215Search in Google Scholar

Lupton, Deborah. 1995. The Imperative of Health: Public Health and the Regulated Body. London: Sage Publications.10.4135/9781446221976Search in Google Scholar

Maarits, Merit. 2017. Amet: “tervendajate” tegevust ei saa piirata, sest Eestis on demokraatia. – ERR. https://www.err.ee/615145/amet-tervendajate-tegevust-ei-saa-piirata-sest-eestis-ondemokraatia (accessed February 23, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Miskelly, Philippa Ann. 2006. Healing Pluralism and Responsibility: An Anthropological Study of Patient and Practitioner Beliefs. Doctoral dissertation. University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. https://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10289/2560/thesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed February 10, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Moral-Muñoz, Jose A.; Manuel J. Cobo, E. Peis, Manuel Arroyo-Morales and Enrique Herrera-Viedma. 2014. Analyzing the Research in Integrative and Complementary Medicine by Means of Science Mapping. – Complementary Therapies in Medicine 22 (2): 409−418. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2014.02.003.10.1016/j.ctim.2014.02.003Search in Google Scholar

Nael, Merili. 2019. Uuenev rahvatervise seadus tõhustab muu hulgas ebaravivastast võitlust. – Eesti Rahvusringhääling. https://www.err.ee/994347/uuenev-rahvatervise-seadus-tohustabmuu-hulgas-ebaravivastast-voitlust (accessed November 13, 2019).Search in Google Scholar

Nettleton, Sarah. 2013. The Sociology of Health and Illness. 3rd edn. Cambridge: Polity Press.Search in Google Scholar

Ng, Jeremy Y.; Heather S. Boon, Alison K. Thompson and Cynthia R. Whitehead. 2016. Making Sense of “Alternative”, “Complementary”, “Unconventional” and “Integrative” Medicine: Exploring the Terms and Meanings through a Textual Analysis. – BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 16 (134). DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1111-3.10.1186/s12906-016-1111-3Search in Google Scholar

Nordenfelt, Lennart. 2007. The Concepts of Health and Illness Revisited. – Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10: 5–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11019-006-9017-3.10.1007/s11019-006-9017-3Search in Google Scholar

Rojo, Luisa Martin and Teun A. van Dijk. 1997. “There Was a Problem, and It Was Solved!”: Legitimating the Expulsion of ‘Illegal’ Migrants in Spanish Parliamentary Discourse. – Discourse and Society 8 (4): 523–566. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926597008004005.10.1177/0957926597008004005Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt, Josef M. 2009. Is Homeopathy a Science? – Continuity and Clash of Concepts of Science within Holistic Medicine. – Journal of Medical Humanities 30: 83–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10912-009-9080-x.10.1007/s10912-009-9080-xSearch in Google Scholar

Seale, Clive. 2003. Health and Media: An Overview. – Sociology of Health and Illness 25 (6): 513–531. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.t01-1-00356.10.1111/1467-9566.t01-1-00356Search in Google Scholar

Sutcliffe, Steven J. and Ingvild Saelid Gilhus. 2013. New Age Spirituality. Rethinking Religion. Durham: Acumen. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315729541.10.4324/9781315729541Search in Google Scholar

Takala, Tuomo; Sanja Tanttu, Anna-Maija Lämsä and Aila Virtanen. 2013. Discourses of Charisma: Barack Obama’s First 6 Months as the President of the USA. – Journal of Business Ethics 115: 149–166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1389-0.10.1007/s10551-012-1389-0Search in Google Scholar

Tikk, Arvo. 2005. Arstid ja alternatiivmeditsiin. – Eesti Arst 84 (4): 294–296.Search in Google Scholar

Titscher, Stefan; Michael Meyer, Ruth Wodak and Eva Vetter. 2000. Methods of Text and Discourse Analysis. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Delhi: Sage Publications.10.4135/9780857024480Search in Google Scholar

Uibu, Marko. 2016a. Reemerging Religiosity: The Mainstreaming of New Spirituality in Estonia. – Journal of Baltic Studies 47 (2): 257–274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01629778.2015.1113432.10.1080/01629778.2015.1113432Search in Google Scholar

Uibu, Marko. 2016b. Hidden Religiosity in One of the World’s Least Religious Countries: Estonian Doctor Luule Viilma and Her Spiritual Teachings. – Implicit Religion 19 (2): 267–282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1558/imre.v19i2.29777.10.1558/imre.v19i2.29777Search in Google Scholar

Uibu, Marko and Katre Koppel. Forthcoming. Beyond Medical Pluralism: Communicative Positioning of Biomedicine and Alternative Medicines in Estonia.Search in Google Scholar

Vaara, Eero. 2014. Struggles over Legitimacy in the Eurozone Crisis: Discursive Legitimation Strategies and Their Ideological Underpinnings. – Discourse and Society 25 (4): 500–518. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926514536962.10.1177/0957926514536962Search in Google Scholar

Võsumets, Marian. 2015. Arstide liit toetab lastearste MMSi vastases võitluses. – Postimees Tervis. https://tervis.postimees.ee/3340327/arstide-liit-toetab-lastearste-mmsi-vastases-voitluses (accessed January 11, 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Weber, Max. 1978 [1947]. Economy and Society. An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, edited by Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich. Berkeley, CA; Los Angeles, CA; London: University of California Press.Search in Google Scholar

Weeks, Laura; Marja Verhoef and Catherine Scott. 2007. Presenting the Alternative: Cancer and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Canadian Print Media. – Support Care Cancer 15 (8): 931–938. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-007-0290-3.10.1007/s00520-007-0290-3Search in Google Scholar

Weeks, Laura and Tina Strudsholm. 2008. A Scoping Review of Research on Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and the Mass Media: Looking Back, Moving Forward. – BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 8 (43). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-8-43.10.1186/1472-6882-8-43Search in Google Scholar

Wiese, Marlene and Candice Oster. 2010. ‘Becoming accepted’: The Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners’ Response to the Uptake and Practice of Traditional Medicine Therapies by the Mainstream Health. – Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 14 (4): 415–433. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459309359718.10.1177/1363459309359718Search in Google Scholar

Wiese, Marlene; Candice Oster and Jan Pincombe. 2010. Understanding the Emerging Relationship between Complementary Medicine and Mainstream Health Care: A Review of the Literature. – Health: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the Social Study of Health, Illness and Medicine 14 (3): 326–342. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459309358594.10.1177/1363459309358594Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo