Open Access

GC-MS Analysis of Chemical Constituents in Ethanolic Bee Pollen Extracts from Three Species of Malaysian Stingless Bee


The pollen of stingless bees is derived from flower pollen mixed with bee digestive enzymes and preserved with honey and nectar. In this study, the volatile compounds present in ethanolic bee pollen extracts (BPEs) from three species of the Malaysian stingless bee were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrocarbons, sugars and its derivatives, fatty acids, amino acids, alcohol, uridine, aldehyde and an unknown carbamate were detected. Mannitol, the main sugar compounds, represented 54.34% in Trigona thoracica, 39.11% in Trigona apicalis and 33.05% in Trigona itama. Propanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid were the main hydrocarbons present in the extract of Trigona apicalis (4.04%) and Trigona thoracica pollen (1.28%) respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid were found in small amounts in all BPEs (0.07-1.11%). The chemical compounds found in BPEs had biological activities, thus bee pollen may be useful in traditional medicine and as a health supplement.

Publication timeframe:
2 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, Zoology, other