Cypermethrin (CYP) is one of the most common active ingredients in most insecticides, mosquito coils and powder used in Nigeria. dichlorvos (DDVP) is the most indiscriminately used fumigant in most rural and sub-urban areas in Nigeria. These fumigants can easily be accessed without proper method of usage thus exposing the population to their toxic effects. As a result, this study was initiated to determine the effects of sub-acute exposure of CYP and DDVP on some biochemical and histopathological parameters of albino rats. In this study, forty (40) albino rats of 10 groups of 4 rats per group, with one group serving as control, were exposed to these fumigants in a poorly ventilated area for 4hours per day over 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The results showed observable changes in liver enzyme activities (p<0.05) in groups exposed to DDVP for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The groups exposed to CYP showed mild changes in liver enzyme activities when compared with the DDVP groups. Increase in activity of the liver enzymes was also observed in the groups exposed to a mixture of DDVP+CYP for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The urea, creatinine and electrolytes levels in all the groups exposed to DDVP, CYP and DDVP+CYP for 2, 4 and 6weeks were significantly (p<0.05) increased. Also WBC and platelets in all the groups exposed to DDVP and CYP recorded significant changes. The histology report of the lungs and liver showed moderate lymphocytic infiltration and hepatocytic steatosis which progressed with duration of exposure to the fumigants, while the kidneys showed no remarkable changes. The results of this study suggest that DDVP and CYP have relative toxic effects in the exposed animals and should be used with caution to avoid human exposure to their visible toxicities.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Pharmacology, Toxicology