1. bookVolume 10 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)
Journal Details
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Motivation Crowding and Participation in Agri-Environmental Schemes – The Case of the Austrian Öpul-Programme in Vineyards

Published Online: 16 Oct 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 10 (2018) - Issue 3 (September 2018)
Page range: 355 - 376
Received: 17 Aug 2017
Accepted: 26 Jun 2018
Journal Details
First Published
24 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

[1] Bauer, K., Regner, F. & Schildberger, B. (2013). Weinbau. 3rd ed., Wien: Cadmos Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Baur, I., Dobricki, M. & Lips, M. (2016). The basic motivational drivers of northern and central European farmers. Journal of Rural Studies 46, 93–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[3] Bazzoffi, P., Abbattista, F., Vanino, S. & Pellegrini, S. (2006). Impact of land levelling for vineyard plantation on soil degradation in Italy. BollettinoSocieta Geologica Italiana 6, 191–199.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Beharry-Borg N., Smart, J. C. R., Termansen, M. & Hubacek, K. (2013). Evaluating farmers’ likely participation in a payment programme for water quality protection in the UK uplands. Regional Environmental Change 13(3), 633–647. DOI: 10.1007/s10113-012-0282-9.10.1007/s10113-012-0282-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[5] Bonada, M. & Sadras, V. O. (2015). Review: Critical appraisal of methods to investigate the effect of temperature on grapevine berry composition. Australian Journal for Grape and Wine Research 21(1), 1–17. DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12102.10.1111/ajgw.12102Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[6] Bowles, S. & Polanía-Reyes, S. (2012). Economic incentives and social preferences: Substitutes or complements? Journal of Economic Literature 50(2), 368–425. DOI: 10.1257/jel.50.2.368.10.1257/jel.50.2.368Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[7] Braito, M. T., Böck, K., Flint, C., Muhar, A., Muhar, S. & Penker, M. (2017). Human-Nature Relationships and Linkages to Environmental Behaviour. Environmental Values 26(3), 365– 389. DOI: 10.3197/096327117X14913285800706.10.3197/096327117X14913285800706Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[8] Bruggisser, O. T., Schmidt-Entling, M. H. & Bacher, S. (2010). Effects of vineyard management on biodiversity at three trophic levels. Biological Conservation 143(6), 1521– 1528. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010. in Google Scholar

[9] Chan, K. M. A., Anderson, E., Chapman, M., Jespersen, K. & Olmsted, P. (2017). Payments for ecosystem services: Rife with problems and potential – for transformation towards sustainability. Ecological Economics 140, 110–122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[10] Coulouma, G., Boizard, H., Trotoux, G., Lagacherie, P. & Richard, G. (2006). Effect of deep tillage for vineyard establishment on soil structure: A case study in Southern France. Soil and Tillage Research 88(1–2), 132–143. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2005. in Google Scholar

[11] Daube, M. & Ulph, D. (2016). Moral behaviour, altruism and environmental policy. Environmental and Resource Economics 63(2), 505–522. DOI: 10.1007/s10640-014-9836-2.10.1007/s10640-014-9836-2Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[12] Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 18(1), 105–115. DOI: 10.1037/h0030644.10.1037/h0030644Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[13] Deci, E. L., Koestner, R. & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin 125(6), 627–668. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.627.10.1037/0033-2909.125.6.62710589297Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[14] Engel, S. & Muller, A. (2016). Payments for environmental services to promote “climate-smart agriculture”? Potential and challenges. Agricultural Economics 47(1), 173– 184. DOI: 10.1111/agec.12307.10.1111/agec.12307Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[15] Engel, S. (2016). The Devil in the detail: A practical guide on designing payments for environmental services. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics 9(1–2), 131–177. DOI: 10.1561/101.00000076.10.1561/101.00000076Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[16] Evans, L., Maio, G. R., Corner, A., Hodgetts, C. J., Ahmed, S. & Hahn, U. (2012). Self-interest and pro-environmental behaviour. Nature Climate Change 3, 122–125. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1662.10.1038/nclimate1662Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[17] Ezzine-de-Blas, D., Esteve, C. & Laperye, R. (2015). Crowding-in or crowding-out? A conceptual framework to understand motivations in payments for ecosystem services. In Resource Politics: Transforming Pathways to Sustainability [Conference paper]. Brighton: University of Sussex.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Feigl, E. & Peyerl, H. (2011). Die Sicherung der Traubenlieferung an die Winzergenossenschaft „Domäne Wachau”. In Diversifizierung versus Spezialisierung in der Agrar- und Ernährungswirtschaft (pp. 73–74). Bozen: Europäischen Akademie Bozen.Search in Google Scholar

[19] Ferguson, M. J. & Bargh, J. A. (2004). Liking is for doing: The effects of goal pursuit on automatic evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 87(5), 557–572. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.557.10.1037/0022-3514.87.5.55715535771Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[20] Fisher, J. (2012). No pay, no care? A case study exploring motivations for participation in payments for ecosystem services in Uganda. Oryx 46(1), 45–54. DOI: 10.1017/S0030605311001384.10.1017/S0030605311001384Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[21] Fraser, N. & Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or Recognition? A Political-Philosophical Exchange. London, New York: Verso.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Frey, B. S. (1992). Pricing and regulating affect environmental ethics. Environmental and Resource Economics 2(4), 399–414. DOI: 10.1007/BF00304969.10.1007/BF00304969Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[23] Gaigher, R. & Samways, M. J. (2014). Landscape mosaic attributes for maintaining ground-living spider diversity in a biodiversity hotspot. Insect Conservation and Diversity 7(5), 470–479. DOI: 10.1111/icad.12070.10.1111/icad.12070Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[24] Gaupp-Berghausen, M., Hofer, M., Rewald, B. & Zaller, J. G. (2015). Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports 5, 12886. DOI: 10.1038/srep12886.10.1038/srep12886454266126243044Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[25] Gneezy, U., Meier, S. & Rey-Biel, P. (2011). When and why incentives (don’t) work to modify behavior. Journal of Economic Perspectives 25(4), 191–210. DOI: 10.1257/jep. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[26] Gneezy, U. & Rustichini, A. (2000). Pay enough or don't pay at all. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115(3), 791–810.10.1162/003355300554917Search in Google Scholar

[27] Goodin, R. E. (1994). Selling environmental indulgences. Kyklos 47(4), 573–596. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6435.1994.tb02067.x.10.1111/j.1467-6435.1994.tb02067.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[28] Guerrero, A. M., McAllister, R. R. J., Corcoran, J. & Wilson, K. A. (2013). Scale mismatches, conservation planning, and the value of social-network analyses. Conservation Biology 27(1), 35–44. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01964.x.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01964.x23305381Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[29] Guidoni, S., Gangemi, L. & Mania, E. (2012). Slope viticulture risk factors impacting on the environment equilibrium. The case of north-west Italy. In Bois, B., ed., Acta IX International Terroir Congress (pp. 6–39). DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2718.0162. Paris: International Organization of Vine and Wine.Search in Google Scholar

[30] Honneth, A. (1992). Kampf um Anerkennung: Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte. Berlin: Suhrkamp.Search in Google Scholar

[31] Ingram, J., Gaskell, P., Mills, J. & Short, C. J. (2013). Incorporating agri-environment schemes into farm development pathways: A temporal analysis of farmer motivations. Land Use Policy 31, 267–279. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2012. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[32] Kehinde, T. & Samways, M. J. (2014). Effects of vineyard management on biotic homogenization of insect-flower interaction networks in the Cape Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Insect Conservation, 18(3), 469–477. DOI: 10.1007/s10841-014-9659-z.10.1007/s10841-014-9659-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[33] Kerschhofer, K. (2013). Akzeptanz von Naturschutzmaßnahmen in der Landwirtschaft: am Beispiel der Erhaltung von Streuobstbeständen im Bezirk Hartberg in der Oststeiermark [Master thesis]. Wien: University of Natural Resources and Life Scienes, Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Kieninger, P. & Winter, S. (2014). Phytodiversität im Weinbau – naturschutzfachliche Analyse von Bewirtschaftungsmaßnahmen und Weiterentwicklung von ÖPUL-Maßnahmen [Research report]. Wien: Ministerium für ein lebenswertes Österreich.Search in Google Scholar

[35] Kieninger, P. R., Yamaji, E. & Penker, M. (2011). Urban people as paddy farmers: The Japanese Tanada Ownership System discussed from a European perspective. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 26(4), 328–341. DOI: 10.1017/S1742170511000123.10.1017/S1742170511000123Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[36] Lieskovský, J. & Kenderessy, P. (2014). Modelling the effect of vegetation cover and different tillage practices on soil erosion in vineyards: A case study in Vráble (Slovakia) using WATEM/SEDEM. Land Degradation & Development 25(3), 288–296. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2162.10.1002/ldr.2162Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[37] Linder, S. (2016). Fostering strategic renewal: monetary incentives, merit-based promotions, and engagement in autonomous strategic action. Journal of Management Control 27(2–3), 251–280. DOI: 10.1007/s00187-015-0227-9.10.1007/s00187-015-0227-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[38] Lokhorst, A. M., Staats, H., van Dijk, J., van Dijk, E. & de Snoo, G. (2011). What’s in it for me? Motivational differences between farmers’ subsidised and non-subsidised conservation practices. Applied Psychology 60(3): 337–353. DOI: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2011.00438.x.10.1111/j.1464-0597.2011.00438.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[39] Longbottom, M. L. & Petrie, P. R. (2015). Role of vineyard practices in generating and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21(S1), 522–536. DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12197.10.1111/ajgw.12197Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[40] Louchart, X., Volz, M., Andrieux, P. & Moussa, R. (2001). Herbicide transport to surface waters at field and watershed scales in a Mediterranean vineyard area. Journal of Environmental Quality 30(3), 982–991.10.2134/jeq2001.303982x11401289Search in Google Scholar

[41] Ma, S., Swinton, S. M., Lupi, F. & Jolejole-Foreman, C. (2012). Farmers’ willingness to participate in payment-for-environmental-services programmes. Journal of Agricultural Economics 63(3), 604–626. DOI: 10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00358.x.10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00358.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[42] Marques, M. J., Bienes, R., Cuadrado, J., Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Barbero-Sierra, C. & Velasco, A. (2015). Analysing perceptions attitudes and responses of winegrowers about sustainable land management in Central Spain. Land Degradation & Development 26(5), 458–467. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2355.10.1002/ldr.2355Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[43] McKenzie, A. J., Emery, S. B., Franks, J. R. & Whittingham, M. J. (2013). Landscape-scale conservation: collaborative agri-environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate? Journal of Applied Ecology 50(5), 1274–1280. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12122.10.1111/1365-2664.12122Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[44] Montanarella, L. (2005). Emerging issues in soil and water management for vineyards and olive-tree orchards. In Benites, J., Pisante, M. & Stagnari, F., eds., Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development: Role and Importance (pp. 3–11). Rome: FAO.Search in Google Scholar

[45] Montanaro, G., Xiloyannis, C., Nuzzo, V. & Dichio, B. (2017). Orchard management, soil organic carbon and ecosystem services in Mediterranean fruit tree crops. Scientia Horticulturae 217, 92–101. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2017. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[46] Muradian, R., Arsel, M., Pellegrini, L., Adaman, F., Aguilar, B., Agarwal, B., Corbera, E., Ezzine de Blas, D., Farley, J., Froger, G., Garcia-Frapolli, E., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Gowdy, J., Kosoy, N., Le Coq, J. F., Leroy, P., May, P., Méral, P., Mibielli, P., Norgaard, R., Ozkaynak, B., Pascual, U., Pengue, W., Perez, M., Pesche, D., Pirard, R., Ramos-Martin, J., Rival, L., Saenz, F., Van Hecken, G., Vatn, A., Vira, B. & Urama, K. (2013). Payments for ecosystem services and the fatal attraction of win-win solutions. Conservation Letters 6(4), 274–279. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.x.10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00309.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[47] Nascimbene, J., Marini, L. & Paoletti, M. G. (2012). Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes. Environmental Management 49(5), 1054–1060. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9834-5.10.1007/s00267-012-9834-522411057Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[48] Novara, A., Gristina, L., Guaitoli, F., Santoro, A. & Cerdà, A. (2013). Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards. Solid Earth 4(2), 255–262. DOI: 10.5194/se-4-255-2013.10.5194/se-4-255-2013Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[49] Novara, A., Gristina, L., Saladino, S. S., Santoro, A. & Cerdà, A. (2011). Soil erosion assessment on tillage and alternative soil managements in a Sicilian vineyard. Soil and Tillage Research 117, 140–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2011. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[50] Orderud, G. I. & Vogt, R. D. (2016). Environmental values and attitudes among farmers in China – a case study in the watershed of Yuqiao reservoir of Tianjin Municipality, China. International Journal of Environmental Studies 73(6), 917–938. DOI: 10.1080/00207233.2016.1220699.10.1080/00207233.2016.1220699506205327812223Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[51] Prosdocimi, M., Cerdà, A. & Tarolli, P. (2016). Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards: A review. Catena 141, 1–21. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[52] Renaud-Gentié, C., Dijkman, T. J., Bjørn, A. & Birkved, M. (2014). Modeling pesticides emissions for Grapevine Life Cycle Assessment: adaptation of Pest-LCI model to viticulture. In Schenck, R. & Huizenga, D., eds., Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector (pp. 1075–1085). Vashon, WA: ACLCA.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Rico García-Amado, L., Ruiz Pérez, M. & Barrasa García, S. (2013). Motivation for conservation: Assessing integrated conservation and development projects and payments for environmental services in La Sepultura Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. Ecological Economics 89, 92–100. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2013. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[54] Rode, J., Gómez-Baggethun, E. & Krause, T. (2015). Motivation crowding by economic incentives in conservation policy: A review of the empirical evidence. Ecological Economics 117, 270–282. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[55] Ruíz-Colmenero, M., Bienes, R. & Marqués, M. J. (2011). Soil and water conservation dilemmas associated with the use of green cover in steep vineyards. Soil & Tillage Research 117, 211–223. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2011. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[56] Ruto, R. & Garrod, G. (2009). Investigating farmers' preferences for the design of agri-environment schemes: a choice experiment approach. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52(5), 631–647. DOI: 10.1080/09640560902958172.10.1080/09640560902958172Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[57] Sanguankeo, P. P. & León, R. G. (2011). Weed management practices determine plant and arthropod diversity and seed predation in vineyards. Weed Research 51(4), 404–412. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00853.x.10.1111/j.1365-3180.2011.00853.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

[58] Schildberger, B., Hanak, K. & Regner, F. (2007). Untersuchung von Herbizidschäden im österreichischen Weinbau. Gesunde Pflanzen 59(1), 23–28. DOI: 10.1007/s10343-007-0142-6.10.1007/s10343-007-0142-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[59] Sharley, D. J., Hoffmann, A. A. & Thomson, L. J. (2008). The effects of soil tillage on beneficial invertebrates within the vineyard. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 10, 233– 243. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-9563.2008.00376.x.10.1111/j.1461-9563.2008.00376.xSearch in Google Scholar

[60] Soja, G., Zehetner, F., Rampazzo-Todorovic, G., Schildberger, B., Hackl, K., Hofmann, R., Burger, E. & Omann, I. (2010). Wine production under climate change conditions: mitigation and adaptation options from the vineyard to the sales booth. In Darnhofer, I. & Grötzer, M., eds., Building sustainable rural futures (pp. 1368–1378). Wien: Universität für Bodenkultur.Search in Google Scholar

[61] Sommerville, M., Milner-Gulland, E. J., Rahajaharison, M. & Jones, J. P. (2010). Impact of a community-based payment for environmental services intervention on forest use in Menabe, Madagascar. Conservation Biolology 24(6), 1488–1498. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01526.x.10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01526.x20507351Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[62] Steg, L. & De Groot, J. (2010). Explaining prosocial intentions: Testing causal relationships in the norm activation model. British Journal of Social Psychology 49(4), 725–743. DOI: 10.1348/014466609X477745.10.1348/014466609X47774520021707Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[63] Steg, L., Bolderdijk, J. W., Keizer, K. & Perlaviciute, G. (2014). An integrated framework for encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: The role of values, situational factors and goals. Journal of Environmental Psychology 38, 104–115. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[64] Van Dijk, W. F. A., Lokhorst, A. M., Berendse, F. & de Snoo, G. R. (2016). Factors underlying farmers’ intentions to perform unsubsidised agri-environmental measures. Land Use Policy 59, 207–216. DOI: 10.1016/j.landusepol.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[65] Van Hecken, G. & J. Bastiaensen (2010). Payments for ecosystem services: Justified or not? A political view. Environmental Science & Policy 13(8), 785–792. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2010. in Google Scholar

[66] Van Hecken, G., Merlet, P., Lindtner, M. & Bastiaensen, J. (2017). Can financial incentives change farmers’ motivations? An agrarian system approach to development pathways at the Nicaraguan agricultural frontier. Ecological Economics, in press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2016. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[67] Vatn, A. (2010). An institutional analysis of payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics 69, 1245–1252. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2009. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[68] Viers, J. H., Williams, J. N., Nicholas, K. A., Barbosa, O., Kotzé, I., Spence, L., Webb, L. B., Merenlender, A. & Reynolds, M. (2013). Vinecology: pairing wine with nature. Conservation Letters 6(5), 287–299. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12011.10.1111/conl.12011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[69] Vršič, S., Ivancic, A., Pulko, B. & Valdhuber, J. (2011). Effect of soil management systems on erosion and nutrition loss in vineyard. Journal of Environmental Biology 32(3), 289–294.Search in Google Scholar

[70] Wegner, G. I. (2016). Payments for ecosystem services (PES): a flexible, participatory, and integrated approach for improved conservation and equity outcomes. Environment, Development and Sustainability 18(3), 617–644. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-015-9673-7.10.1007/s10668-015-9673-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[71] Wunder, S. (2013). When payments for environmental services will work for conservation. Conservation Letters 6(4), 230–237. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12034.10.1111/conl.12034Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[72] Wunder, S. (2015). Revisiting the concept of payments for environmental services. Ecological Economics 117, 234–243. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2014. DOISearch in Google Scholar

[73] Ying, G. G. & Williams, B. (1999). Herbicide residues in grapes and wine. Journal of Environmental Science & Health, Part B 34(3), 397–411. DOI:10.1080/03601239909373205.10.1080/0360123990937320510227191Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[74] Zaller, J. G., Heigl, F., Ruess, L. & Grabmaier, A. (2014). Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem. Scientific Reports 4, 5634. DOI: 10.1038/srep05634.10.1038/srep05634408791725005713Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[75] Zehetner, F., Djukic, I., Hofmann, R., Kühnen, L., Rampazzo-Todorovic, G., Gerzabek, M. H. & Soja, G. (2015). Soil organic carbon and microbial communities respond to vineyard management. Soil Use and Management 31(4), 528–533. DOI: 10.1111/sum.12204.10.1111/sum.12204Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

[76] AK (Arbeitskreis Wachau – Work Group Wachau) (2007). Unpublished internal documents.Search in Google Scholar

[77] BMLFUW (Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management) (2013). Sonderrichtlinie des BMLFUW für das Österreichische Programm zur Förderung einer umweltgerechten, extensiven und den natürlichen Lebensraum schützenden Landwirtschaft (Ö P U L 2007); GZ BMLFUW-LE.1.1.8/0072-II/8/2013.Search in Google Scholar

[78] BMLFUW (Federal Ministry for Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management) (2016). ÖPUL 2015 – das Agrar-Umweltprogramm bis 2020. https://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/land/laendl_entwicklung/oepul/oepul2015.html. Last viewed on August 06, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[79] CSWA (California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance) (s.a.). Sustainable Winegrowing Program. http://www.sustainablewinegrowing.org/sustainable_winegrowing_program.php. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[80] Environment Agency Austria (Umweltbundesamt) (s.a.), How Vulnerable is Austria?http://www.klimawandelanpassung.at/ms/klimawandelanpassung/en/kwa_en/kwa_en_vuln/. Last viewed on August 21, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[81] European Commission (s.a.). Agriculture and Rural Development. Agriculture and Environment. Agri-environment measures. https://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/envir/measures_en. Last viewed on August 06, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[82] Forum per la Sostenibilità del Vino (2014). First Report on Sustainable Winegrowing. http://www.vinosostenibile.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/First-Report-Wine-Sustainability-Ocotber-2014.pdf. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[83] Forum per la Sostenibilità del Vino (s.a.). Promoting wine sustainability. http://www.vinosostenibile.org/?lang=en. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[84] NZWINE (New Zealand Wine) (s.a). Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand. http://www.nzwine.com/sustainability/sustainable-winegrowing-new-zealand/. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[85] OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2016). Innovation, Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability in the United States. OECD Foods an Agricultural Reviews. Paris: OECD Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

[86] ÖWM (Österreich Wein Marketing GmbH) (s.a.a). WachauSteile Terrassen, edle Rebsorten, monumentale Weine. http://www.oesterreichwein.at/unser-wein/weinbaugebiete/niederoesterreich/wachau/. Last viewed on May 11, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[87] ÖWM (Österreich Wein Marketing GmbH) (s.a.b). Weingüter mit Betriebsstandort Wagram.http://www.oesterreichwein.at/unser-wein/weinbaugebiete/niederoesterreich/wagram/weingueter-mit-betriebsstandort-wagram/. Last viewed on May 10, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[88] R Development Core Team (2008). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.Search in Google Scholar

[89] RH (Rechnungshof Österreich – Austrian Court of Audit) (2013). Bericht des Rechnungshofes – Agrarumweltprogramm ÖPUL 2007 Bund. Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[90] RH (Rechnungshof Österreich – Austrian Court of Audit) (2016). Bericht des Rechnungshofes – Agrarumweltprogramm ÖPUL 2007; Follow–up–Überprüfung. Vienna.Search in Google Scholar

[91] Riegler, M. & Hinterberger, F. (2010). Monatsthema 09/10: Weinbau im (Klima-)Wandel. https://www.nachhaltigkeit.at/thema/archiv-thema-des-monats/archiv-2010/monatsthema-0910-weinbau-im-klima-wandel. Last viewed on August 23, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD