1. bookVolume 12 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Biochemical and histopathological effects of sub-acute exposure of albino rats to fumigants – dichlorvos and cypermethrin

Published Online: 30 Apr 2020
Page range: 180 - 185
Received: 13 Feb 2018
Accepted: 27 Mar 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Cypermethrin (CYP) is one of the most common active ingredients in most insecticides, mosquito coils and powder used in Nigeria. dichlorvos (DDVP) is the most indiscriminately used fumigant in most rural and sub-urban areas in Nigeria. These fumigants can easily be accessed without proper method of usage thus exposing the population to their toxic effects. As a result, this study was initiated to determine the effects of sub-acute exposure of CYP and DDVP on some biochemical and histopathological parameters of albino rats. In this study, forty (40) albino rats of 10 groups of 4 rats per group, with one group serving as control, were exposed to these fumigants in a poorly ventilated area for 4hours per day over 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The results showed observable changes in liver enzyme activities (p<0.05) in groups exposed to DDVP for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The groups exposed to CYP showed mild changes in liver enzyme activities when compared with the DDVP groups. Increase in activity of the liver enzymes was also observed in the groups exposed to a mixture of DDVP+CYP for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The urea, creatinine and electrolytes levels in all the groups exposed to DDVP, CYP and DDVP+CYP for 2, 4 and 6weeks were significantly (p<0.05) increased. Also WBC and platelets in all the groups exposed to DDVP and CYP recorded significant changes. The histology report of the lungs and liver showed moderate lymphocytic infiltration and hepatocytic steatosis which progressed with duration of exposure to the fumigants, while the kidneys showed no remarkable changes. The results of this study suggest that DDVP and CYP have relative toxic effects in the exposed animals and should be used with caution to avoid human exposure to their visible toxicities.

Keywords

Ajiboso SOO, Gbate M, Ajari OI and Adeyemo SO. (2012). Subchronic inhalation toxicity studies of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) in albino rats. Adv Biol Res6(4): 133–140.Search in Google Scholar

Ajiboye TO. (2010). Redox status of the liver and kidney of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phos-phate (DDVP) treated rats. Chem Biol Interact185: 202–207.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Jassabi S, Saad A, Azirun MS and Al-Omari A. (2011). The role of silymarin in prevention of alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Balb/C Mice. Am Eurasian J Toxicol Sci3(3): 172–176.Search in Google Scholar

Alavanja MC, Hoppin JA and Kamel F. (2004). Health effects of chronic pesticide exposure: cancerand neurotoxicity. Annu Rev Public Health25: 155–197.Search in Google Scholar

Antonijevic E, Musilek K, Kuca K, Djukic-Cosic D, Vucinic S and Antonijevic B. 2016. Therapeutic and reactivating efficacy of oximes K027 and K203 against a direct acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Neurotoxicology55: 33–39.Search in Google Scholar

Atef MA. (2010). Physiological and histopathological investigations on the effects of α-lipoic acid in rats exposed to Malathion. J Biomed Biotech203503: 1–8.Search in Google Scholar

Blair D, Dix KM, Hunt PF, Thorpe E, Stevenson DE and Walker AI. (1976). dichlorvos : A 2-year inhalation carcinogenesis study in rats. Arch. Toxicol35: 281–294.Search in Google Scholar

Burnett RW, Covington AK, Fogh-Andersen N, Külpmann WR, Lewenstam A, Maas AH, Müller-Plathe O, VanKessel AL, Zijlstra WG. (2000). Use of ion-selective electrodes for blood-electrolyte analysis. Recommendations for nomenclature, definitions and conventions. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). Scientific Division Working Group on Selective Electrodes. Clin Chem Lab Med38(4): 363–370.Search in Google Scholar

Dangerfield WG and Finlayson R. (1953). Estimation of bilirubin in serum. J Clin Pathol6(3): 173–177.Search in Google Scholar

Eddleston M. (2000). Patterns and problems of deliberate self-poisoning in the developing world. QJM93: 715–31.Search in Google Scholar

Eraslan G, Kanbur M, Silici S and Karabacak M. (2010). Beneficial effect of pine honey on trichlorfon induced biochemical alterations in mice. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf73: 1084–91.Search in Google Scholar

Eroglu S, Pandir D, Uzun FG and Bas H. (2013). Protective role of vitamins C and E in dichlorvos induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro. Biol Res46: 33–38.Search in Google Scholar

Forget G. (1993). Balancing the need for pesticides with the risk to human health. In: Forget G, Goodman T, de Villiers A, editors. Impact of Pesticide Use on Health in Developing Countries. IDRC, Ottawa: 2.Search in Google Scholar

Gimson AE. (1996). Fulminant and late onset hepatic failure. British J Anaesth77(1): 90–98.Search in Google Scholar

Karki P, Ansari JA, Bhandary S and Koirala S. (2004). Cardiac and electrocardiographical manifestations of acute organophosphate poisoning. Singapore Med J45: 385–389.Search in Google Scholar

Khan A, Faridi HAM, Ali M, Khan MZ, Siddique IH and Ahmad M. (2009). Effects of cypermethrin on some clinico-hematobiochemical and pathological parameters in male dwarf goats (Capra hircus). Exp Toxicol Pathol61: 151–160.Search in Google Scholar

Litchfield JT and Wilcoxon F. (1949). A simplified method of evaluating dose-effect experiments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther96(2): 99–113.Search in Google Scholar

Lum G. (1995). Low activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferase. Lab Med26(4): 273–276.Search in Google Scholar

Machado M and Horizonte B. (1958). Simple and rapid method for determination of urea by urease. Rev Assoc Med Bras4: 364–367.Search in Google Scholar

Mileson BE, Chambers JE, Chen WL, Dettbarn W, Ehrich M, Eldefrawi AT, Gaylor DW, Hamernik K, Hodgson E, Karczmar AG, Padilla S, Pope CN, Richardson RJ, Saunders DR, Sheets LP, Sultatos LG, Wallace KB. (1998). Common mechanism of toxicity: A case study of organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicol Sci41: 8–20.Search in Google Scholar

Mitchell RJ. (1973). Improved method for specific determination of creatinine in serum and urine. Clin Chem19: 408–410.Search in Google Scholar

Mostafalou S and Abdollahi M. 2017. Pesticides: an update of human exposure and toxicity. Arch Toxicol91(2): 549–599.Search in Google Scholar

National Research Council (US) Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals 8th edition. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US) 2011.Search in Google Scholar

Nesheim ON, Fishel FM and Mossler MA. (2002). Toxicity of pesticides. Gainesville University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ufl.edu/P1008Search in Google Scholar

Okamura A, Kamijima M, Shibata E, Ohtani K, Takagi K, Ueyama J, Watanabe Y, Omura M, Wang H, Ichihara G, Kondo T and Nakajima T. (2005). A comprehensive evaluation of the testicular toxicity of dichlorvos in Wistar rats. Toxicology213: 129–37.Search in Google Scholar

Owoeye O, Edem FV, Akinyoola BS, Rahaman S, Akang EE and Arinola GO. (2012). Histological changes in liver and lungs of rats exposed to dichlorvos before and after vitamin supplementation Eur J Anat16(3): 190–198.Search in Google Scholar

Owoeye O, Edem FV, Akinyoola BS, Rahaman S, Akang EE and Arinola GO. (2012). Histological changes in liver and lungs of rats exposed to dichlorvos before and after vitamin supplementation Eur J Anat16(3): 190–198.Search in Google Scholar

Raheja G and Gill KD. (2002). Calcium homeostasis and dichlorovos induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Mol Cell Biochem232: 13–18.Search in Google Scholar

Reitman S and Frankel S. (1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol28(1): 56–63.Search in Google Scholar

Saigal S, Bhatnagar VK and Malviya AN.(1982). Effect of selected pesticides on alkaline and acid phosphatase in the rat. Toxicol Lett12(2–3): 177–180.Search in Google Scholar

The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification. (2009). International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS).Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo