1. bookVolume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Binding or Non-Binding: Analysing the Nature of the Asean Agreements

Published Online: 19 Aug 2021
Page range: 100 - 123
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
08 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

ASEAN has gradually attempted to assert itself as a diplomatic force to reckon with. However, over the recent past, it’s ability to deal with regional issues and situations has come under scrutiny. This paper argues that the reason behind such lack of clear decision making arises from the large presence of Soft Law nomenclature in ASEAN agreements, resulting in the lack of any Hard Law obligations on these nations. The paper attempts to highlight the lack of clarity in the nomenclature used in ASEAN agreements, the problems that arise from the same, and the possible reasoning behind the usage of such nomenclature. In conclusion, the paper provides a few solutions and recommendations that could be adopted by the ASEAN community of nations to establish themselves as an economic community.

Keywords

ASEAN. The ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) Bangkok, 8 August 1967. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/the-asean-declaration-bangkok-declaration-bang-kok-8-august-1967/>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia Indonesia. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/treaty-amity-cooperation-southeast-asia-indonesia-24-february-1976/>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Charter of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/asean/asean-charter/charter-of-the-association-of-southeast-asian-nations/>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Protocol to the ASEAN Charter on Dispute Settlement Mechanisms. [online]. Available at <http://agreement.asean.org/media/download/20200128121018.pdf Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat and the Ministry of Agriculture of the People‘s Republic of China on Agricultural Cooperation. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/?static_post=memorandum-of-understanding-between-the-association-of-southeast-asian-nations-asean-secretariat-and-the-ministry-of-agriculture-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china-on-agricultural-cooperation-6>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Vientiane Action Plan. [online]. Available at: <https://www.asean.org/storage/images/archive/VAP-10th%20ASEAN%20Summit.pdf>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Report of the Eminent Persons Group of the ASEAN Charter. [online]. Available at: <https://www.asean.org/wp-content/uploads/images/archive/19247.pdf>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. History, The Founding of ASEAN. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/asean/about-asean/history/>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Chairman’s Statement of the 11th ASEAN Summit. One Vision, One Identity, One Community. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/?static_post=chairman-s-statement-of-the-11th-asean-summit-one-vision-one-identity-one-community>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. Joint Declaration of the ASEAN Defence Ministers on Enhancing ASEAN Unity for a Harmonized and Secure Community. [online]. Available at: <https://www.asean.org/wp-content/uploads/images/archive/document/Joint%20Declaration%20on%20Enhancing%20ASEAN%20Unity%20for%20a%20Harmonised%20and%20Secure%20Community.pdf>. Search in Google Scholar

ASEAN. ASEAN Convention on Counter Terrorism. [online]. Available at: <https://asean.org/storage/2012/05/ACCT.pdf>. Search in Google Scholar

BOWER, Ernest. The Quintessential Test of ASEAN Centrality: Changing the Paradigm in the South China Sea. [online]. Available at: <https://www.csis.org/analysis/quintessential-test-asean-centrality-changing-paradigm-south-china-sea-0>. Search in Google Scholar

CHATTERJEE, Sohini. ASEAN’s Legal Architecture Critical to Addressing Transboundary Challenges. [online]. Available at: <https://asiafoundation.org/2017/05/17/aseans-legal-architecture-critical-addressing-transboundary-challenges/>. Search in Google Scholar

DESKER, Barry. Is the ASEAN Charter Necessary? [online]. Available at: <https://www.rsis.edu.sg/rsis-publication/rsis/1097-is-the-asean-charter-necessary/>. Search in Google Scholar

MAHASETH, Harsh. Discussing the Difference in the Pre-Charter and Post-Charter Modalities of ASEAN. [online]. Available at: <https://grojil.org/2019/11/25/discussing-the-difference-in-the-pre-charter-and-post-charter-modalities-of-asean/>. Search in Google Scholar

MENON, Jayant, MELENDEZ, Anna Cassandra. Will 2025 be the final deadline for the AEC? [online]. Available at: <https://blogs.adb.org/blog/will-2025-be-final-deadline-aec>. Search in Google Scholar

National University of Singapore. 2010 Protocol to the ASEAN Charter on Dispute Settlement Mechanisms. 8 April 2010. [online]. Available at: <https://cil.nus.edu.sg/databasecil/2010-protocol-to-the-asean-charter-on-dispute-settlement-mechanisms/>. Search in Google Scholar

RONDONUWU, Olivia, SUHARMOKO, Aditya. ASEAN summits fails to resolve Thai-Cambodia conflict. [online]. Available at: <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-asean/asean-summit-fails-to-resolve-thai-cambodia-conflict-idUSTRE74709V20110508>. Search in Google Scholar

SATHIRATHAI, Surakiart. Eight challenges ASEAN must overcome. [online]. Available at: <https://www.todayonline.com/world/asia/eight-challenges-asean-must-overcome>. Search in Google Scholar

SHIVAKOTI, Richa. ASEAN’s role in the Rohingya refugee crisis. [online]. Available at: <https://www.fmreview.org/latinamerica-caribbean/shivakoti>. Search in Google Scholar

Trading Economics. Singapore GDP per capita PPP. [online]. Available at: <https://tradingeconomics.com/singapore/gdp-per-capita-ppp>. Search in Google Scholar

Trading Economics. Cambodia GDP per capita PPP. [online]. Available at: <https://tradingeconomics.com/cambodia/gdp-per-capita-ppp>. Search in Google Scholar

World Bank. World Governance Indicators. [online]. Available at: <http://info.world-bank.org/governance/wgi/Home/Reports>. Search in Google Scholar

ABBOT, Kenneth W, SNIDAL, Duncan. Hard and Soft Law in International Governance. International Organization, 2000, vol. 54, issue 3, pp. 421–456. Search in Google Scholar

ABDUL AZIZ, Davinia, DEHOUSSE, Renaud. The instruments of Governance of ASEAN: An Inventory and Critical Analysis. ASEAN Integration Through Law: Plenary 2, ASEAN Governance, Management and External Legal Relations, 2013. Search in Google Scholar

BENVENISTI, Eval, DOWNS, George W. National Courts, Domestic, Democracy, and the Evolution of International Law: A Rejoinder to Nikolaos Lavranos, Jacob Katz Cogan and Tom Ginsburg. European Journal of International Law, 2009, vol. 20, pp. 1027–1030. Search in Google Scholar

BISLEY, Nick, COOK, Malcolm. How the East Asia Summit Can Achieve its Potential. ISEAS Perspective, 2014, vol. 56, pp. 1–8. Search in Google Scholar

BOYLE, Alana. Some reflections on the Relationship of Treaties and Soft Law. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 1999, vol. 48, pp. 901–913. Search in Google Scholar

CABALLERO-ANTHONY, Mely. The ASEAN CHARTER: An Opportunity Missed or the One that Cannot be Missed? In SINGH, Daljit, MAUNG MAUNG THAN, Tin (eds). Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: ISEAS Publishing, 2008, pp. 71–86. Search in Google Scholar

CABALLERO-ANTHONY, Mely. Understanding ASEAN’s centrality: bases and prospects in an evolving regional architecture. The Pacific Review, 2014, vol. 27, pp. 563–584. Search in Google Scholar

CHALERMPALANUPAP, Termsak. The ASEAN Secretariat and Legal Issues Arising from the ASEAN Charter. Indonesian Journal of International Law, 2009, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 178–186. Search in Google Scholar

DAVIDSON, Paul J. The Role of Law in Governing Regionalism in Asia in THOMAS, Nicholas (ed). Governance and Regionalism in Asia. First Edition. Routledge, 2008, pp. 224–233. Search in Google Scholar

DEINLA, Imelda. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RULE OF LAW IN ASEAN The State and Regional Integration. Faculty of Law of the University of New South Wales, 2009, Working Paper. Search in Google Scholar

DOWNS, George W., JONES, Michaela A. Reputation, Compliance and International Law. The Journal of Legal Studies, 2002, vol. 31, pp. 95–114 Search in Google Scholar

DESIERTO, Diane A. ASEAN’S Constitutionalization of International Law: Challenges to Evolution Under the New ASEAN Charter. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 2011, vol. 49, pp. 268–320. Search in Google Scholar

DUY PHAN, Hao. Promoting Compliance: An Assessment of Asean Instruments since the Asean Charter. Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce, 2014, vol. 41, pp. 379–411. Search in Google Scholar

EILSTRUP-SANGIOVANNI, Mette, JONES, Calvert. Assessing the dangers of illicit networks: why Al Qaida may be less threatening than many think. International Security, 2008, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 7–23. Search in Google Scholar

EWING-CHOW, Michael, HSIEN-LI, Tan. The Role of the Rule of Law in ASEAN Integration. RSCAS 2013/16, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies Global Governance Programme-41, 2013, Working Paper. Search in Google Scholar

HE, Baogang. The Awkwardness of Australian Engagement with Asia: The Dilemmas of Australian Ideas of Regionalism. Japanese Journal of Political Science, 2011, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 267–285. Search in Google Scholar

KARUPPANNAN, Ilango. The ASEAN Community and the ASEAN Charter: Towards a New ASEAN? Journal of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, 2006, vol. 18, pp. 49–68. Search in Google Scholar

LEVITER, Lee. The ASEAN Charter: ASEAN Failure or Member Failure. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 2010, vol. 43, pp. 159–210. Search in Google Scholar

LIMSIRITONG, Nattapt. The Problems of Law Interpretation under ASEAN Instruments and ASEAN Legal Instruments. MFU Connexion: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 2016, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 136–155. Search in Google Scholar

LINDERFALK, Ulf. On the Interpretation of Treaties, The Modern International Law as Expressed in the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. First Edition. Dordrecht: Springer, 2007, pp. 101–132. Search in Google Scholar

LOKE, Beverly. The ‘ASEAN Way’: Towards Regional Order and Security Cooperation? Melbourne Journal of Politics, 2005, vol. 30, pp. 8–38. Search in Google Scholar

NARINE, Shaun. ASEAN in the twenty-first century: a sceptical review. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 2009, vol. 22, issue 3, pp. 369–386. Search in Google Scholar

NAYA, Seiji, IMADA, Pearl. Implementing AFTA: 1992–2007. In SANDHU, Kernial Singh (ed). The ASEAN Reader. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1992, pp. 513–515. Search in Google Scholar

ORAKHELASHVILI, Alexander. The Interpretation of Acts and Rules in Public International Law. Oxford: Oxford Scholarship Online, 2008, pp. 1–594. Search in Google Scholar

PHAN, Hao Duy. Towards a Rules-Based ASEAN: The Protocol to the ASEAN Charter on Dispute Settlement Mechanisms. Arbitration Law Review, 2013, vol. 5, pp. 254–276. Search in Google Scholar

SHAFFER, Gregory, POLLACK, Mark. Hard vs Soft Law: Alternatives, Complements and Antagonists in International Governance. Minnesota Law Review, 2010, vol. 94, pp. 706–709. Search in Google Scholar

SEAH, Daniel. Problems Concerning the International Law-Making Practice of ASEAN: A Reply to Chen Zhida. Asian Journal of International Law, 2016, vol. 6, pp. 265–293. Search in Google Scholar

SEVERINO, Rodolfo C. Southeast Asia in Search for Community: Insights from the Former ASEAN Secretary-General. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2006, pp. 1–489. Search in Google Scholar

SNYDER, Francis. The Effectiveness of European Community Law: Institutions, Processes, Tools and Techniques. Modern Law Review, 1993, vol. 56, pp. 19–54. Search in Google Scholar

THIRLWAY, Hugh. The Sources of International Law. Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019, pp. 1–272. Search in Google Scholar

YEAN, Tham Siew, DAS, Sanchita Basu. The ASEAN Economic Community and Conflicting Domestic Interests: An Overview. Journal of Southeast Asian Economics, 2015, vol 32, no. 2, pp. 189–201. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo