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2083-5965
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01 Jan 1989
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Foliar epidermal and trichome micromorphological diversity among poisonous plants and their taxonomic significance

Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-5965
First Published
01 Jan 1989
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
INTRODUCTION

Many plants provide us with food, medications, textiles and building materials, while others enhance the beauty of our surroundings. In addition to these beneficial plants, there are several plants that are harmful. Poisonous plants are those that contain compounds capable of causing varying degrees of discomfort, adverse physical and chemical effects, or even death in humans and animals when consumed or otherwise come into touch with the human body (Fuller and Mcclintock, 1986). Poisonous plants contain harmful chemicals in quantities that can cause sickness or demise in animals and humans. The toxic components of these plants can be present in the root, fruit bulb, stem, pollen branch, seed leaf, rhizome, flower, nectar or sap, which may vary from species to species. Plant ingredients such as photosensitising chemicals, minerals, glycosides, oxalates, proteins, terpenes, alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, phytotoxins and phenolics are all toxicologically important and known as secondary metabolites (Konyar et al., 2014). With the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant parts, it is considered to be poisonous that is deadly to herbivorous animals. Unfortunately, defining poisonous plants is difficult because certain poisonous plants are also regarded as good for the treatment of specific conditions (Sadia et al., 2022).

Plant poisoning in animals is usually unintentional, and it most commonly happens under unfavourable situations such as overstocking, grazing trampling and drought; for example, animals could eat hay that has been infected with deadly weeds. It could be unintentional or intentional in people. Poisoning in humans can occur as a result of mixing poisonous and edible plants, contamination of food with poisonous plants or employing plants as cures. To avoid poisonous plants, it is obligatory to identify them first. In this study, foliar anatomical features are used as an aid to identify poisonous species (Botha and Penrith, 2008).

Similar to medical plants, these species can be further classified depending on the presence of specific compounds in various parts of the plant body, that is, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenols and volatile oils. Some medicinal herbs, on the other hand, have deadly effects on humans when taken in large quantities (Baloch et al., 2017). Many poisonous plants have several functions, and in the right amounts or forms, they can be beneficial. Drugs are also derived from these species, for example, digitalis and morphine. Digitalis is a commonly prescribed cardiac drug that, when administered incorrectly, can be deadly toxic. Important medications such as codeine and morphine are derived from the milky juice of the opium plant. These medicines are intended to treat pain, but when used indiscriminately, they can be harmful and even fatal (Fuller and Mcclintock, 1986). On rare occasions, a hazardous chemical is concentrated in a specific area of the plant. Rhubarb’s leaf blade is poisonous, but its petiole is edible. Toxic chemicals are abundant in the fruits and seeds of several plants. When the seeds of castor beans, Ricinus communis, are eaten, a very poisonous chemical lectin called toxalbumin is released. Ingesting more than two or three castor bean seeds can result in death. Furthermore, while many plants are used to adorn our surroundings, certain ornamental plants contain hazardous chemicals (Fuller and Mcclintock, 1986).

Many research work has been carried out on the different aspects of the leaf anatomy, but yet no record on the identification of poisonous plants based on their trichomes exists in Pakistan. The importance of anatomical approaches in taxonomic research cannot be overstated. Without microscopic aspects of the epidermal anatomy, taxonomic monographs are incomplete (Abbas et al., 2022; Majeed et al., 2023a). The size and anticlinal wall, the form of stomata, guard cell profile, subsidiary cells and trichome varieties are some of the foliar epidermal traits of high value (Ashfaq et al., 2019). As a result, taxonomists are interested in learning more about the anatomy of the leaf epidermis. The variances in epidermal traits between species may be attributable to genetic differences or the diversity of natural habitats (Hameed et al., 2020). The relevance of micromorphology in the plant nomenclature has long been recognised since variations within a family, genus or species are frequently revealed in anatomical traits (Shahzad et al., 2022; Majeed et al., 2023b).

The taxonomic study using microscopic techniques is used as a tool for micromorphology of foliar epidermal study using LM and SEM. Transmission light is commonly utilised as a light source in light microscopy (Yuan et al., 2020). In past flower inflorescence studies, fruits and leaf external morphologies were used in plant taxonomy, but currently, the leaf anatomy is used for identification purposes. A great number of studies have been undertaken in Pakistan to analyse the leaf epidermis to observe the leaf micromorphology, but no record has been determined yet for the anatomical study of poisonous plants.

The major goals of the current study are to establish the feasibility of utilising foliar anatomical traits to identify poisonous plant species. Prompt identification plays a crucial role in facilitating effective medical interventions, helping to prevent unintentional consumption or contact. By accurately and consistently identifying poisonous plants, authorities and medical practitioners can enhance public safety and protect the public from potential hazards.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant sampling

During the current study, 25 poisonous plant species were collected from various locations in the lower Himalayas between March and September 2021. The collected species were dried, pressed, mounted and labelled. Plant species were identified using herbarium specimens from the Herbarium of Pakistan (ISL) QAU, Islamabad, as well as information from the flora of Pakistan (http://www.eflora.org). The Plant List (TPL) (http://www.theplantlist.org) and the International Plant Names Index (http://www.ipni.org) were used to confirm the plant species. Table 1 lists the names of plant species, voucher number, collector, location and altitude.

Collector names, voucher numbers, altitude, locality and district of studied species.

S. No.TaxaCollectorVoucher numberAltitude (m)LocalityDistrict
1Agave americana L.Aqsa Abid131601540QAUIslamabad
2Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.DonAqsa Abid131602508RawalpindiPunjab
3Argemone mexicana L.Aqsa Abid131603540QAUIslamabad
4Brugmansia versicolor LagerhSabir Ahmed131604540Capital territoryIslamabad
5Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub.Aqsa Abid, Salman131605540QAU colonyIslamabad
6Buxus pilosula UrbAqsa Abid1316061064Margalla hillsIslamabad
7Chenopodium ambrosioides L.Aqsa Abid131607508RawalpindiPunjab
8Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss.Aqsa Abid131608980Islamia college PeshawarKPK
9Datura innoxia Mill.Aqsa Abid131609508RawalpindiPunjab
10Duranta erecta L.Aqsa Abid131610540Capital territoryIslamabad
11Euphorbia helioscopia L.Aqsa Abid131611508Dhamial campPunjab
12Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex KlotzschAqsa Abid131612540QAU girls hostelIslamabad
13Euphorbia royleana BoissAqsa Abid131613540QAUIslamabad
14Ipomoea carnea Jacq.Aqsa Abid131614279ChakriRawalpimdi
15Parthenium hysterophorus L.Aqsa Abid131615482Dhamial campRawalpindi
16Peganum harmala L.Aqsa Abid131616508RawalpindiPunjab
17Physalis angulata L.Aqsa Abid131617540QAUIslamabad
18Ranunculus sceleratus L.Beenish131618165Dera ismail khanPunjab
19Ricinus communis L.Aqsa Abid131619482Dhamial campIslamabad
20Sambucus nigra L.Aqsa Abid131620540QAUIslamabad
21Solanum nigrum L.Aqsa Abid1316211604Margalla hillsIslamabad
22Solanum incanum L.Aqsa Abid131622279ChakriRawalpindi
23Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.Aqsa Abid131623500MorgahRawalpindi
24Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum.Aqsa Abid131624540Capital territoryIslamabad
25Trifolium repens L.Bushra Ali1316252601KhapluGilgit Baltistan
Light microscopy for investigating foliar anatomical features

Using a light microscope, fresh leaf samples of 25 poisonous plants were investigated in which trichomes were examined in nine species following the method described by Raza et al. (2020). To keep the leaves from drying out, they were picked from actively developing plants and dipped in water for some time. Then, 1 or 2 leaves were placed in a test tube and dipped in 70% lactic acid and 30% nitric acid for 2 min or until the leaves became translucent. The leaves were then transferred into a cell culture dish, and the translucent sections were rinsed 2–3 times with water. Through a camel hair brush and sharp needle, the epidermal portions from the abaxial and adaxial sides of the sample were meticulously detached. The isolated epidermis was processed with a droplet of lactic acid to clean the section before being placed on a slide by coverslips. To make permanent slides, the margins of coverslips on slides were covered with translucent nail polish. For each plant species, six or seven samples of the abaxial and adaxial surfaces were prepared. A Nikon Microscope with Plan-40X/0.65 lens was used to examine the set slides. Using an XSP-45LCD microscope, the characteristics of the leaf epidermis were photographed. The following characteristics were observed under microscopy: width and length of epidermal cells, stomatal apparatus, trichomes and morphology of the epidermal cell, stomatal complex, the pattern of anticlinal walls (AW), and types of trichomes. Table 2 and Table 3 summarise the qualitative and quantitative characteristics, respectively. Mean (minimum–maximum) ± standard error SE (e.g., 56.7–160 = 89.6 ± 9.5) are used to express quantitative properties. For each abaxial and adaxial surface, five readings of each characteristic were recorded. The quantitative data were analysed using SPSS software IBM, Chicago, USA to calculate the values of mean, maximum, minimum and standard error. These data are extremely useful in identifying species and various epidermal features. These indices include information of length and width of the epidermal cell, subsidiary cells, stomatal complex and trichomes.

Comprehensive review study of poisonous plants.

Sr. No.Plant speciesFamilyFlowering periodCommon nameHabitStatusGlobal distributionPoisonous partPoisonous compoundsSide effectsCitation
1.Agave americanaAsparagaceaeSpring, summer, fall winterCentury plant, maguey, or American aloeRosette-forming herbaceous perennial succulentCultivatedMexico, United StatesLeaves sap/juiceAcrid volatile oil, oxalic acid, sapono-sideRedness and swelling, swelling of small blood vessels (veins), skin soresAhmad (2012)
2.Alocasia macrorrhizaAricaceaeSpring, summer, fall winterTaro/ elephants earEvergreen perennialCultivatedAfrica, western Asia, eastern Asia, the Pacific Islands, America, the USA, BrazilLeaves and cormsCalcium oxalate and oxalic acidConjunctivitis, pruritus, blindnessUfelle et al. (2018)
3.Argemone mexicanaPapaveraceaeMarch, April, May, JuneMexican prickly poppy, flowering thistleBroadleaved herbaceous, seed propagatedWildCentral Mexico, HondurasAll parts of plants are poisonousSanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarinePerianal itching, pneumonia myocarditis and congestive cardiac failure, ascites, sarcoid-like skin changes, alopecia, hepatomegalyBrahmachari et al. (2013)
4.Brugmansia versicolorSolanaceaeMid-summer to fallAngel’s trumpetsBroadleaf evergreenCultivatedWestern part of South America, south of the Gulf of Guayaquil in EcuadorFlowers, leaves, and seedsAlkaloids like atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamineIntense thirst, dilated pupils, high or low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, convulsions, difficulty breathing, illusions, paralysis, coma, death, nervousness, loss of memoryPetricevich et al. (2020)
5.Butea monospermaFabaceaeJanuary to MarchFlame-of-the-forestAn erect deciduous tree with young parts hairyWildSub-tropical and tropical areas of the Indian Subcontinent and Asian southeast region.All parts especially seedsFixed oil in the seed and glucoside butrin of the flower sapDizziness, headache, hypotensionAhmad (2012)
6.Chenopodium ambrosioidesAmaranthaceaeApril -JanuaryMexican tea, Jesuit’s teaPolymorphic annual, and perennial herbWildNative to Central America, South America, and southern MexicoLeavesCarvacrol, caryophyllene oxide and ascaridoleVomiting, dizziness, headache, temporary deafness, kidney and liver damage, convulsions, paralysis, deathDa Silva et al. (2014)
7.Chrozophora tinctoriaEuphorbiaceaeApril to JuneDyer’s croton, giradol, or turnsoleErect densely woolly herbWildMediterranean, Middle East, India, Pakistan, and Central AsiaAll parts of plant are poisonousRutin, chrozophorin, saponinsUpset stomach, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoeaAl-Snafi (2015)
8.Datura inoxiaSolanaceaeJuly to frostPricklyburrShrubby, sprawling, short-lived, tender perennialWildCentral America, Texas, ColombiaAll portions of the plant are toxic especially foliage and seedsAlkaloids, hyoscyamine, hyoscineEnlarged pupils, dry mouth, trouble breathing, blurred vision, hallucinations, panic, deathAhmad (2012)
9.Datura stramoniumSolanaceaeMarch through NovemberJimsonweed, locoweed, thorn apple, devil’s trumpetWild-growing herbWildCentral America, CaribbeanSeeds and leavesAlkaloids, hyoscyamine, hyoscineBlurred vision, dry mouth, dilated pupils, confusion, combative behaviour hallucinations, difficulty urinatingAhmad (2012)
10.Duranta erectaVerbenaceaeSpringPigeon berryErect and spreadingCultivatedFlorida, South AmericaLeaves, fruit and bark are poisonousSaponinVomiting and gastro-intestinal irritation, diarrhoeaAhmad (2012)
11.Euphorbia helioscopiaEuphorbiaceaeMid-spring to late summer, May to OctoberWart spurge, umbrella milkweed and madwoman’s milkErect perennial herbWildEurope, northern Africa, AsiaLeavesDiterpene 12-deoxypharbolNausea, allergic reactions, skin irritation, vomitingAhmad (2012)
12.Euphorbia heterophyllaEuphorbiaceaeSeptember-MarchMexican fireplant, painted euphorbia, wild poinsettiaA small, annual herb, glabrousWildCentral & S. USA, America, tropical Africa, Asia, Pacific countriesAll fragments of the plant are lethalOil, saponins, glycosidesNausea, allergic reactions, skin irritation, vomitingAdedapo et al. (2004)
13.Euphorbia pulcherrimaEuphorbiaceaeOctober to DecemberPoinsettiaShrub or small treeWildMexico, Central America to southern GuatemalaAll parts of plant are poisonousWater soluble caoutchoucUpset stomach, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoeaAhmad (2012)
14.Euphorbia royleanaEuphorbiaceaeSpring to early summer (March–July)Sullu spurge, and Royle’s spurgeDeciduous, cactus-like, succulent shrub or small treeWildHimalaya mountains from Pakistan, Nepal to western China India, Bhutan, MyanmarAll parts are poisonousEpitaraxerol, ellagic acid, euphol, taraxerol, sitosterol in milky latexNausea, vomitingBhatia et al. (2014)
15.Ipomoea carneaConvolvulaceaeFall–summerPink morning glory, bush morning gloryTwining plantWildTropical America, Caribbean, America, Africa, Australia, and AsiaSeeds and leavesN-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline, calystegines B1, swainsonine, 2-epilentiginosine and B2, B3 and C1Abnormal endocrine functions and gastrointestinal functions, immune system alternation, abnormality in embryogenesisWanule and Balkhande (2012)
16.Nerium oleanderApocynaceaeJuly to OctoberOleander or neriumErect shrub bearing pink or white flowersCultivatedMediterranean BasinEntire plantCardiac glycosides of the cardenolide typeWeakness, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, headache, pain in stomach, deathAhmad (2012)
17.Parthenium hysterophorusAsteraceaeMarch to OctoberSanta Maria feverfew, whitetop weedErect stout undershrubsWildSubtropics of North and South AmericaAll its parts including trichomes and pollenParthenin and other phenolic acidsEczema skin inflammation, hay fever, asthma, burning and blisters, breathlessness and choking, allergic rhinitis, black spots, diarrhoea, severe erythematous eruptionsAhmad (2012)
18.Peganum harmalaNitrariaceaeApril and OctoberWild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, esfand or espand, or harmelPerennial, herbaceous plantWildMiddle East, Africa, Mediterranean area, Indian Pakistan, Iran, Africa, Central Asian republics semi-arid regionsLeaves and seedsβ-carbolines such as: harmalol, harman harmaline, harmine, and quinazoline derivativesHallucinations, neurosensory syndromes, bradycardia, nausea, vomitingMahmoudian et al. (2002)
19.Physalis angulateSolanaceaeSpring/ summer/ autumnCut-leaf ground-cherry, angular winter cherryMulti-stemmed and spreadingWildUSA, South America, NCUnripe berries and leavesPhysalinsHeadache, discomfort in stomach, dropped temperature, expanded pupils, nausea, diarrhoea, cardiac and breathing depression, loss of consciousness, fatal schistosomiasisPomilio et al. (2008)
20.Ranunculus sceleratusRanunculaceaeMay to SeptemberCelery-leaved buttercupAnnual or short-lived perennialWildEurope, Britain, primarily in central and northern areasAll parts of the plant are poisonousGlycoside ranunculinEnormously annoying to skin and mucous membranes. It may cause pain and burning perceptions, tongue inflammation, and intensification in salivaAhmad (2012)
21.Ricinus communisEuphorbiaceaeJune to OctoberCastor oil plantTender perennial large shrub or small treeWildSoutheastern Basin, India Mediterranean, Eastern AfricaSeeds and leavesToxalbumin ricinNausea, sickness, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, desiccation, shock, simple fluid and chemical disturbances, destruction to the liver, kidney and pancreas, and eventually deathAhmad (2012)
22.Solanum incanumSolanaceaeOctober–JanuaryThorn apple, bitter apple, bitterball and bitter tomatoAn erect prickly shrub, stem prickly and prickles straight sharpWildSaharan desert in Africa, Middle East, IndiaDried unripe fruitsGlycoalkaloids such as solasonine, alkylamines such as nitrosamines and carcinogenic glycosidesStomach pain, vomiting, diarrhoeaMadzimure et al. (2013)
23.Solanum nigrumSolanaceaeJuly to SeptemberBlack nightshade or blackberry nightshadeShort-lived perennial shrubWildSouth AmericaFruits, leavesSteroidal glycoalkaloids like alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconineStomach pain, vomiting, diarrhoeaJabamalairaj et al. (2019)
24.Sorghum halepensePoaceaeFall to summerJohnsongrassArching dense erect spreadingWildEastern, Mediteranean, Middle East countriesLeavesDhurrin, a cyanogenic glycoside, toxic levels of nitratesNervousness, progressive feebleness and difficulty breathing, breathlessness, increased pulse rate, muscular jerking, convulsions, deathKhan et al. (2018)
25.Thevetia peruvianaApocynaceaeSummer to fallLuckynut, yellow oleanderPerennial or evergreen tropical shrubCultivatedMexico, tropical South AmericaAll parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the kernels of the fruits and leavesGlycosides, thevetin, cerebrin, neriifolinSickness, dizziness, electrolyte turbulences, cardiac dysrhythmiasAhmad (2012)
26.Trifolium repensFabaceaeSpring – summerWhite cloverCreeping, prostrateWildEurope, British Isles, central AsiaLeavesEyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralinOutbreaks, muscle ache, pain, sickness, and vaginal flow (spotting)Refsgaard et al. (2010)
27.Xanthium strumariumAsteraceaeFall to summerClotbur, common cocklebur, woolgarie burErect, ground cover herbWildNorth AmericaLeaves and seedsCarboxyatractylosideSickness, muscular tremors, liver disintegration and seldom deathAhmad (2012)

NC, North Canada.

Qualitative foliar anatomical features of poisonous plants.

Plant speciesAd × AbECSAWStomata (P/A)STGCSGlands P/ASPSTrichome
GlandularNon-glandular
Chrozophora tinctoriaAdIrregularDeeply sinousPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical-Sessile stellate
AbIrregularDeeply sinousPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical-Sessile stellate
Buxus pilosulaAdPolygonalStraightA- AVery narrowly elliptical--
AbPolygonalStraightPParacyticBroad bean-shapedAVery narrowly elliptical--
Parthenium hysterophorusAdIrregularSinuatePAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedPElliptical-
AbIrregularSinuatePAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedPElliptical-Segmented with pointed tip and broad base
Datura innoxiaAdIrregularDeeply undulatePAnisocytic anomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWidely elliptical-Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base
AbPolygonalStraightPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWidely elliptical-Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base
Ricinus communisAdPolygonalStraight/angularPParacyticBroad bean-shaped Elliptical--
AbPolygonalStraightPParacyticBroad bean-shapedAElliptical--
Alocasia macrorrhizosAdPolygonalStraightA A --
AbPolygonalStraightPParacyticBroad bean-shapedABroad elliptical--
Euphorbia royleanaAdPolygonalStraightA--A---
AbPolygonalStraightPParacyticBroad bean-shapedAVery broad elliptical--
Ranunculus sceleratusAdIrregularWavy to sinousPAnomocyticBean-shapedAElliptical--
AbIrregularWavy to sinousPAnomocyticBean-shapedAElliptical--
Thevetia peruvianaAdIrregularUndulateA-Broad bean-shapedAWidely elliptical--
AbPolygonalStraight/wavyPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedAWidely elliptical--
Agave americanaAdPolygonalStraightPParacyticNarrow bean-shapedAConcave-shaped--
AbPolygonalStraightPParacyticNarrow bean-shapedAConcave-shaped--
Brugmansia versicolorAdPolygonalStraight/angularPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedAElliptical-Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base unicellular with bulbous tip
AbIrregularUndulate/sinousPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWidely elliptical-Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base unicellular with bulbous tip
Sorghum halepenseAdRectangularThick sinous wallspParacyticDumb bell-shapedAVery narrow elliptical--
AbRectangularThick sinous wallsPParacyticDumb bell-shapedAVery narrow elliptical--
Duranta repensAdPolygonalStraightA--P---
AbPolygonalStraightPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedPWidely elliptical Unicellular with pointed tip
Physalis angulataAdIrregularDeeply sinousPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical--
AbIrregularDeeply sinousPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical--
Chenopodium ambrosioidesAdPolygonalAngularPAnomocyticNarrow kidney-shapedPWide ellipticalMulticellular capitate-
AbIrregularWavyPAnisocyticWide kidney-shapedPEllipticalMulticellular capitate-
Trifolium repensAdIrregularSinousPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAElliptical--
AbPolygonalStraight/angularPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow ellipticalMulticellular capitate-
Solanum nigrumAdPolygonalStraightPAnisocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical-Multicellular 3–6 celled long with pointed tip
AbIrregularUndulatePAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAElliptical Multicellular 3–6 celled long with pointed tip
Butea monospermaAdPolygonalAngularA--AElliptical--
AbIrregularWavyPParacyticNarrow bean-shapedPVery narrow elliptical-Unicellular with pointed tip
Argemone mexicanaAdPolygonalAngularPAnomocyticBroad bean-shaped Narrow elliptical--
AbHeptagonalAngularPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAVery narrow elliptical--
Peganum harmalaAdPolygonalStraightPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWide elliptical--
AbPolygonalStraightPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWide elliptical--
Solanum incanumAdRectangularStraightPAnisocyticWidely bean-shapedANarrow elliptical Stellate unicellular with pointed tip
AbPolygonalAngularPAnisocyticWidely bean-shapedANarrow elliptical Stellate unicellular with pointed tip
Euphorbia helioscopiaAdPolygonalStraightA--A---
AbPolygonalStraightPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical--
Euphorbia pulcherrimaAdIrregularUndulateA A Multicellular with pointed end
AbIrregularUndulatePAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedANarrow elliptical-Multicellular with pointed end
Ipomoea carneaAdRectangular to isodiametricStraightPCyclocyticBroad bean-shaped Very broad ellipticalSubsessile, capitate having 5–6 celled with a flat headUnicellular and conical-shaped
AbIrregular/tetragonalStraight/sinousPCyclocytic/ paracyticBroad bean-shapedAVery broad ellipticalSub sessile, capitate having 5–6 celled a with flat headUnicellular and conical-shaped
Ipomoea carneaAdPolygonalStraight/angularA A -
AbPolygonalStraightPAnomocyticBroad bean-shapedAWide ellipticalMulticellular with bulbous head

Ab, abaxial; Ad, adaxial; AW, anticlinal walls; ECS, epidermal cells shape; GCS, guard cells shape; SPS, stomatal pore shape; ST, stomatal type.

Scanning microscopy to investigate trichome diversity

For SEM investigation, dried and mature leaves were washed with ethanol to expel the flotsam and jetsam. For slide preparation, the leaf cuttings were placed on stubs with a twofold covered scotch tape. The samples were super-coated with gold-palladium and examined by SEM (Show JEOL-5910, USA) introduced in the Central Library Office of Material Science College of Peshawar. A Polaroid P/N 665 film was used to take pictures. The samples were analysed beneath the magnifying lens and scrutinised the different micromorphological highlights (epidermal cells, trichomes, stomata) of the leaf (Gul et al., 2019).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The present investigation begins by offering a well-structured overview through a critical examination of the literature on poisonous plants from different regions of Islamabad, as discussed in Table 2. According to this review study, the most dominant families were Solanaceae (five species) and Euphorbiaceae (five species).

The present study examined the qualitative and quantitative features of 25 poisonous plant species from various families in Islamabad. The qualitative attributes examined included the appearance of epidermal cells, the pattern of AW, types of stomata and trichome types on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Quantitative attributes, such as the size of epidermal cells, stomatal complexes and trichomes, were also measured and shown in a tabular form (Table 3 and Table 4). The light microphotographs of the considered taxa are demonstrated in Figures 16, and the scanning micrographs of trichomes of the studied species are demonstrated in Figures 79. The dominant families in the current study were Solanaceae (five species), including Brugmansia versicolor, Datura innoxia, Physalis angulata, Solanum nigrum, Solanum incanum and Euphorbiaceae, which comprises Chrozophora tinctoria, R. communis, Euphorbia royleana, Euphorbia pulcherrima and Euphorbia helioscopia, followed by Fabaceae having two species (Trifolium repens and Butea monosperma). While rest of the families contains one species each, including Ranunculaceae (Ranunculus sceleratus), Apocynaceae (Thevetia peruviana), Buxaceae (Buxus pilosula), Araceae (Alocasia macrorrhiza), Asparagaceae (Agave Americana), Poaceae (Sorghum halepense), Verbenaceae (Duranta erecta), Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium ambrosioides), Papaveraceae (Argemone mexicana), Convolvulaceae (Ipomoea carnea), Nitrariaceae (Peganum harmala) and Adoxaceae (Sambucus nigra). This study aimed to provide valuable information for the identification of poisonous plants based on their micromorphological features using microscopic techniques.

Figure 1.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Agave americana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Argemone mexicana, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Brugmansia versicolor, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Butea monosperma, (K) adaxial surface (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 2.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Buxus pilosula, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Chenopodium ambrosioides, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Chrozophora tinctoria, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Alocasia macrorrhizos, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 3.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Datura innoxia, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Duranta repens, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Euphorbia helioscopia, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Euphorbia pulcherrima, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 4.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Euphorbia royleana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ipomoea carnea, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Parthenium hysterophorus, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Peganum harmala, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 5.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Physalis angulate, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ranunculus sceleratus, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Ricinus communis, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Sambucus nigra, (K) adaxial surface, (L) Abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 6.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Solanum nigrum, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Solanum incanum, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Sorghum halepense, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Thevetia peruviana, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface, (M) Trifolium repens, (N) adaxial surface, (O) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 7.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Brugmansia versicolor (A-C), Butea monosperma (D-F), Chrozophora tinctoria (G-I), Buxus pilosula (J-L).

Figure 8.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Datura innoxia (A-C), Duranta rapens (D-F), Euphorbia pulcherrima (G-I), Euphorbia royleana (J-L).

Figure 9.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Ipomoea carnea (A-C), Parthenium hysterophorus (D-F), Sambucus nigraum (G-I).

Quantitative attributes of studied species.

Plant nameAd × AbLength of epidermal cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Width of epidermal cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Length of guard cellsMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Width of guard cellsMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Length of stomata Mean(Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Width of stomataMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Length of subsidiary cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Width of subsidiary cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE(μm)Length of stomatal poreMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Width of stomatal poreMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Trichome length Mean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm)Trichome width Mean(Min–Max) ± SE (μm)
Agave americanaAd69.95 (58.75–81.25)±3.9724.65 (23.75–23.75) ± 0.3720.0 (17.75–22.0) ± 0.786.90 (6.25–7.75) ±0.2927.45 (25.25–29.75) ± 0.8111.35 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.5052.50 (43.75–63.75) ± 3.2916.15 (12.75–21.25)± 1.6517.30 (16.25–18.75) ± 0.451.55 (1.0–2.25) ± 0.242AbsentAbsent
Ab63.35 (53.75–81.25) ± 4.7528.30 (26.25–30.25) ± 0.7721.05 (20.25–21.75) ± 0.255.85 (4.75–7.25) ±0.4324.30 (18.75–27.75) ± 1.7713.15 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.6550.55 (43.75–54.75) ± 2.1425.35 (24.0–26.50) ± 0.4619.40 (18.0–20.25) ± 0.440.90 (0.50–1.25) ± 0.16AbsentAbsent
Argemone mexicanaAd65.75 (50.25–73.25) ± 4.134.50 (32.25–37.25) ± 0.9632.30 (31.25–34.0) ± 0.5112.55 (10.25–13.75) ±0.6432.95 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.6026.55 (22.75–29.75) ± 1.3954.50 (50.25–57.75) ± 1.2326.45 (22.25–31.25)± 1.5020.95 (18.75–22.75) ± 0.756.25 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.35AbsentAbsent
Ab57.95 (54.75–61.25)± 1.0541.85 (27.25–47.25) ±3.627.20 (22.75–32.0) ± 1.712.45 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.6430.55 (27.75–32.75) ±0.9827.05 (23.75–29.75) ± 1.1760.85 (51.75–74.75) ± 4.0237.95 (34.75–41.25) ± 1.2722.05 (20.25–23.75) ± 0.607.05 (5,25–8.75) ± 0.60AbsentAbsent
Brugmansia versicolorAd42.25 (36.25–51.25) ± 2.5536.25 (32.75–41.25)± 1.5132.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.6010.45 (8.75—12.25) ± 0.6032.30 (31.25–33.75) ± 0.4528.15 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.6245.55 (38.75–53.25) ± 2.6929.55 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.6019.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.606.85 (3.75–9.75) ± 1.14356.8 (341.25–375.25) ± 6.146.40 (41.25–52.25) ± 1.93
Ab39.30 (36.25–46.50) ± 1.8433.75 (30.25–36.25) ± 1.3427.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.6010.90 (9.50–12.25) ± 0.5427.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.6025.15 (23.75–26.25) ± 0.4347.40 (45.75–48.75) ± 0.5532.30 (31.25–33.75) ± 0.4519.70 (18.75–20.75) ± 0.378.10 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.58307.35 (300.75–316.25) ± 2.6225.55 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.68
Butea monospermaAb30.95 (26.25–38.75)± 2.1114.65 (11.25–18.25) ± 1.114.15 (13.25–l5.25) ± 0.366.75 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.3514.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.3610.7 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.1423.40 (22.25–24.50) ± 0.409.70 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.328.95 (7.75–10.25) ± 0.404.35 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.29168.3 (148.75–183.75) ± 6.0711.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.92
Ad30.75 (28.75–33.75) ± 0.8521.10 (18.75–23.75) ± 0.96AbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsent225.9 (212.75–234.0) ± 3.815.35 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.57
Buxus pilosulaAd55.45 (52.75–57.75) ± 0.9640.0 (37.75–42.0) ± 0.78AbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsent
Ab45.15 (37.75–56.25) ± 3.7929.65 (26.25–32.75) ± 1.0725.25 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.774.30 (3.0–5.25) ± 0.4025.25 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.7712.85 (11.25–14.25) ± 0.5339.70 (35.75–46.25) ± 1.919.95 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.4021.65 (20.25–23.25) ± 0.573.95 (2.75–5.25) ± 0.46AbsentAbsent
Chenopodium ambrosioidesAd50.70 (48.0–53.25) ± 1.0026.55 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.7524.15 (22.75–25.75) ± 0.509.35 (8.50–10.25) ± 0.3024.25 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.4419.45 (17.75–20.75) ± 0.5328.75 (25.25–32.25) ± 1.3626.35 (23.75–30.25) ± 1.1615.85 (14.75–17.25) ± 0.437.35 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.4366.05 (63.75–67.75) ± 0.7620.85 (17.75–23.75) ± 1.06
Ab75.05 (72.75–77.25) ± 0.8128.05 (26.25–30.25) ± 0.6820.45 (18.75–22.25) ± 0.608.55 (7.25–9.75) ± 0.4621.25 (19.75–22.75) ± 0.5718.95 (17.75–22.75) ± 0.5744.75 (42.75–47.25) ± 0.7518.45 (16.25–22.0) ± 1.0114.30 (12.0–15.75) ± 0.668.05 (6.25–10.25) ± 0.6857.70 (52.25–64.0) ± 2.2826.25 (24.75–27.75) ± 0.57
Chrozophora tinctoriaAd45.25 (38.75–57.25) ± 3.2123.0 (21.225–24.75) ± 0.6032.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.609.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.4332.25 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.6820.4(18.75–22.0) ± 0.5644.0 (37.75–52.25) ± 2.5115.45 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.6017.0 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.604.8 (3.75–5.75) ± 0.33226.2(214.0–248.7) ± 6.0110.45 (7.25–12.75) ± 1.05
Ab48.4(43.75–56.25) ± 2.1018.25 (13.75–23.75) ± 1.733.25 (31.25–35.25) ± 0.757.55 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.4032.95 (30.25–35.25) ± 0.9420.55 (18.75–22.25) ± 0.6041.0(35.25–48.75) ± 2.7219.35 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.6215.49 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.583.80 (3.0–4.75) ± 0.36182.4 (143.75–218.75) ± 16.09.95 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.40
Alocasia macrorrhizosAd57.05 (50.25–65.25) ± 2.8326.95 (25.25–28.25) ± 0.5334.60 (32.75–36.50) ± 0.6412.15 (10.75–13.75) ± 0.5334.30 (32.75–36.50) ± 0.6926.60 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.7732.55 (30.75–34.75) ± 0.7510.15 (8.75–11.50) ± 0.5122.55 (21.25–24.25) ± 0.626.15 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.40AbsentAbsent
Ab52.95 (50.25–56.25) ± 1.0437.05 (35.25–38.75) ± 0.6034.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.6010.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.9235.05 (32.75–37.25) ± 0.8127.15 (25.75–28.75) ± 0.5328.10 (27.75–29.0) ± 0.3320.45 (16.25–24.75) ± 1.4921.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.438.25 (6.25–11.25) ± 0.85AbsentAbsent
Datura innoxiaAd50.55 (48.75–52.75) ± 0.6822.75 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.6822.45 (20.25–24.75) ± 0.816.80 (5.25–8.0) ± 0.5023.85 (20.25–26.25) ± 0.9917.55 (15.25–19.75) ± 0.8138.35 (28.75–44.75) ± 2.9014.95 (12.25–17.75) ± 0.9512.95 (12.25–13.75) ± 0.256.65 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.43211.8 (191.25–248.75) ± 10.316.05 (13.75–18.75) ± 0.93
Ab48.05 (45.25–50.25) ± 0.9820.55 (18.75–22.75) ± 0.6824.10 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.436.90 (6.25–7.75) ± 0.2623.95 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.4618.35 (17.25–19.75) ± 0.4329.55 (28.75–30.25) ± 0.2524.50 (22.25–26.25) ± 0.6714.85 (13.75–15.75) ± 0.335.60 (4.75–6.25) ± 0.29235.0 (228.75–243.75) ± 2.722.55 (20.25–25.25) ± 0.88
Duranta repensAb47.0 (44.50–48.75) ± 0.7519.70 (18.75–20.75) ± 0.3428.15 (27.25–28.75) ± 0.298.15 (7.25–8.75) ± 0.2929.15 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.6222.35 (21.25–23.75) ± 0.4329.45 (28.0–30.50) ± 0.4722.35 (21.25–23.75) ± 0.4315.05 (14.25–16.25) ± 0.339.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.43150.9 (143.75–158.75) ± 2.5317.05 (14.75–18.75) ± 0.71
Ad32.65 (24.75–40.25) ± 3.1714.35 (13.75–15.25) ± 0.2923.35 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.696.60 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.4323.35 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.6917.05 (16.25–17.75) ± 0.2528.75 (26.25–31.25) ± 0.9210.95 (8.75–12.75) ± 0.7512.25 (11.25–12.75) ± 0.274.40 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.26159.2 (154.0–162.75) ± 1.6416.1 (14.0–18.25) ± 0.71
Euphorbia helioscopiaAd99.50 (75.5–125.1) ± 9.0236.50 (35.1–37.3) ± 0.6127.5 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.5019.50 (17.50–20.1) ± 0.5016.50 (12.50–17.50) ± 1.02.75 (2.50–3.1) ± 0.1427.5 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.507.9 (7.50–8.25) ± 0.3641.1 (25.1–52.1) ± 4.816.50 (17.50–25.1) ± 1.0895.2 (750.2–1100) ± 7011.85 (10.1–13.1) ± 1.21
Ab84.50 (75.1–87.50) ± 2.4236.50 (35.1–40.3) ± 1.026.1 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.6120.25 (18.75–22.50) ± 0.6117.50 (15.1–20.3) ± 0.792.65 (2.50–3.1) ± 0.1126.50 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.619.50 (7.50–10.1) ± 0.5039.1 (35.1–50.1) ± 2.8018.50 (17.50–20.1) ± 0.61AbsentAbsent
Euphorbia pulcherrimaAd35.30 (33.75–37.25) ± 0.6620.05 (18.25–21.75) ± 0.68AbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsent249.9 (238.2–262.7) ± 4.119.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.60
Ab34.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.6019.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.6023.95 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.468.05 (7.25–9.25) ± 0.4024.55 (22.75–26.25) ± 0.6014.05 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.4333.86 (32.75–34.75) ± 0.3324.55 (22.75–26.25) ± 0.6016.25 (15.25–17.25) ± 0.353.50 (2.75–4.25) ± 0.27166.5 (160.25–173.25) ± 2.614.75 (12.75–16.25) ± 0.68
Euphorbia royleanaAd46.45 (43.75–52.25) ± 1.5037.15 (33.75–39.75) ± 1.0433.45 (30.75–36.25) ± 1.079.80 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.3033.75 (31.25–36.25) ± 0.9229.85 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.6957.30 (53.75–61.25) ± 1.4831.15 (26.25–39.75) ± 2.2922.30 (20.25–25.25) ± 0.887.05 (5.25–8.75) ± 0.60AbsentAbsent
Ab41.85 (38.75–43.75) ± 0.8830.80 (27.75–34.75) ± 1.2332.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.6010.15 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.4331.95 (30.25–33.25) ± 0.5326.45 (25.25–27.75) ± 0.4650.95 (48.75–53.25) ± 0.8624.90 (21.25–29.75) ± 1.4022.95 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.607.85 (7.0–8.75) ± 0.34AbsentAbsent
Ipomoea carneaAd29.25 (26.25–33.75) ± 1.3125.45 (23.75–27.25) ± 0.6024.15 (22.25–27.75) ± 1.0110.45 (9.75–11.25) ± 0.2526.15 (22.75–28.75) ± 1.0421.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.4323.45 (7.75–35.25) ± 5.969.50 (8.75–10.25) ± 0.2719.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.6010.05 (7.75–12.25) ± 0.8139.55 (37.75–41.25) ± 0.6012.95 (9.75–17.75) ± 1.43
Ab30.95 (26.25–38.75) ± 2.1114.65 (11.25–18.25) ± 1.1314.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.366.75 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.3514.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.3610.70 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.1423.40 (22.25–24.50) ± 0.409.70 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.328.95 (7.75–10.25) ± 0.404.35 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.29168.3 (148.75–183.75) ± 6.011.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.92
Parthenium hysterophorusAd33.95 (26.25–41.25) ± 2.415.50 (13.75–18.75) ± 0.9224.15 (23.25–25.25) ± 0.367.10 (6.25–8.0) ± 0.3424.05 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.4316.4 (15.25–17.75) ± 0.4828.75 (24.50–32.75) ± 1.5218.95 (15.75–23.75) ± 1.4518.1 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.674.95 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.40165.4 (153.7–173.2) ± 3.7029.74 (28.13–32.64) ± 0.68
Ab38.95 (36.50–43.75) ± 1.3018.35 (16.25–21.25) ± 0.8419.95 (18.25–21.25) ± 0.627.95 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.5620.35 (18.25–22.25) ± 0.7818.10 (16.5–19.75) ± 0.5630.75 (27.75–37.25) ± 1.6918.45 (16.25–20.25) ± 0.7512.0 (7,75–15.25) ± 1.404.30 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.3195.0 (175.2–211.2) ± 6.1930.85 (29.25–33.75) ± 0.79
Peganum harmalaAd90.75 (62.75–103.25) ± 7.4129.35 (27.25–32.25) ± 0.8723.95 (22.25–26.25) ± 0.7011.35 (10.50–12.25) ± 0.3425.10 (23.0–28.75) ± 0.9923.75 (21.25–26.25) ± 0.8523.55 (21.75–26.25) ± 0.8423.45 (18.75–29.75) ± 1.915.35 (12.75–17.75) ± 0.9410.4 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.1AbsentAbsent
Ab99.45 (95.25–103.7) ± 1.427.60 (22.25–37.75) ± 2.725.90 (22.75–29.75) ± 1.210.55 (8.75–12.75) ± 0.6829.55 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.6024.75 (22.25–27.25) ± 0.9725.80 (22.25–30.25) ± 1.3925.45 (18.75–29.75) ± 1.8615.75 (12.75–17.25) ± 0.839.55 (7.75–12.25) ± 0.93AbsentAbsent
Physalis angulataAd59.53 (52.0–75.50) ± 4.5326.40 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.3326.05 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.349.55 (8.25–10.75) ± 0.4626.05 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.3324.05 (22.75–25.75) ± 0.6259.75 (51.50–76.0) ± 4.5227.30 (25.75–30.25) ± 0.8913.15 (12.75–13.75) ± 0.166.95 (5.25–8.25) ± 0.53AbsentAbsent
Ab43.90 (26.75–51.50) ± 4.8126.0 (24.75–27.25) ± 0.4425.45 (24.75–26.25) ± 0.243.75 (3.00–4.75) ± 0.2825.70 (25.25–26.25) ± 0.1626.0 (25.25–26.75) ± 0.2737.45 (26.50–52.25) ± 4.9724.85 (22.75–26.50) ± 0.7023.0 (21.25–25.75) ± 0.807.15 (5.25–9.75) ± 0.93AbsentAbsent
Ranunculus sceleratusAd54.15 (47.75–61.25) ± 2.3441.0 (33.75–47.25) ± 2.5334.25 (32.75–36.25 ± 0.659.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.4034.05 (32.75–35.25) ± 0.4324.85 (23.0–26.75) ± 0.7150.20 (42.75–54.50) ± 2.132.40 (25.25–38.75) ± 2.4021.30 (20.25–22.25) ± 0.37.50 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.41AbsentAbsent
Ab64.05 (60.25–67.25) ± 1.2152.25 (50.25–54.75) ± 0.8532.15 (28.75–34.75) ± 1.0410.70 (8.50–12.75) ± 0.8831.50 (27.75–34.75) ± 1.8927.45 (25.25–29.75) ± 0.8153.40 (47.75–59.0) ± 1.8935.85 (27.75–42.75) ± 3.0720.25 (18.75–21.25) ± 0.477.50 (5.25–9.76) ± 0.83AbsentAbsent
Ricinus communisAd40.50 (38.75–42.25) ± 0.6017.0 (13.75–20.25) ± 1.0533.75 (31.25–38.75) ± 1.3119.05 (17.25–21.0) ± 0.7132.85 (31.25–34.25) ± 0.5318.75 (16.25–21.0) ± 0.8919.85 (16.25–23.75) ± 1.29.5 (8.0–12.25) ± 0.7420.70 (18.75–23.0) ± 0.718.15 (6.75–10.25) ± 0.62AbsentAbsent
Ab35.15 (32.75–37.75) ± 0.8818.05 (13.75–24.75) ± 1.8327.40 (25.50–28.75) ± 0.657.55 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.4626.6 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.7515.05 (12.75–17.25) ± 0.8129.15 (26.25–30.75) ± 0.7911.85 (10.25–13.75) ± 0.6913.65 (11.25–15.25) ± 0.696.60 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.38AbsentAbsent
Sambucus nigraAd61.75 (58.75–63.75) ± 0.8545.05 (38.75–49.75) ± 1.92AbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsentAbsent
Ab63.75 (61.25–65.25) ± 0.6835.65 (32.75–38.75) ± 1.1042.95 (41.25–44.75) ± 0.6011.45 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.4646.95 (43.75–49.75) ± 1.1534.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0,6449.55 (47.75–51.25) ± 0.6023.75 (22.75–24.75) ± 0.3526.65 (25.25–27.75) ± 0.4313.75 (12.25–14.75) ± 0.41118.25 (113.7–123.7) ± 1.924.85 (23.75–26.25) ± 0.43u
Solanum nigrumAd69.55 (67.75–71.25) ± 0.6430.15 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.4329.80 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.457.90 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.5629.80 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.4519.10 (17.75–20.25) ± 0.4329.75 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.4724.50 (23.75–25.25) ± 0.2717.25 (16.25–18.25) ± 0.351.85 (1.25–2.75) ± 0.29255.5 (226.2–288.7) ± 11.733.45 (31.25–35.25) ± 0.75
Ab67.75 (64.75–71.75) ± 1.5537.15 (35.75–38.75) ± 0.5327.35 (26.25–28.75) ± 0.437.30 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.4527.35 (26.25–28.75) ± 0.4316.85 (16.25–17.75) ± 0.2940.35 (38.75–42.75) ± 0.7613.0 (11.50–14.75) ± 0.5717.75 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.612.25 (1.25–2.75) ± 0.27229.1 (138.7–275.2) ± 24.039.85 (33.75–48.75) ± 2.47
Solanum incanumAd66.75 (65.25–68.75) ± 0.6512.25 (11.25–13.25) ± 0.3521.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.438.0 (7.25–9.0) ± 0.3721.55 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.4314.25 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.4428.15 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.6214.45 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.4014.05 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.437.05)6.25–7.75) ± 0.25218.2 (210.25–225.25) ± 2.8517.1 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.64
Ab34.45 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.6014.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.4314.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.436.15 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.4014.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.4311.35 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.4327.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.6014.10 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.436.65 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.435.25 (4.25–6.25) ± 0.35236.0 (224.75–247.75) ± 3.722.85 (21.25–25.25) ± 0.73
Sorghum halepenseAd85.20 (64.75–100.2) ± 6.821.30 (18.75–24.75) ± 1.0332.05 (29.75–34.75) ± 0.8110.30 (8.75–11.75) ± 0.5531.90 (30.25–33.0) ± 0.5019.45 (17.75–20.75) ± 0.5361.9 (52.75–67.75) ± 2.4622.80 (2125–25.25) ± 0.6913.85 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.503.40 (2.75–4.25) ± 0.26AbsentAbsent
Ab47.95 (46.25–49.75) ± 0.6034.15 (32.75–35.25) ± 0.4332.95 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.6010.40 (8.0–12.25) ± 0.8532.75 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.6523.05 (21.75–24.75) ± 0.5344.40 (42.75–46.25) ± 0.6124.85 (23.75–26.50) ± 0.4922.20 (21.25–23.0) ± 0.324.50 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.25AbsentAbsent
Thevetia peruvianaAd35.65 (33.75–37.75) ± 0.6728.25 (25.25–31.25) ± 1.10 AbsentAbsent
Ab45.70 (41.25–52.25) ± 2.129.10 (26.25–22.75) ± 1.325.85 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.794.85 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.4325.60 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.6915.45 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.6043.0 (38.75–48.75) ± 1.6422.50 (18.75–28.75) ± 1.7912.85 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.647.70 (5.50–10.25) ± 0.85AbsentAbsent
Trifolium repensAd30.35 (24.75–36.25) ± 1.9021.25 (18.75–23.75) ± 0.9217.95 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.605.20 (4.50–6.25) ± 0.3017.95 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.6012.30 (11.25–13.25) ± 0.3334.70 (33.75–35.50) ± 0.3217.15 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.629.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.433.60 (3.0–4.25) ± 0.21AbsentAbsent
Ab42.35 (41.25–43.75) ± 0.4330.15 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.4320.25 (17.75–23.75) ± 1.047.20 (6.25–8.0) ± 0.3221.85 (17.75–24.75) ± 1.2014.55 (13.75–15.25) ± 0.2544.95 (43.75–46.25) ± 0.4027.20 (25.75–29.0) ± 0.5710.50 (8.75–12.25) ± 0.604.85 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.43AbsentAbsent

SE, standard error.

Quantitative attributes

Leaf epidermal morphology plays a crucial role in plant taxonomy and systematics. The quantitative attributes of leaf epidermal cells were measured in terms of their width and length on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces. The maximum length of epidermal cells was observed on the lower surface, while the maximum width was observed on the upper surface. For example, E. helioscopia had the maximum length of epidermal cells (99.50 ± 9.02 μm) on the adaxial surface, whereas I. carnea had the lowest length (29.25 ± 1.31 μm). Similarly, the maximum width of epidermal cells was observed in S. nigra (45.05 ± 1.9 μm), while the lowest width was observed in S. incanum (12.25 ± 0.35 μm). Subsidiary cells, which are present alongside epidermal cells, also exhibited variations in width and length on both surfaces. S. halepense had the maximum length of subsidiary cells (61.9 ± 2.46 μm) on the adaxial surface, while R. communis had the lowest length (19.85 ± 1.2 μm). The maximum width of subsidiary cells was observed in Ranunculus sceleratus (32.40 ± 2.4 μm), while the minimum width was observed in E. helioscopia (7.9 ± 0.36 μm). On the abaxial surface, A. mexicana had the highest length of subsidiary cells (60.85 ± 4.02 μm), while I. carnea had the shortest length (23.40 ± 0.40 μm). Similarly, the highest width of subsidiary cells was observed in A. mexicana (37.95 ± 1.27 μm), while the lowest width was observed in E. helioscopia (9.50 ± 0.50 μm).

Variations in the width and length of stomatal pore and guard cells on the abaxial and adaxial sides were also observed in this study. On the adaxial surface, Alocasia macrorrhizos had the maximum length of stomata (34.30 ± 0.69 μm), while the minimum length of stomata was observed in E. Helioscopia (16.50 ± 1.0 μm). The highest width of stomatal length was observed in E. Royleana (29.85 ± 0.69 μm) and the lowest in E. Helioscopia (2.75 ± 0.14 μm). On the abaxial side, S. Nigra (46.95 ± 1.15 μm) had the maximum length of stomata, while the minimum length of stomata was examined in the following three plants: S. incanum (14.15 ± 0.4 μm), I. carnea (14.15 ± 0.36 μm) and B. monosperma (14.15 ± 0.36 μm). The highest width of stomata was observed in S. nigra (34.55 ± 0.64 μm) and the lowest in E. helioscopia (2.75 ± 0.14 μm). On the upper side, the highest length of guard cell was detected in A. macrorrhizos (34.60 ± 0.64 μm) and B. monosperma (14.15 ± 0.36 μm). On the other hand, the highest width of guard cell was found in E. Helioscopia (19.50 ± 0.50 μm) and the lowest in T. repens (5.20 ± 0.30 μm). On the lower surface, the extreme length of guard cells was examined in S. Nigra (42.95 ± 0.60 μm), while the lowest length of guard cells was observed in B. monosperma (14.15 ± 0.36 μm), I. carnea (14.15 ± 0.36 μm) and S. incanum (14.15 ± 0.43 μm). Similarly, the highest width of guard cell was observed in E. helioscopia (20.25 ± 0.61 μm), while the lowest was found in T. repens (3.75 ± 0.28 μm).

Trichomes also vary in length and width. On the adaxial side, the highest length of trichome was found in E. helioscopia (895.2 ± 70 μm) and I. carnea (39.55 ± 0.60 μm). On the other hand, the highest width of trichomes was observed in B. versicolor (46.40 ± 1.93 μm), while C. tinctoria (10.45 ± 1.05 μm) was found to have the lowest width of trichomes. On an abaxial surface, the maximum length of trichomes was found in Brugmansia versicolor (307.35 ± 2.62 μm), while the minimum was identified in Chenopodium ambrosioides (57.70 ± 2.28 μm). The highest width of trichomes was observed in S. nigrum (39.85 ± 2.47 μm), while the lowest was found in C. tinctoria (9.95 ± 0.40 μm).

Qualitative attributes

The qualitative attributes of foliar epidermal anatomy showed significant variations among the studied plant species. Epidermal cells exhibited different shapes, including irregular, isodiametric polygonal, curvy and rectangular. Rectangular-shaped epidermal cells were present on both surfaces of S. halepense and on the adaxial surface of S. incanum. The pattern of AW also varied, ranging from deeply sinuous, wavy to sinuous, undulate, straight and angular. Thick sinuous walls were observed only in S. halepense. Stomata, which are crucial for gas exchange in plants, were observed on both surfaces of the leaves. The upper surface generally had a higher number of stomata than the lower surface. Different types of stomata were identified in the present study, including anisocytic, anomocytic, paracytic and cyclocytic. Cyclocytic stomata were found only in I. carnea. Anisocytic stomata have been observed in members of the Solanaceae family. Some species exhibited elliptical and wide elliptical stomatal pores. Dumbbell-shaped guard cells were observed only in S. halepense. Trichomes, or plant hairs, are another important aspect of leaf anatomy that can vary significantly among different plant species. Various types of trichomes were observed, including glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes. Glandular trichomes were found in Datura, which secrete toxic substances. Non-glandular trichomes, which do not produce any secretions, were observed in plants such as R. communis and S. nigrum. The density of trichomes also varied, with some plants having a sparse distribution, while others had a dense coverage of trichomes on leaf surfaces. For example, Datura innoxia exhibited a high density of glandular trichomes, giving the leaves a rough texture, while S. nigrum had a lower density of non-glandular trichomes, and thus a smoother leaf surface. The identified anatomical characteristics play a significant role in distinguishing and identifying poisonous species. The consistent presence or absence of specific characteristics in our study can serve as valuable diagnostic traits for species identification. For example, in our study, we consistently observed irregular epidermal cells with undulate AW, anomocytic stomata and glandular multicellular trichomes in the species of Solanaceae. This combination of features may serve as a distinguishing characteristic for species within this family. By highlighting these consistent features, we provide taxonomists with specific anatomical traits that can be used as diagnostic tools. These traits can be incorporated into identification keys or guides, enabling accurate species identification based on the microscopic examination of leaf epidermal characteristics.

The present study aimed to explore and compare the foliar anatomy of selected species, shedding light on the structural variations and adaptations present in their leaves. Based on the examination of the abaxial side, irregular epidermal cells with undulate AW and anomocytic stomata were observed in Solanaceae species, which is consistent with the findings of Adedeji et al. (2007). Ibrahim et al. (2016) reported rectangular-shaped epidermal cells with undulate cell walls in D. innoxia on both surfaces, whereas the present study revealed irregular and polygonal-shaped epidermal cells. The presence of anomocytic and anisocytic stomata was consistent with the findings of Ibrahim et al. (2016), and multicellular non-glandular trichomes were also observed. In S. nigrum, polygonal epidermal cells with a wavy pattern of AW on the upper surface and irregular cells with sinuous patterns on the lower surface were observed, which aligns with the findings of previous studies except for the undulate AW on the lower surface. The presence of anisocytic and anomocytic stomata, along with multicellular non-glandular trichomes, was consistent with the findings of previous research. Zahra et al. (2014) studied various Euphorbiaceous species and observed irregular epidermal cells with undulating walls and anisocytic stomata in E. pulcherrima, which is similar to the findings of the present study. Multicellular non-glandular trichomes with bulbous bases were also observed, consistent with the findings of previous work. In E. royleana, the observed shape of epidermal cells was polygonal, and paracytic stomata with straight AW were found only on the abaxial side. These results deviate from those of previous studies, which reported different-shaped epidermal cells with diacytic stomata. Najmaddin (2020) reported E. helioscopia with tetracytic and anomocytic stomata on the abaxial surface, while the current research identified polygonal and irregular epidermal cells with undulating and entire walls, and retained anomocytic stomata. Tyagi et al. (2013) examined the transverse section of R. communis, observing collenchyma, microcrystals, oil glands, parenchyma, palisade layers, prismatic crystals and rosette crystals, but there has been no additional foliar anatomical work on R. communis. The present study examined polygonal epidermal cells with straight AW and paracytic stomata on both surfaces.

Ramzan et al. (2019) previously described the anatomical characteristics of B. monosperma and found the absence of stomata on the adaxial surface and paracytic stomata on the abaxial surface, which is consistent with the current findings. Glandular, unicellular trichomes with pointed tips were also observed, which were not reported by the earlier work. However, the present research identified irregular and polygonal epidermal cells, which deviates from the previous study. Gostin (2009) observed foliar cross-sections of T. repens, noting palisade and parenchyma cells, but unfortunately, there is no epidermal anatomical study found in the literature. The current study revealed irregular and polygonal epidermal cells with anomocytic and anisocytic stomata on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, along with glandular multicellular trichomes.

In Ranunculus sceleratus, irregular epidermal cells with sinuous AW and anomocytic stomata were observed on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces, with no trichomes recorded, which is consistent with the results of Salim et al. (2016). Bashir et al. (2020) examined irregular and polygonal epidermal cells with wavy to straight AW and paracytic stomata in T. peruviana, while the present study identified anisocytic stomata, which was not reported in the literature. Trichomes were not found in both the current and recent research. Arogundade and Adedeji (2019) recently investigated polygonal epidermal cells with straight walls, while brachyparacytic stomata were observed in Alocasia macrorrhiza in previous work, whereas the present study found paracytic stomata. In S. halepense, sinuous walls of rectangular epidermal cells with paracytic stomata were noted, which is consistent with the finding of Chaudhari et al. (2014). Only S. halepense exhibited dumbbell-shaped guard cells in all the mentioned varieties. The abaxial surface of Duranta erecta exhibited polygonal-shaped epidermal cells, which was also observed by Shekhawat and Manokari (2017). Gaafar (2019) observed wavy polygonal and irregular epidermal cells with only anisocytic stomata in Chenopodium ambrosioides, while the present results showed anisocytic stomata and a wide elliptical shape of the stomatal pore. Al-Mousawi et al. (2019) inspected thick anticlinal-walled epidermal cells and anisocytic stomata in A. mexicana, whereas the present study showed polygonal epidermal cells with thin AW and anomocytic stomata.

This research exhibited irregular or rectangular epidermal cells with slightly sinuous AW, along with cyclocytic stomata, in I. carnea. Both glandular capitate and non-glandular unicellular conical-shaped trichomes were also observed. These outcomes are consistent with the previous work of Ashfaq et al. (2019). Koyuncu et al. (2008) recorded polygonal epidermal cells with anisocytic stomata in P. harmala, while the present study described anomocytic stomata, showing slight deviations from prior work. Amini et al. (2019) examined the foliar cross-section of S. nigra and observed parenchyma cells and vascular bundles. Atkinson and Atkinson (2002) examined the high density of stomata on the abaxial surface and the absence of stomata on the adaxial surface. In contrast, the present study revealed polygonal epidermal cells with angular walls, exhibiting anomocytic stomata and multicellular trichomes, which were not mentioned in the literature.

It is important to explore why there are variations in the anatomical features observed in different studies. Factors such as genetic variability, environmental conditions, geographic location and different plant developmental stages could contribute to the observed differences. By focussing on these anatomical characteristics, our research contributes to the understanding of plant diversity and species identification. The consistent traits can be incorporated into taxonomic keys, guides and databases, enabling accurate and efficient identification of poisonous species. Additional research and comparative studies are needed to validate the diagnostic value of these anatomical characteristics. However, our findings lay the foundation for future investigations and provide a starting point for researchers and taxonomists interested in the identification and classification of poisonous species based on leaf anatomical features.

Overall, understanding the foliar anatomy of poisonous plants provides valuable information for their identification and classification. By recognising specific morphological features, dermal structures, glandular structures, secondary metabolites and leaf colouration, botanists, toxicologists and other experts can effectively distinguish poisonous plants from non-toxic species, contributing to public safety and environmental management.

CONCLUSION

This research article demonstrates the successful identification of poisonous plants through the analysis of foliar micromorphology using LM and SEM techniques. This study highlights the efficacy of these methods in distinguishing toxic plant species based on their unique microscopic features. Furthermore, the identification methodology presented in this article has significant implications for public health and safety. As research progresses, the integration of advanced technologies and increased public awareness will play a vital role in safeguarding individuals from the hazards posed by these plants, ultimately promoting public safety and well-being. In the future, research based on hazardous plant identification using DNA barcoding and phytotoxicity testing, as well as phylogenetic analysis, will be required.

Figure 1.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Agave americana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Argemone mexicana, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Brugmansia versicolor, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Butea monosperma, (K) adaxial surface (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Agave americana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Argemone mexicana, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Brugmansia versicolor, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Butea monosperma, (K) adaxial surface (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 2.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Buxus pilosula, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Chenopodium ambrosioides, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Chrozophora tinctoria, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Alocasia macrorrhizos, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Buxus pilosula, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Chenopodium ambrosioides, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Chrozophora tinctoria, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Alocasia macrorrhizos, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 3.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Datura innoxia, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Duranta repens, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Euphorbia helioscopia, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Euphorbia pulcherrima, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Datura innoxia, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Duranta repens, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Euphorbia helioscopia, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Euphorbia pulcherrima, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 4.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Euphorbia royleana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ipomoea carnea, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Parthenium hysterophorus, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Peganum harmala, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Euphorbia royleana, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ipomoea carnea, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Parthenium hysterophorus, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Peganum harmala, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 5.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Physalis angulate, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ranunculus sceleratus, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Ricinus communis, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Sambucus nigra, (K) adaxial surface, (L) Abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Physalis angulate, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Ranunculus sceleratus, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Ricinus communis, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Sambucus nigra, (K) adaxial surface, (L) Abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 6.

LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Solanum nigrum, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Solanum incanum, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Sorghum halepense, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Thevetia peruviana, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface, (M) Trifolium repens, (N) adaxial surface, (O) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.
LM shapes of epidermal cells, patterns of AW, stomata and trichomes of poisonous plants. Scale bar = 5 μm. (A) Solanum nigrum, (B) adaxial surface, (C) abaxial surface, (D) Solanum incanum, (E) adaxial surface, (F) abaxial surface, (G) Sorghum halepense, (H) adaxial surface, (I) abaxial surface, (J) Thevetia peruviana, (K) adaxial surface, (L) abaxial surface, (M) Trifolium repens, (N) adaxial surface, (O) abaxial surface. AW, anticlinal walls; LMs, light micrographs.

Figure 7.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Brugmansia versicolor (A-C), Butea monosperma (D-F), Chrozophora tinctoria (G-I), Buxus pilosula (J-L).
Scanning micrographs (SEM); Brugmansia versicolor (A-C), Butea monosperma (D-F), Chrozophora tinctoria (G-I), Buxus pilosula (J-L).

Figure 8.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Datura innoxia (A-C), Duranta rapens (D-F), Euphorbia pulcherrima (G-I), Euphorbia royleana (J-L).
Scanning micrographs (SEM); Datura innoxia (A-C), Duranta rapens (D-F), Euphorbia pulcherrima (G-I), Euphorbia royleana (J-L).

Figure 9.

Scanning micrographs (SEM); Ipomoea carnea (A-C), Parthenium hysterophorus (D-F), Sambucus nigraum (G-I).
Scanning micrographs (SEM); Ipomoea carnea (A-C), Parthenium hysterophorus (D-F), Sambucus nigraum (G-I).

Comprehensive review study of poisonous plants.

Sr. No. Plant species Family Flowering period Common name Habit Status Global distribution Poisonous part Poisonous compounds Side effects Citation
1. Agave americana Asparagaceae Spring, summer, fall winter Century plant, maguey, or American aloe Rosette-forming herbaceous perennial succulent Cultivated Mexico, United States Leaves sap/juice Acrid volatile oil, oxalic acid, sapono-side Redness and swelling, swelling of small blood vessels (veins), skin sores Ahmad (2012)
2. Alocasia macrorrhiza Aricaceae Spring, summer, fall winter Taro/ elephants ear Evergreen perennial Cultivated Africa, western Asia, eastern Asia, the Pacific Islands, America, the USA, Brazil Leaves and corms Calcium oxalate and oxalic acid Conjunctivitis, pruritus, blindness Ufelle et al. (2018)
3. Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae March, April, May, June Mexican prickly poppy, flowering thistle Broadleaved herbaceous, seed propagated Wild Central Mexico, Honduras All parts of plants are poisonous Sanguinarine, dihydrosanguinarine Perianal itching, pneumonia myocarditis and congestive cardiac failure, ascites, sarcoid-like skin changes, alopecia, hepatomegaly Brahmachari et al. (2013)
4. Brugmansia versicolor Solanaceae Mid-summer to fall Angel’s trumpets Broadleaf evergreen Cultivated Western part of South America, south of the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador Flowers, leaves, and seeds Alkaloids like atropine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine Intense thirst, dilated pupils, high or low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, convulsions, difficulty breathing, illusions, paralysis, coma, death, nervousness, loss of memory Petricevich et al. (2020)
5. Butea monosperma Fabaceae January to March Flame-of-the-forest An erect deciduous tree with young parts hairy Wild Sub-tropical and tropical areas of the Indian Subcontinent and Asian southeast region. All parts especially seeds Fixed oil in the seed and glucoside butrin of the flower sap Dizziness, headache, hypotension Ahmad (2012)
6. Chenopodium ambrosioides Amaranthaceae April -January Mexican tea, Jesuit’s tea Polymorphic annual, and perennial herb Wild Native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico Leaves Carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide and ascaridole Vomiting, dizziness, headache, temporary deafness, kidney and liver damage, convulsions, paralysis, death Da Silva et al. (2014)
7. Chrozophora tinctoria Euphorbiaceae April to June Dyer’s croton, giradol, or turnsole Erect densely woolly herb Wild Mediterranean, Middle East, India, Pakistan, and Central Asia All parts of plant are poisonous Rutin, chrozophorin, saponins Upset stomach, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea Al-Snafi (2015)
8. Datura inoxia Solanaceae July to frost Pricklyburr Shrubby, sprawling, short-lived, tender perennial Wild Central America, Texas, Colombia All portions of the plant are toxic especially foliage and seeds Alkaloids, hyoscyamine, hyoscine Enlarged pupils, dry mouth, trouble breathing, blurred vision, hallucinations, panic, death Ahmad (2012)
9. Datura stramonium Solanaceae March through November Jimsonweed, locoweed, thorn apple, devil’s trumpet Wild-growing herb Wild Central America, Caribbean Seeds and leaves Alkaloids, hyoscyamine, hyoscine Blurred vision, dry mouth, dilated pupils, confusion, combative behaviour hallucinations, difficulty urinating Ahmad (2012)
10. Duranta erecta Verbenaceae Spring Pigeon berry Erect and spreading Cultivated Florida, South America Leaves, fruit and bark are poisonous Saponin Vomiting and gastro-intestinal irritation, diarrhoea Ahmad (2012)
11. Euphorbia helioscopia Euphorbiaceae Mid-spring to late summer, May to October Wart spurge, umbrella milkweed and madwoman’s milk Erect perennial herb Wild Europe, northern Africa, Asia Leaves Diterpene 12-deoxypharbol Nausea, allergic reactions, skin irritation, vomiting Ahmad (2012)
12. Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae September-March Mexican fireplant, painted euphorbia, wild poinsettia A small, annual herb, glabrous Wild Central & S. USA, America, tropical Africa, Asia, Pacific countries All fragments of the plant are lethal Oil, saponins, glycosides Nausea, allergic reactions, skin irritation, vomiting Adedapo et al. (2004)
13. Euphorbia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae October to December Poinsettia Shrub or small tree Wild Mexico, Central America to southern Guatemala All parts of plant are poisonous Water soluble caoutchouc Upset stomach, vomiting, nausea, diarrhoea Ahmad (2012)
14. Euphorbia royleana Euphorbiaceae Spring to early summer (March–July) Sullu spurge, and Royle’s spurge Deciduous, cactus-like, succulent shrub or small tree Wild Himalaya mountains from Pakistan, Nepal to western China India, Bhutan, Myanmar All parts are poisonous Epitaraxerol, ellagic acid, euphol, taraxerol, sitosterol in milky latex Nausea, vomiting Bhatia et al. (2014)
15. Ipomoea carnea Convolvulaceae Fall–summer Pink morning glory, bush morning glory Twining plant Wild Tropical America, Caribbean, America, Africa, Australia, and Asia Seeds and leaves N-methyl-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline, calystegines B1, swainsonine, 2-epilentiginosine and B2, B3 and C1 Abnormal endocrine functions and gastrointestinal functions, immune system alternation, abnormality in embryogenesis Wanule and Balkhande (2012)
16. Nerium oleander Apocynaceae July to October Oleander or nerium Erect shrub bearing pink or white flowers Cultivated Mediterranean Basin Entire plant Cardiac glycosides of the cardenolide type Weakness, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, headache, pain in stomach, death Ahmad (2012)
17. Parthenium hysterophorus Asteraceae March to October Santa Maria feverfew, whitetop weed Erect stout undershrubs Wild Subtropics of North and South America All its parts including trichomes and pollen Parthenin and other phenolic acids Eczema skin inflammation, hay fever, asthma, burning and blisters, breathlessness and choking, allergic rhinitis, black spots, diarrhoea, severe erythematous eruptions Ahmad (2012)
18. Peganum harmala Nitrariaceae April and October Wild rue, Syrian rue, African rue, esfand or espand, or harmel Perennial, herbaceous plant Wild Middle East, Africa, Mediterranean area, Indian Pakistan, Iran, Africa, Central Asian republics semi-arid regions Leaves and seeds β-carbolines such as: harmalol, harman harmaline, harmine, and quinazoline derivatives Hallucinations, neurosensory syndromes, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting Mahmoudian et al. (2002)
19. Physalis angulate Solanaceae Spring/ summer/ autumn Cut-leaf ground-cherry, angular winter cherry Multi-stemmed and spreading Wild USA, South America, NC Unripe berries and leaves Physalins Headache, discomfort in stomach, dropped temperature, expanded pupils, nausea, diarrhoea, cardiac and breathing depression, loss of consciousness, fatal schistosomiasis Pomilio et al. (2008)
20. Ranunculus sceleratus Ranunculaceae May to September Celery-leaved buttercup Annual or short-lived perennial Wild Europe, Britain, primarily in central and northern areas All parts of the plant are poisonous Glycoside ranunculin Enormously annoying to skin and mucous membranes. It may cause pain and burning perceptions, tongue inflammation, and intensification in saliva Ahmad (2012)
21. Ricinus communis Euphorbiaceae June to October Castor oil plant Tender perennial large shrub or small tree Wild Southeastern Basin, India Mediterranean, Eastern Africa Seeds and leaves Toxalbumin ricin Nausea, sickness, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, desiccation, shock, simple fluid and chemical disturbances, destruction to the liver, kidney and pancreas, and eventually death Ahmad (2012)
22. Solanum incanum Solanaceae October–January Thorn apple, bitter apple, bitterball and bitter tomato An erect prickly shrub, stem prickly and prickles straight sharp Wild Saharan desert in Africa, Middle East, India Dried unripe fruits Glycoalkaloids such as solasonine, alkylamines such as nitrosamines and carcinogenic glycosides Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhoea Madzimure et al. (2013)
23. Solanum nigrum Solanaceae July to September Black nightshade or blackberry nightshade Short-lived perennial shrub Wild South America Fruits, leaves Steroidal glycoalkaloids like alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhoea Jabamalairaj et al. (2019)
24. Sorghum halepense Poaceae Fall to summer Johnsongrass Arching dense erect spreading Wild Eastern, Mediteranean, Middle East countries Leaves Dhurrin, a cyanogenic glycoside, toxic levels of nitrates Nervousness, progressive feebleness and difficulty breathing, breathlessness, increased pulse rate, muscular jerking, convulsions, death Khan et al. (2018)
25. Thevetia peruviana Apocynaceae Summer to fall Luckynut, yellow oleander Perennial or evergreen tropical shrub Cultivated Mexico, tropical South America All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the kernels of the fruits and leaves Glycosides, thevetin, cerebrin, neriifolin Sickness, dizziness, electrolyte turbulences, cardiac dysrhythmias Ahmad (2012)
26. Trifolium repens Fabaceae Spring – summer White clover Creeping, prostrate Wild Europe, British Isles, central Asia Leaves Eyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin Outbreaks, muscle ache, pain, sickness, and vaginal flow (spotting) Refsgaard et al. (2010)
27. Xanthium strumarium Asteraceae Fall to summer Clotbur, common cocklebur, woolgarie bur Erect, ground cover herb Wild North America Leaves and seeds Carboxyatractyloside Sickness, muscular tremors, liver disintegration and seldom death Ahmad (2012)

Qualitative foliar anatomical features of poisonous plants.

Plant species Ad × Ab ECS AW Stomata (P/A) ST GCS Glands P/A SPS Trichome
Glandular Non-glandular
Chrozophora tinctoria Ad Irregular Deeply sinous P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - Sessile stellate
Ab Irregular Deeply sinous P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - Sessile stellate
Buxus pilosula Ad Polygonal Straight A - A Very narrowly elliptical - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Broad bean-shaped A Very narrowly elliptical - -
Parthenium hysterophorus Ad Irregular Sinuate P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped P Elliptical -
Ab Irregular Sinuate P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped P Elliptical - Segmented with pointed tip and broad base
Datura innoxia Ad Irregular Deeply undulate P Anisocytic anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Widely elliptical - Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base
Ab Polygonal Straight P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Widely elliptical - Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base
Ricinus communis Ad Polygonal Straight/angular P Paracytic Broad bean-shaped Elliptical - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Broad bean-shaped A Elliptical - -
Alocasia macrorrhizos Ad Polygonal Straight A A - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Broad bean-shaped A Broad elliptical - -
Euphorbia royleana Ad Polygonal Straight A - - A - - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Broad bean-shaped A Very broad elliptical - -
Ranunculus sceleratus Ad Irregular Wavy to sinous P Anomocytic Bean-shaped A Elliptical - -
Ab Irregular Wavy to sinous P Anomocytic Bean-shaped A Elliptical - -
Thevetia peruviana Ad Irregular Undulate A - Broad bean-shaped A Widely elliptical - -
Ab Polygonal Straight/wavy P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Widely elliptical - -
Agave americana Ad Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Narrow bean-shaped A Concave-shaped - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Paracytic Narrow bean-shaped A Concave-shaped - -
Brugmansia versicolor Ad Polygonal Straight/angular P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Elliptical - Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base unicellular with bulbous tip
Ab Irregular Undulate/sinous P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Widely elliptical - Multicellular with pointed tip and broad base unicellular with bulbous tip
Sorghum halepense Ad Rectangular Thick sinous walls p Paracytic Dumb bell-shaped A Very narrow elliptical - -
Ab Rectangular Thick sinous walls P Paracytic Dumb bell-shaped A Very narrow elliptical - -
Duranta repens Ad Polygonal Straight A - - P - - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped P Widely elliptical Unicellular with pointed tip
Physalis angulata Ad Irregular Deeply sinous P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - -
Ab Irregular Deeply sinous P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - -
Chenopodium ambrosioides Ad Polygonal Angular P Anomocytic Narrow kidney-shaped P Wide elliptical Multicellular capitate -
Ab Irregular Wavy P Anisocytic Wide kidney-shaped P Elliptical Multicellular capitate -
Trifolium repens Ad Irregular Sinous P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Elliptical - -
Ab Polygonal Straight/angular P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical Multicellular capitate -
Solanum nigrum Ad Polygonal Straight P Anisocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - Multicellular 3–6 celled long with pointed tip
Ab Irregular Undulate P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Elliptical Multicellular 3–6 celled long with pointed tip
Butea monosperma Ad Polygonal Angular A - - A Elliptical - -
Ab Irregular Wavy P Paracytic Narrow bean-shaped P Very narrow elliptical - Unicellular with pointed tip
Argemone mexicana Ad Polygonal Angular P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped Narrow elliptical - -
Ab Heptagonal Angular P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Very narrow elliptical - -
Peganum harmala Ad Polygonal Straight P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Wide elliptical - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Wide elliptical - -
Solanum incanum Ad Rectangular Straight P Anisocytic Widely bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical Stellate unicellular with pointed tip
Ab Polygonal Angular P Anisocytic Widely bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical Stellate unicellular with pointed tip
Euphorbia helioscopia Ad Polygonal Straight A - - A - - -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - -
Euphorbia pulcherrima Ad Irregular Undulate A A Multicellular with pointed end
Ab Irregular Undulate P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Narrow elliptical - Multicellular with pointed end
Ipomoea carnea Ad Rectangular to isodiametric Straight P Cyclocytic Broad bean-shaped Very broad elliptical Subsessile, capitate having 5–6 celled with a flat head Unicellular and conical-shaped
Ab Irregular/tetragonal Straight/sinous P Cyclocytic/ paracytic Broad bean-shaped A Very broad elliptical Sub sessile, capitate having 5–6 celled a with flat head Unicellular and conical-shaped
Ipomoea carnea Ad Polygonal Straight/angular A A -
Ab Polygonal Straight P Anomocytic Broad bean-shaped A Wide elliptical Multicellular with bulbous head

Quantitative attributes of studied species.

Plant name Ad × Ab Length of epidermal cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Width of epidermal cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Length of guard cellsMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Width of guard cellsMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Length of stomata Mean(Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Width of stomataMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Length of subsidiary cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Width of subsidiary cellMean (Min–Max) ± SE(μm) Length of stomatal poreMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Width of stomatal poreMean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Trichome length Mean (Min–Max) ± SE (μm) Trichome width Mean(Min–Max) ± SE (μm)
Agave americana Ad 69.95 (58.75–81.25)±3.97 24.65 (23.75–23.75) ± 0.37 20.0 (17.75–22.0) ± 0.78 6.90 (6.25–7.75) ±0.29 27.45 (25.25–29.75) ± 0.81 11.35 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.50 52.50 (43.75–63.75) ± 3.29 16.15 (12.75–21.25)± 1.65 17.30 (16.25–18.75) ± 0.45 1.55 (1.0–2.25) ± 0.242 Absent Absent
Ab 63.35 (53.75–81.25) ± 4.75 28.30 (26.25–30.25) ± 0.77 21.05 (20.25–21.75) ± 0.25 5.85 (4.75–7.25) ±0.43 24.30 (18.75–27.75) ± 1.77 13.15 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.65 50.55 (43.75–54.75) ± 2.14 25.35 (24.0–26.50) ± 0.46 19.40 (18.0–20.25) ± 0.44 0.90 (0.50–1.25) ± 0.16 Absent Absent
Argemone mexicana Ad 65.75 (50.25–73.25) ± 4.1 34.50 (32.25–37.25) ± 0.96 32.30 (31.25–34.0) ± 0.51 12.55 (10.25–13.75) ±0.64 32.95 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.60 26.55 (22.75–29.75) ± 1.39 54.50 (50.25–57.75) ± 1.23 26.45 (22.25–31.25)± 1.50 20.95 (18.75–22.75) ± 0.75 6.25 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.35 Absent Absent
Ab 57.95 (54.75–61.25)± 1.05 41.85 (27.25–47.25) ±3.6 27.20 (22.75–32.0) ± 1.7 12.45 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.64 30.55 (27.75–32.75) ±0.98 27.05 (23.75–29.75) ± 1.17 60.85 (51.75–74.75) ± 4.02 37.95 (34.75–41.25) ± 1.27 22.05 (20.25–23.75) ± 0.60 7.05 (5,25–8.75) ± 0.60 Absent Absent
Brugmansia versicolor Ad 42.25 (36.25–51.25) ± 2.55 36.25 (32.75–41.25)± 1.51 32.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.60 10.45 (8.75—12.25) ± 0.60 32.30 (31.25–33.75) ± 0.45 28.15 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.62 45.55 (38.75–53.25) ± 2.69 29.55 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.60 19.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.60 6.85 (3.75–9.75) ± 1.14 356.8 (341.25–375.25) ± 6.1 46.40 (41.25–52.25) ± 1.93
Ab 39.30 (36.25–46.50) ± 1.84 33.75 (30.25–36.25) ± 1.34 27.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.60 10.90 (9.50–12.25) ± 0.54 27.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.60 25.15 (23.75–26.25) ± 0.43 47.40 (45.75–48.75) ± 0.55 32.30 (31.25–33.75) ± 0.45 19.70 (18.75–20.75) ± 0.37 8.10 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.58 307.35 (300.75–316.25) ± 2.62 25.55 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.68
Butea monosperma Ab 30.95 (26.25–38.75)± 2.11 14.65 (11.25–18.25) ± 1.1 14.15 (13.25–l5.25) ± 0.36 6.75 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.35 14.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.36 10.7 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.14 23.40 (22.25–24.50) ± 0.40 9.70 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.32 8.95 (7.75–10.25) ± 0.40 4.35 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.29 168.3 (148.75–183.75) ± 6.07 11.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.92
Ad 30.75 (28.75–33.75) ± 0.85 21.10 (18.75–23.75) ± 0.96 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 225.9 (212.75–234.0) ± 3.8 15.35 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.57
Buxus pilosula Ad 55.45 (52.75–57.75) ± 0.96 40.0 (37.75–42.0) ± 0.78 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Ab 45.15 (37.75–56.25) ± 3.79 29.65 (26.25–32.75) ± 1.07 25.25 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.77 4.30 (3.0–5.25) ± 0.40 25.25 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.77 12.85 (11.25–14.25) ± 0.53 39.70 (35.75–46.25) ± 1.91 9.95 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.40 21.65 (20.25–23.25) ± 0.57 3.95 (2.75–5.25) ± 0.46 Absent Absent
Chenopodium ambrosioides Ad 50.70 (48.0–53.25) ± 1.00 26.55 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.75 24.15 (22.75–25.75) ± 0.50 9.35 (8.50–10.25) ± 0.30 24.25 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.44 19.45 (17.75–20.75) ± 0.53 28.75 (25.25–32.25) ± 1.36 26.35 (23.75–30.25) ± 1.16 15.85 (14.75–17.25) ± 0.43 7.35 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.43 66.05 (63.75–67.75) ± 0.76 20.85 (17.75–23.75) ± 1.06
Ab 75.05 (72.75–77.25) ± 0.81 28.05 (26.25–30.25) ± 0.68 20.45 (18.75–22.25) ± 0.60 8.55 (7.25–9.75) ± 0.46 21.25 (19.75–22.75) ± 0.57 18.95 (17.75–22.75) ± 0.57 44.75 (42.75–47.25) ± 0.75 18.45 (16.25–22.0) ± 1.01 14.30 (12.0–15.75) ± 0.66 8.05 (6.25–10.25) ± 0.68 57.70 (52.25–64.0) ± 2.28 26.25 (24.75–27.75) ± 0.57
Chrozophora tinctoria Ad 45.25 (38.75–57.25) ± 3.21 23.0 (21.225–24.75) ± 0.60 32.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.60 9.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.43 32.25 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.68 20.4(18.75–22.0) ± 0.56 44.0 (37.75–52.25) ± 2.51 15.45 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.60 17.0 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.60 4.8 (3.75–5.75) ± 0.33 226.2(214.0–248.7) ± 6.01 10.45 (7.25–12.75) ± 1.05
Ab 48.4(43.75–56.25) ± 2.10 18.25 (13.75–23.75) ± 1.7 33.25 (31.25–35.25) ± 0.75 7.55 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.40 32.95 (30.25–35.25) ± 0.94 20.55 (18.75–22.25) ± 0.60 41.0(35.25–48.75) ± 2.72 19.35 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.62 15.49 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.58 3.80 (3.0–4.75) ± 0.36 182.4 (143.75–218.75) ± 16.0 9.95 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.40
Alocasia macrorrhizos Ad 57.05 (50.25–65.25) ± 2.83 26.95 (25.25–28.25) ± 0.53 34.60 (32.75–36.50) ± 0.64 12.15 (10.75–13.75) ± 0.53 34.30 (32.75–36.50) ± 0.69 26.60 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.77 32.55 (30.75–34.75) ± 0.75 10.15 (8.75–11.50) ± 0.51 22.55 (21.25–24.25) ± 0.62 6.15 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.40 Absent Absent
Ab 52.95 (50.25–56.25) ± 1.04 37.05 (35.25–38.75) ± 0.60 34.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.60 10.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.92 35.05 (32.75–37.25) ± 0.81 27.15 (25.75–28.75) ± 0.53 28.10 (27.75–29.0) ± 0.33 20.45 (16.25–24.75) ± 1.49 21.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.43 8.25 (6.25–11.25) ± 0.85 Absent Absent
Datura innoxia Ad 50.55 (48.75–52.75) ± 0.68 22.75 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.68 22.45 (20.25–24.75) ± 0.81 6.80 (5.25–8.0) ± 0.50 23.85 (20.25–26.25) ± 0.99 17.55 (15.25–19.75) ± 0.81 38.35 (28.75–44.75) ± 2.90 14.95 (12.25–17.75) ± 0.95 12.95 (12.25–13.75) ± 0.25 6.65 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.43 211.8 (191.25–248.75) ± 10.3 16.05 (13.75–18.75) ± 0.93
Ab 48.05 (45.25–50.25) ± 0.98 20.55 (18.75–22.75) ± 0.68 24.10 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.43 6.90 (6.25–7.75) ± 0.26 23.95 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.46 18.35 (17.25–19.75) ± 0.43 29.55 (28.75–30.25) ± 0.25 24.50 (22.25–26.25) ± 0.67 14.85 (13.75–15.75) ± 0.33 5.60 (4.75–6.25) ± 0.29 235.0 (228.75–243.75) ± 2.7 22.55 (20.25–25.25) ± 0.88
Duranta repens Ab 47.0 (44.50–48.75) ± 0.75 19.70 (18.75–20.75) ± 0.34 28.15 (27.25–28.75) ± 0.29 8.15 (7.25–8.75) ± 0.29 29.15 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.62 22.35 (21.25–23.75) ± 0.43 29.45 (28.0–30.50) ± 0.47 22.35 (21.25–23.75) ± 0.43 15.05 (14.25–16.25) ± 0.33 9.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.43 150.9 (143.75–158.75) ± 2.53 17.05 (14.75–18.75) ± 0.71
Ad 32.65 (24.75–40.25) ± 3.17 14.35 (13.75–15.25) ± 0.29 23.35 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.69 6.60 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.43 23.35 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.69 17.05 (16.25–17.75) ± 0.25 28.75 (26.25–31.25) ± 0.92 10.95 (8.75–12.75) ± 0.75 12.25 (11.25–12.75) ± 0.27 4.40 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.26 159.2 (154.0–162.75) ± 1.64 16.1 (14.0–18.25) ± 0.71
Euphorbia helioscopia Ad 99.50 (75.5–125.1) ± 9.02 36.50 (35.1–37.3) ± 0.61 27.5 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.50 19.50 (17.50–20.1) ± 0.50 16.50 (12.50–17.50) ± 1.0 2.75 (2.50–3.1) ± 0.14 27.5 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.50 7.9 (7.50–8.25) ± 0.36 41.1 (25.1–52.1) ± 4.8 16.50 (17.50–25.1) ± 1.0 895.2 (750.2–1100) ± 70 11.85 (10.1–13.1) ± 1.21
Ab 84.50 (75.1–87.50) ± 2.42 36.50 (35.1–40.3) ± 1.0 26.1 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.61 20.25 (18.75–22.50) ± 0.61 17.50 (15.1–20.3) ± 0.79 2.65 (2.50–3.1) ± 0.11 26.50 (25.1–27.50) ± 0.61 9.50 (7.50–10.1) ± 0.50 39.1 (35.1–50.1) ± 2.80 18.50 (17.50–20.1) ± 0.61 Absent Absent
Euphorbia pulcherrima Ad 35.30 (33.75–37.25) ± 0.66 20.05 (18.25–21.75) ± 0.68 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 249.9 (238.2–262.7) ± 4.1 19.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.60
Ab 34.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.60 19.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.60 23.95 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.46 8.05 (7.25–9.25) ± 0.40 24.55 (22.75–26.25) ± 0.60 14.05 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 33.86 (32.75–34.75) ± 0.33 24.55 (22.75–26.25) ± 0.60 16.25 (15.25–17.25) ± 0.35 3.50 (2.75–4.25) ± 0.27 166.5 (160.25–173.25) ± 2.6 14.75 (12.75–16.25) ± 0.68
Euphorbia royleana Ad 46.45 (43.75–52.25) ± 1.50 37.15 (33.75–39.75) ± 1.04 33.45 (30.75–36.25) ± 1.07 9.80 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.30 33.75 (31.25–36.25) ± 0.92 29.85 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.69 57.30 (53.75–61.25) ± 1.48 31.15 (26.25–39.75) ± 2.29 22.30 (20.25–25.25) ± 0.88 7.05 (5.25–8.75) ± 0.60 Absent Absent
Ab 41.85 (38.75–43.75) ± 0.88 30.80 (27.75–34.75) ± 1.23 32.05 (30.25–33.75) ± 0.60 10.15 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.43 31.95 (30.25–33.25) ± 0.53 26.45 (25.25–27.75) ± 0.46 50.95 (48.75–53.25) ± 0.86 24.90 (21.25–29.75) ± 1.40 22.95 (21.25–24.75) ± 0.60 7.85 (7.0–8.75) ± 0.34 Absent Absent
Ipomoea carnea Ad 29.25 (26.25–33.75) ± 1.31 25.45 (23.75–27.25) ± 0.60 24.15 (22.25–27.75) ± 1.01 10.45 (9.75–11.25) ± 0.25 26.15 (22.75–28.75) ± 1.04 21.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.43 23.45 (7.75–35.25) ± 5.96 9.50 (8.75–10.25) ± 0.27 19.55 (17.75–21.25) ± 0.60 10.05 (7.75–12.25) ± 0.81 39.55 (37.75–41.25) ± 0.60 12.95 (9.75–17.75) ± 1.43
Ab 30.95 (26.25–38.75) ± 2.11 14.65 (11.25–18.25) ± 1.13 14.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.36 6.75 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.35 14.15 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.36 10.70 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.14 23.40 (22.25–24.50) ± 0.40 9.70 (8.75–10.50) ± 0.32 8.95 (7.75–10.25) ± 0.40 4.35 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.29 168.3 (148.75–183.75) ± 6.0 11.25 (8.75–13.75) ± 0.92
Parthenium hysterophorus Ad 33.95 (26.25–41.25) ± 2.4 15.50 (13.75–18.75) ± 0.92 24.15 (23.25–25.25) ± 0.36 7.10 (6.25–8.0) ± 0.34 24.05 (22.75–25.25) ± 0.43 16.4 (15.25–17.75) ± 0.48 28.75 (24.50–32.75) ± 1.52 18.95 (15.75–23.75) ± 1.45 18.1 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.67 4.95 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.40 165.4 (153.7–173.2) ± 3.70 29.74 (28.13–32.64) ± 0.68
Ab 38.95 (36.50–43.75) ± 1.30 18.35 (16.25–21.25) ± 0.84 19.95 (18.25–21.25) ± 0.62 7.95 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.56 20.35 (18.25–22.25) ± 0.78 18.10 (16.5–19.75) ± 0.56 30.75 (27.75–37.25) ± 1.69 18.45 (16.25–20.25) ± 0.75 12.0 (7,75–15.25) ± 1.40 4.30 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.3 195.0 (175.2–211.2) ± 6.19 30.85 (29.25–33.75) ± 0.79
Peganum harmala Ad 90.75 (62.75–103.25) ± 7.41 29.35 (27.25–32.25) ± 0.87 23.95 (22.25–26.25) ± 0.70 11.35 (10.50–12.25) ± 0.34 25.10 (23.0–28.75) ± 0.99 23.75 (21.25–26.25) ± 0.85 23.55 (21.75–26.25) ± 0.84 23.45 (18.75–29.75) ± 1.9 15.35 (12.75–17.75) ± 0.94 10.4 (7.75–13.75) ± 1.1 Absent Absent
Ab 99.45 (95.25–103.7) ± 1.4 27.60 (22.25–37.75) ± 2.7 25.90 (22.75–29.75) ± 1.2 10.55 (8.75–12.75) ± 0.68 29.55 (27.75–31.25) ± 0.60 24.75 (22.25–27.25) ± 0.97 25.80 (22.25–30.25) ± 1.39 25.45 (18.75–29.75) ± 1.86 15.75 (12.75–17.25) ± 0.83 9.55 (7.75–12.25) ± 0.93 Absent Absent
Physalis angulata Ad 59.53 (52.0–75.50) ± 4.53 26.40 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.33 26.05 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.34 9.55 (8.25–10.75) ± 0.46 26.05 (25.25–27.25) ± 0.33 24.05 (22.75–25.75) ± 0.62 59.75 (51.50–76.0) ± 4.52 27.30 (25.75–30.25) ± 0.89 13.15 (12.75–13.75) ± 0.16 6.95 (5.25–8.25) ± 0.53 Absent Absent
Ab 43.90 (26.75–51.50) ± 4.81 26.0 (24.75–27.25) ± 0.44 25.45 (24.75–26.25) ± 0.24 3.75 (3.00–4.75) ± 0.28 25.70 (25.25–26.25) ± 0.16 26.0 (25.25–26.75) ± 0.27 37.45 (26.50–52.25) ± 4.97 24.85 (22.75–26.50) ± 0.70 23.0 (21.25–25.75) ± 0.80 7.15 (5.25–9.75) ± 0.93 Absent Absent
Ranunculus sceleratus Ad 54.15 (47.75–61.25) ± 2.34 41.0 (33.75–47.25) ± 2.53 34.25 (32.75–36.25 ± 0.65 9.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.40 34.05 (32.75–35.25) ± 0.43 24.85 (23.0–26.75) ± 0.71 50.20 (42.75–54.50) ± 2.1 32.40 (25.25–38.75) ± 2.40 21.30 (20.25–22.25) ± 0.3 7.50 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.41 Absent Absent
Ab 64.05 (60.25–67.25) ± 1.21 52.25 (50.25–54.75) ± 0.85 32.15 (28.75–34.75) ± 1.04 10.70 (8.50–12.75) ± 0.88 31.50 (27.75–34.75) ± 1.89 27.45 (25.25–29.75) ± 0.81 53.40 (47.75–59.0) ± 1.89 35.85 (27.75–42.75) ± 3.07 20.25 (18.75–21.25) ± 0.47 7.50 (5.25–9.76) ± 0.83 Absent Absent
Ricinus communis Ad 40.50 (38.75–42.25) ± 0.60 17.0 (13.75–20.25) ± 1.05 33.75 (31.25–38.75) ± 1.31 19.05 (17.25–21.0) ± 0.71 32.85 (31.25–34.25) ± 0.53 18.75 (16.25–21.0) ± 0.89 19.85 (16.25–23.75) ± 1.2 9.5 (8.0–12.25) ± 0.74 20.70 (18.75–23.0) ± 0.71 8.15 (6.75–10.25) ± 0.62 Absent Absent
Ab 35.15 (32.75–37.75) ± 0.88 18.05 (13.75–24.75) ± 1.83 27.40 (25.50–28.75) ± 0.65 7.55 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.46 26.6 (24.75–28.75) ± 0.75 15.05 (12.75–17.25) ± 0.81 29.15 (26.25–30.75) ± 0.79 11.85 (10.25–13.75) ± 0.69 13.65 (11.25–15.25) ± 0.69 6.60 (5.75–7.75) ± 0.38 Absent Absent
Sambucus nigra Ad 61.75 (58.75–63.75) ± 0.85 45.05 (38.75–49.75) ± 1.92 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent
Ab 63.75 (61.25–65.25) ± 0.68 35.65 (32.75–38.75) ± 1.10 42.95 (41.25–44.75) ± 0.60 11.45 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.46 46.95 (43.75–49.75) ± 1.15 34.55 (32.75–36.25) ± 0,64 49.55 (47.75–51.25) ± 0.60 23.75 (22.75–24.75) ± 0.35 26.65 (25.25–27.75) ± 0.43 13.75 (12.25–14.75) ± 0.41 118.25 (113.7–123.7) ± 1.9 24.85 (23.75–26.25) ± 0.43u
Solanum nigrum Ad 69.55 (67.75–71.25) ± 0.64 30.15 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.43 29.80 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.45 7.90 (6.25–9.50) ± 0.56 29.80 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.45 19.10 (17.75–20.25) ± 0.43 29.75 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.47 24.50 (23.75–25.25) ± 0.27 17.25 (16.25–18.25) ± 0.35 1.85 (1.25–2.75) ± 0.29 255.5 (226.2–288.7) ± 11.7 33.45 (31.25–35.25) ± 0.75
Ab 67.75 (64.75–71.75) ± 1.55 37.15 (35.75–38.75) ± 0.53 27.35 (26.25–28.75) ± 0.43 7.30 (6.25–8.75) ± 0.45 27.35 (26.25–28.75) ± 0.43 16.85 (16.25–17.75) ± 0.29 40.35 (38.75–42.75) ± 0.76 13.0 (11.50–14.75) ± 0.57 17.75 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.61 2.25 (1.25–2.75) ± 0.27 229.1 (138.7–275.2) ± 24.0 39.85 (33.75–48.75) ± 2.47
Solanum incanum Ad 66.75 (65.25–68.75) ± 0.65 12.25 (11.25–13.25) ± 0.35 21.65 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.43 8.0 (7.25–9.0) ± 0.37 21.55 (20.25–22.75) ± 0.43 14.25 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.44 28.15 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.62 14.45 (13.25–15.25) ± 0.40 14.05 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 7.05)6.25–7.75) ± 0.25 218.2 (210.25–225.25) ± 2.85 17.1 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.64
Ab 34.45 (32.75–36.25) ± 0.60 14.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 14.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 6.15 (5.25–7.25) ± 0.40 14.15 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 11.35 (10.25–12.75) ± 0.43 27.95 (26.25–29.75) ± 0.60 14.10 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.43 6.65 (5.25–7.75) ± 0.43 5.25 (4.25–6.25) ± 0.35 236.0 (224.75–247.75) ± 3.7 22.85 (21.25–25.25) ± 0.73
Sorghum halepense Ad 85.20 (64.75–100.2) ± 6.8 21.30 (18.75–24.75) ± 1.03 32.05 (29.75–34.75) ± 0.81 10.30 (8.75–11.75) ± 0.55 31.90 (30.25–33.0) ± 0.50 19.45 (17.75–20.75) ± 0.53 61.9 (52.75–67.75) ± 2.46 22.80 (2125–25.25) ± 0.69 13.85 (12.75–15.25) ± 0.50 3.40 (2.75–4.25) ± 0.26 Absent Absent
Ab 47.95 (46.25–49.75) ± 0.60 34.15 (32.75–35.25) ± 0.43 32.95 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.60 10.40 (8.0–12.25) ± 0.85 32.75 (31.25–34.75) ± 0.65 23.05 (21.75–24.75) ± 0.53 44.40 (42.75–46.25) ± 0.61 24.85 (23.75–26.50) ± 0.49 22.20 (21.25–23.0) ± 0.32 4.50 (3.75–5.25) ± 0.25 Absent Absent
Thevetia peruviana Ad 35.65 (33.75–37.75) ± 0.67 28.25 (25.25–31.25) ± 1.10 Absent Absent
Ab 45.70 (41.25–52.25) ± 2.1 29.10 (26.25–22.75) ± 1.3 25.85 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.79 4.85 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.43 25.60 (23.75–27.75) ± 0.69 15.45 (13.75–17.25) ± 0.60 43.0 (38.75–48.75) ± 1.64 22.50 (18.75–28.75) ± 1.79 12.85 (11.25–14.75) ± 0.64 7.70 (5.50–10.25) ± 0.85 Absent Absent
Trifolium repens Ad 30.35 (24.75–36.25) ± 1.90 21.25 (18.75–23.75) ± 0.92 17.95 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.60 5.20 (4.50–6.25) ± 0.30 17.95 (16.25–19.75) ± 0.60 12.30 (11.25–13.25) ± 0.33 34.70 (33.75–35.50) ± 0.32 17.15 (15.25–18.75) ± 0.62 9.85 (8.75–11.25) ± 0.43 3.60 (3.0–4.25) ± 0.21 Absent Absent
Ab 42.35 (41.25–43.75) ± 0.43 30.15 (28.75–31.25) ± 0.43 20.25 (17.75–23.75) ± 1.04 7.20 (6.25–8.0) ± 0.32 21.85 (17.75–24.75) ± 1.20 14.55 (13.75–15.25) ± 0.25 44.95 (43.75–46.25) ± 0.40 27.20 (25.75–29.0) ± 0.57 10.50 (8.75–12.25) ± 0.60 4.85 (3.75–6.25) ± 0.43 Absent Absent

Collector names, voucher numbers, altitude, locality and district of studied species.

S. No. Taxa Collector Voucher number Altitude (m) Locality District
1 Agave americana L. Aqsa Abid 131601 540 QAU Islamabad
2 Alocasia macrorrhizos (L.) G.Don Aqsa Abid 131602 508 Rawalpindi Punjab
3 Argemone mexicana L. Aqsa Abid 131603 540 QAU Islamabad
4 Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh Sabir Ahmed 131604 540 Capital territory Islamabad
5 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Aqsa Abid, Salman 131605 540 QAU colony Islamabad
6 Buxus pilosula Urb Aqsa Abid 131606 1064 Margalla hills Islamabad
7 Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Aqsa Abid 131607 508 Rawalpindi Punjab
8 Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss. Aqsa Abid 131608 980 Islamia college Peshawar KPK
9 Datura innoxia Mill. Aqsa Abid 131609 508 Rawalpindi Punjab
10 Duranta erecta L. Aqsa Abid 131610 540 Capital territory Islamabad
11 Euphorbia helioscopia L. Aqsa Abid 131611 508 Dhamial camp Punjab
12 Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch Aqsa Abid 131612 540 QAU girls hostel Islamabad
13 Euphorbia royleana Boiss Aqsa Abid 131613 540 QAU Islamabad
14 Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Aqsa Abid 131614 279 Chakri Rawalpimdi
15 Parthenium hysterophorus L. Aqsa Abid 131615 482 Dhamial camp Rawalpindi
16 Peganum harmala L. Aqsa Abid 131616 508 Rawalpindi Punjab
17 Physalis angulata L. Aqsa Abid 131617 540 QAU Islamabad
18 Ranunculus sceleratus L. Beenish 131618 165 Dera ismail khan Punjab
19 Ricinus communis L. Aqsa Abid 131619 482 Dhamial camp Islamabad
20 Sambucus nigra L. Aqsa Abid 131620 540 QAU Islamabad
21 Solanum nigrum L. Aqsa Abid 131621 1604 Margalla hills Islamabad
22 Solanum incanum L. Aqsa Abid 131622 279 Chakri Rawalpindi
23 Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Aqsa Abid 131623 500 Morgah Rawalpindi
24 Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K.Schum. Aqsa Abid 131624 540 Capital territory Islamabad
25 Trifolium repens L. Bushra Ali 131625 2601 Khaplu Gilgit Baltistan

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