The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of day and night meteorological parameters (air temperatures and dew points, relative humidity, wind speed and precipitation) on the radial growth of pine latewood in northern taiga, in typical conditions of its growth. The study was conducted in the north of the Arkhangelsk region (Russia). A total of 63 cores were selected from seven most representative sites. Meteorological parameters were obtained from the WMR 918 H digital weather station (Huger GmbH, Germany), located directly on the study area and operating in monitoring mode. The analysis used meteorological data for the period 2008–2015. Correlation with night and day air temperature in June and July (0.72–0.77) was revealed in blueberry type. In all the stands studied, a reliable correlation with wind speed was established, direct (0.77–0.88) and inverse (−0.7 to −0.99), but each sample plot had an individual dependence. A reliable correlation with the humidity of August and September (0.64–0.87) and an inverse correlation with precipitation in May and August (−0.63 to −0.75) were established. In general, pine in blueberry, cowberry and pine on swamp types have a similar reaction to the variability of meteorological factors, the most important of which is the temperature regime of air and wind speed.