1. bookVolume 5 (2020): Issue 4 (November 2020)
Journal Details
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Journal
eISSN
2543-683X
First Published
30 Mar 2017
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4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Correction: Corrigendum: The Gender Patenting Gap: A Study on the Iberoamerican Countries

Published Online: 22 Sep 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 5 (2020) - Issue 4 (November 2020)
Page range: 147 - 150
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-683X
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Purpose

Upon verification of the article and discussion with other researchers, we became concerned about the reproducibility of our results as we did not include information on a baseline date for the data collection. In this corrigendum, we seek to amend the article, adding this information and adjusting the data presented in the tables and figures to be accurate to this baseline. Those are minor changes, but they impact on the ability of a researcher to reproduce our results without consulting us. We apologize for any previous inconsistencies and hope this improves the correctness and completeness of this work.

Errata

The corrections to the original paper are detailed as follows:

Inclusion of the baseline date

On section 3, first paragraph, the sentence “The extraction was done on November 20, 2019.” was added. This informs the baseline date for the data collection, allowing the experiment to be reproduced by choosing the appropriate data from PATSTAT. In the previous version of the paper, some of the data was taken from a different date, as the study was refined over a few months, causing the final results to be difficult to reproduce precisely. For this reason, we fixed this date and ran all the calculations on this baseline. This caused small changes in the tables (1, 2, and 3) and in Figure 3, which are detailed in the next points.

Changes to Table 1

In Table 1, the number of inventors and respective “Avg. women p/patent” and “Avg. women invt. ratio” changed for the following countries:

Belize: 25 to 26, unchanged, unchanged

Cuba: 1547 to 1556, 0.664 to 0.672, 0.437 to 0.440

Dominican Republic: 145 to 148, unchanged, 0.255 to 0.250

Portugal: 9086 to 9129, 0.460 to 0.465, 0.265 to 0.267

Latin America: 60012 to 60016, unchanged, 0.228 to 0.227

Iberian Countries: 104088 to 104131, 0.443 to 0.446, 0.274 to 0.275

Ibero-America: 164100 to 164156, 0.657 to 0.658, 0.231 to 0.232

Also in Table 1, the “percent” column in Table 1 was mistakenly calculated using the entire set (150,863 patents) instead of the filtered set (103,914). We fixed that so the percent values now match correctly the patent numbers in the “# of patents” column.

The updated table is as follows:

Female involvement in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican1 country.

Country#of patentspercent#of inventorsAvg. women p/patent2Avg. women invt. ratio3
Argentina (LA)2,0191.94294,7410.4860.207
Bolivia (LA)160.0153730.5000.109
Brazil (LA)18,63217.930228,0990.3520.233
Belize (LA)1450.1395260.0620.360
Chile (LA)3,5213.38835,1800.3480.237
Colombia (LA)1,5471.48872,8470.4510.245
Costa Rica (LA)1730.16646890.3580.090
Cuba (LA)1,0180.97961,5560.6720.440
Dominican Republic (LA)760.07311480.4870.250
Ecuador (LA)3650.35124810.2660.201
Spain (IB)63,12860.750295,0020.4260.283
French Guyana (LA)10.0009125.0000.417
Guatemala (LA)180.0173910.5000.099
Honduras (LA)70.0067351.5710.314
Mexico (LA)6,5696.321513,7310.4280.204
Nicaragua (LA)70.0067360.1430.028
Panama (LA)6130.58993020.1320.268
Peru (LA)2110.20304840.5880.256
Portugal (IB)5,2425.04459,1290.4650.267
Paraguay (LA)230.0221440.1740.091
Suriname (LA)50.0048100.6000.300
Uruguay (LA)3240.31176490.3460.172
Venezuela (LA)2540.24447910.7790.250
Latin America (LA)35,54434.200060,0160.6780.227
Iberian countries (LA)68,37065.8000104,1310.4460.275
Ibero-America (LA)103,914100.0164,1560.6580.232

Latin american countries are indicated with (LA) next to their names, and Iberian countries with (IB).

The Avg. women per patent shows the average number of women listed as inventors in each application.

The Avg. women inventor ratio shows the mean ratio of women=men inventors for the appications analyzed.

Changes to Table 2

In Table 2, the numbers were truncated to the 3rd decimal place, and the number of inventors and respective “Avg. women p/patent” and “Avg. women invt. ratio” were changed as follows:

COMPANY: 150,796 to 150,866, unchanged, unchanged

GOVERNMENT: 21,094 to 21,126, unchanged, unchanged

INDIVIDUAL: 6,412 to 6,421, 0.190 to 0.194, 0.192 to 0.193

UNIVERSITY: 27,990 to 28,006, 0.641 to 0.635, 0.405 to 0.404

The updated table is as follows:

Female involvement by institutional sector in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican country.

Avg. women invt. ratio
Sector#of patentspercent#of inventorsAvg. women p/patentAvg. women invt. ratio
COMPANY119,3640.730150,8660.3470.274
GOVERNMENT12,9910.07921,1260.6790.418
INDIVIDUAL6,4530.0396,4210.1940.193
UNIVERSITY17,7120.10828,0060.6350.404

Note. The institutional sectors indicate the institutional origin or affiliation of the inventors. Only the applications pertaining to one of the four sectors: Company, Government, Individual, University, are listed in this table. Thus the total number of patents is different from Table 1. The sectorization methodology is descibed in previous PATSTAT research.

Changes in Table 3

In Table 3 one row was changed as follows:

Portugal: 0.226 to 0.228, 0.301 to 0.302, 0.076 to 0.074

The updated table is as follows:

Ranking of Ibero American countries in female participation growth on patenting (2007–2016).

RankCountryAvg. women invt. ratio
20072016growth
1Chile0.1990.3080.108
2Ecuador0.0620.1540.091
3Colombia0.1700.2590.088
4Portugal0.2280.3020.074
5Dominican Republic0.4370.5000.062
6Costa Rica0.0710.1310.060
7Mexico0.1650.2060.040
8Brazil0.2230.2570.033
9Spain0.2730.2750.001

Changes in Figure 3

Figures 1 and 2 were not changed due to truncation of small numbers. The updated Figure 3 is as follows:

Figure 3

Average women inventor ratio (women=men) over time, per region in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican country.

Additional information

The online version of the original article can be found at https://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/jdis/ahead-of-print/article-10.2478-jdis-2020-0025/article-10.2478-jdis-2020-0025.xml

Figure 3

Average women inventor ratio (women=men) over time, per region in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican country.
Average women inventor ratio (women=men) over time, per region in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican country.

Ranking of Ibero American countries in female participation growth on patenting (2007–2016).

RankCountryAvg. women invt. ratio
20072016growth
1Chile0.1990.3080.108
2Ecuador0.0620.1540.091
3Colombia0.1700.2590.088
4Portugal0.2280.3020.074
5Dominican Republic0.4370.5000.062
6Costa Rica0.0710.1310.060
7Mexico0.1650.2060.040
8Brazil0.2230.2570.033
9Spain0.2730.2750.001

Female involvement by institutional sector in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican country.

Avg. women invt. ratio
Sector#of patentspercent#of inventorsAvg. women p/patentAvg. women invt. ratio
COMPANY119,3640.730150,8660.3470.274
GOVERNMENT12,9910.07921,1260.6790.418
INDIVIDUAL6,4530.0396,4210.1940.193
UNIVERSITY17,7120.10828,0060.6350.404

Female involvement in patent applications with priority years (2007–2016) for which the applicant was resident in an iberoamerican1 country.

Country#of patentspercent#of inventorsAvg. women p/patent2Avg. women invt. ratio3
Argentina (LA)2,0191.94294,7410.4860.207
Bolivia (LA)160.0153730.5000.109
Brazil (LA)18,63217.930228,0990.3520.233
Belize (LA)1450.1395260.0620.360
Chile (LA)3,5213.38835,1800.3480.237
Colombia (LA)1,5471.48872,8470.4510.245
Costa Rica (LA)1730.16646890.3580.090
Cuba (LA)1,0180.97961,5560.6720.440
Dominican Republic (LA)760.07311480.4870.250
Ecuador (LA)3650.35124810.2660.201
Spain (IB)63,12860.750295,0020.4260.283
French Guyana (LA)10.0009125.0000.417
Guatemala (LA)180.0173910.5000.099
Honduras (LA)70.0067351.5710.314
Mexico (LA)6,5696.321513,7310.4280.204
Nicaragua (LA)70.0067360.1430.028
Panama (LA)6130.58993020.1320.268
Peru (LA)2110.20304840.5880.256
Portugal (IB)5,2425.04459,1290.4650.267
Paraguay (LA)230.0221440.1740.091
Suriname (LA)50.0048100.6000.300
Uruguay (LA)3240.31176490.3460.172
Venezuela (LA)2540.24447910.7790.250
Latin America (LA)35,54434.200060,0160.6780.227
Iberian countries (LA)68,37065.8000104,1310.4460.275
Ibero-America (LA)103,914100.0164,1560.6580.232
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