1. bookVolume 53 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Pheochromocytoma

Published Online: 24 Aug 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 53 (2019) - Issue 3 (July 2019)
Page range: 191 - 212
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors originating in the adrenal medulla. They may be sporadic or in the context of a hereditary syndrome. A considerable number of pheochromocytomas carry germline or somatic gene mutations, which are inherited in the autosomal dominant way. All patients should undergo genetic testing. Symptoms are due to catecholamines over production or to a mass effect. Diagnosis is confirmed by raised plasma or urine metanephrines or normetanephrines. Radiology assists in the tumor location and any local invasion or metastasis. All the patients should have preoperative preparation with α-blockers and/or other medications to control hypertension, arrhythmia, and volume expansion. Surgery is the definitive treatment. Follow up should be life-long.

Keywords

Adler JT, Meyer-Rochow GY, Chen H, Benn DE, Robinson BG, Sippel RS, Sidhu SB. Pheochromocytoma: current approaches and future directions. Oncologist 13, 779–793, 2008.10.1634/theoncologist.2008-004318617683Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ahlawat SK, Jain S, Kumari S, Varma S, Sharma BK. Pheochromocytoma associated with pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 54, 728–737, 1999.10.1097/00006254-199911000-0002510546277Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Amar L, Baudin E, Burnichon N, Peyrard S, Silvera S, Bertherat J, Bertagna X, Schlumberger M, Jeunemaitre X, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Plouin PF. Succinate dehydrogenase B gene mutations predict survival in patients with malignant pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 3822–3828, 2007.10.1210/jc.2007-07091765221217652212Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Amar L, Fassnacht M, Gimenez-Roqueplo A, Januszewicz A, Prejbisz A, Timmers H, Plouin PF. Long-term postoperative follow-up in patients with apparently benign pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Horm Metab Res 44, 385–389, 2012.2235147810.1055/s-0031-130133922351478Search in Google Scholar

Andrade MO, Cunha VSD, Oliveira DC, Moraes OL, Lofrano-Porto A. What determines mortality in malignant pheochromocytoma? - Report of a case with eighteen-year survival and review of the literature. Arch Endocrinol Metab 62, 264–269, 2018.10.20945/2359-399700000003329768630Search in Google Scholar

Arnaldi G, Boscaro M. Adrenal incidentaloma. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 26, 405–419, 2012.10.1016/j.beem.2011.12.00622863384Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Baguet JP, Hammer L, Mazzuco TL, Chabre O, Mallion JM, Sturm N, Chaffanjon P. Circumstances of discovery of phaeochromocytoma: a retrospective study of 41 consecutive patients. Eur J Endocrinol 150, 681–686, 2004.10.1530/eje.0.150068115132724Search in Google Scholar

Baudin E. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocrine Abstracts 32, S14.3, 2013.10.1530/endoabs.32.S14.3Search in Google Scholar

Bausch B, Wellner U, Bausch D, Schiavi F, Barontini M, Sanso G, Walz MK, Peczkowska M, Weryha G, Dall’igna P, Cecchetto G, Bisogno G, Moeller LC, Bockenhauer D, Patocs A, Racz K, Zabolotnyi D, Yaremchuk S, Dzivite-Krisane I, Castinetti F, Taieb D, Malinoc A, von Dobschuetz E, Roessler J, Schmid KW, Opocher G, Eng C, Neumann HP. Long-term prognosis of patients with pediatric pheochromocytoma. Endocr Relat Cancer 21, 17–25, 2013.10.1530/ERC-13-041524169644Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bausch B, Tischler AS, Schmid KW, Leijon H, Eng C, Neumann HPH. Max Schottelius: pioneer in pheochromocytoma. J Endocr Soc 1, 957–964, 2017.10.1210/js.2017-00208568915029264546Search in Google Scholar

Bayley JP, Kunst HP, Cascon A, Sampietro ML, Gaal J, Korpershoek E, Hinojar-Gutierrez A, Timmers HJ, Hoefsloot LH, Hermsen MA, Suarez C, Hussain AK, Vriends AH, Hes FJ, Jansen JC, Tops CM, Corssmit EP, de Knijff P, Lenders JW, Cremers CW, Devilee P, Dinjens WN, de Krijger RR, Robledo M. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma. Lancet Oncol 11, 366–372, 2010.10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70007-3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bednarczuk T, Bolanowski M, Sworczak K, Gornicka B, Cieszanowski A, Otto M, Ambroziak U, Pachucki J, Kubicka E, Babinska A, Koperski L, Januszewicz A, Prejbisz A, Gorska M, Jarząb B, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A, Glinicki P, Ruchała M, Kasperlik-Zaluska A. Adrenal incidentaloma in adults - management recommendations by the Polish Society of Endocrinology. Endokrynol Pol 67, 234–258, 2016.10.5603/EP.a2016.003927082051Search in Google Scholar

Bessell-Browne R, O’Malley ME. CT of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: risk of adverse events with i.v. administration of nonionic contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol 188, 970–974, 2007.10.2214/AJR.06.082717377032Search in Google Scholar

Bholah R, Bunchman TE. Review of pediatric pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Front Pediatr 5, 155, 2017.10.3389/fped.2017.00155550801528752085Search in Google Scholar

Biggar MA, Lennard TW. Systematic review of phaeochromocytoma in pregnancy. Br J Surg 100, 182–190, 2013.10.1002/bjs.897623180595Search in Google Scholar

Bjorklund P, Pacak K, Crona J. Precision medicine in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current and future concepts. J Intern Med 280, 559–573, 2016.10.1111/joim.12507744182527165774Search in Google Scholar

Blake MA, Krishnamoorthy SK, Boland GW, Sweeney AT, Pitman MB, Harisinghani M, Mueller PR, Hahn PF. Low-density pheochromocytoma on CT: a mimicker of adrenal adenoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 181, 1663–1668, 2003.10.2214/ajr.181.6.181166314627592Search in Google Scholar

PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. 2018 Feb 8. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK65873/.Search in Google Scholar

Bowerman RA, Silver TM, Jaffe MH, Stuck KJ, Hinerman DL. Sonography of adrenal pheochromocytomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol 137, 1227–1231, 1981.10.2214/ajr.137.6.12276976097Search in Google Scholar

Bozin M, Lamb A, Putra LJ. Pheochromocytoma with negative metanephrines: A rarity and the significance of dopamine secreting tumors. Urol Case Rep 12, 51–53, 2017.10.1016/j.eucr.2017.02.002536213628337414Search in Google Scholar

Briere JJ, Favier J, Benit P, El Ghouzzi V, Lorenzato A, Rabier D, Di Renzo MF, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Rustin P. Mitochondrial succinate is instrumental for HIF1a nuclear translocation in SDHA-mutant fibroblasts under normoxic conditions. Hum Mol Genet 14, 3263–3269, 2005.10.1093/hmg/ddi35916195397Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Brito JP, Asi N, Gionfriddo MR, Norman C, Leppin AL, Zeballos-Palacios C, Undavalli C, Wang Z, Domecq JP, Prustsky G, Elraiyah TA, Prokop LJ, Montori VM, Murad MH. The incremental benefit of functional imaging in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: a systematic review. Endocrine 50, 176–186, 2015.10.1007/s12020-015-0544-725663601Search in Google Scholar

Brunaud L, Boutami M, Nguyen-Thi PL, Finnerty B, Germain A, Weryha G, Fahey TJ 3rd, Mirallie E, Bresler L, Zarnegar R. Both preoperative alpha and calcium channel blockade impact intraoperative hemodynamic stability similarly in the management of pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156, 1410–1418, 2014.10.1016/j.surg.2014.08.02225456922Search in Google Scholar

Brunt LM, Doherty GM, Norton JA, Soper NJ, Quasebarth MA, Moley JF. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy compared to open adrenalectomy for benign adrenal neoplasms. J Am Coll Surg 183, 1–10, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Bruynzeel H, Feelders RA, Groenland TH, van den Meiracker AH, van Eijck CH, Lange JF, de Herder WW, Kazemier G. Risk Ffactors for hemodynamic instability during surgery for pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 678–685, 2010.10.1210/jc.2009-105119965926Search in Google Scholar

Bryant J, Farmer J, Kessler LJ, Townsend RR, Nathanson KL. Pheochromocytoma: the expanding genetic differential diagnosis. J Natl Cancer Inst 95, 1196–1204, 2003.10.1093/jnci/djg02412928344Search in Google Scholar

Burgess GE 3rd. Alpha blockade and surgical intervention of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 53, 266–270, 1979.Search in Google Scholar

Burnichon N, Abermil N, Buffet A, Favier J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. The genetics of paragangliomas. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 129, 315–318, 2012.10.1016/j.anorl.2012.04.00723078982Search in Google Scholar

Burnichon N, Buffet A, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: molecular testing and personalized medicine. Curr Opin Oncol 28, 5–10, 2016.10.1097/CCO.000000000000024926599293Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Castinetti F. Outcome of adrenal sparing surgery in heritable pheochromocytoma: the example of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Endocrine Abstracts 37, S12.3, 2015.10.1530/endoabs.37.S12.3Search in Google Scholar

Castro-Vega LJ, Buffet A, De Cubas AA, Cascon A, Menara M, Khalifa E, Amar L, Azriel S, Bourdeau I, Chabre O, Curras-Freixes M, Franco-Vidal V, Guillaud-Bataille M, Simian C, Morin A, Leton R, Gomez-Grana A, Pollard PJ, Rustin P, Robledo M, Favier J, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Germline mutations in FH confer predisposition to malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Hum Mol Genet 23, 2440–2446, 2014.10.1093/hmg/ddt63924334767Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chang A, Glazer HS, Lee JK, Ling D, Heiken JP. Adrenal gland: MR imaging. Radiology 163, 123–128, 1987.10.1148/radiology.163.1.38234233823423Search in Google Scholar

Cheah WK, Clark OH, Horn JK, Siperstein AE, Duh Q. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. World J Surg 26, 1048–1051, 2002.10.1007/s00268-002-6669-x12045856Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chen H, Sippel RS, O’Dorisio MS, Vinik AI, Lloyd RV, Pacak K; North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (NANETS). The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, and medullary thyroid cancer. Pancreas 39, 775–783, 2010.10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181ebb4f0341900720664475Search in Google Scholar

Chen Y, Hodin RA, Pandolfi C, Ruan DT, McKenzie TJ. Hypoglycemia after resection of pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156, 1404–1409, 2014.10.1016/j.surg.2014.08.02025456920Search in Google Scholar

Cho YY, Suh S, Joung JY, Jeong H, Je D, Yoo H, Park TK, Min YK, Kim KW, Kim JH. Clinical characteristics and follow-up of Korean patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Korean J Intern Med 28, 557–564, 2013.10.3904/kjim.2013.28.5.55724009451375976124009451Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Choi EK, Kim WH, Park KY. A case of a composite adrenal medullary tumor of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma masquerading as acute pancreatitis. Korean J Intern Med 21, 141–145, 2006.1691344710.3904/kjim.2006.21.2.141389073916913447Search in Google Scholar

Chrisoulidou A, Kaltsas G, Ilias I, Grossman AB. The diagnosis and management of malignant phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer 14, 569–585, 2007.10.1677/ERC-07-007417914089Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Comstock JM, Willmore-Payne C, Holden JA, Coffin CM. Composite pheochromocytoma: a clinicopathologic and molecular comparison with ordinary pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Am J Clin Pathol 132, 69–73, 2009.10.1309/AJCPN76VTIGWPOAG19864235Search in Google Scholar

Crona J, Delgado Verdugo A, Maharjan R, Stålberg P, Granberg D, Hellman P, Bjorklund P. Somatic mutations in HRAS in sporadic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma identified by exome sequencing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, E1266–E1271, 2013.10.1210/jc.2012-425723640968Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Crona J, Taieb D, Pacak K. New perspectives on pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: toward a molecular classification. Endocr Rev 38, 489–515, 2017.10.1210/er.2017-00062571682928938417Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dahia PL. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma pathogenesis: learning from genetic heterogeneity. Nat Rev Cancer 14, 108–119, 2014.10.1038/nrc364824442145Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dahia PL. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, genetically diverse and minimalist, all at once! Cancer Cell 31, 159–161, 2017.10.1016/j.ccell.2017.01.0092819658728196587Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dean RE. Pheochromocytoma and pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 11, 35–42, 1958.Search in Google Scholar

Delellis RA, Lloyd RV, Heitx PU. Pathology and genetics of tumors of endocrine organs. In World Health Organization of Tumours. IARC, Lyon, pp. 73–76, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

Desmonts JM, Marty J. Anaesthetic management of patients with phaeochromocytoma. Br J Anaesth 56, 781–789, 1984.637570810.1093/bja/56.7.7816375708Search in Google Scholar

Dunnick NR, Korobkin M. Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas: current status. AJR Am J Roentgenol 179, 559–568, 2002.10.2214/ajr.179.3.179055912185019Search in Google Scholar

Dunwoodie SL. The role of hypoxia in development of the Mammalian embryo. Dev Cell 17, 755–773, 2009.2005994710.1016/j.devcel.2009.11.00820059947Search in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Walther MM, Friberg P, Lenders JW, Keiser HR, Pacak K. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: how to distinguish true-from false-positive test results. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, 2656–2666, 2003.10.1210/jc.2002-0300051278887012788870Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Pacak K. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Front Horm Res 31, 76–106, 2004a.10.1159/00007465914674306Search in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Bornstein SR, Brouwers FM, Cheung NK, Dahia PL, de Krijger RR, Giordano TJ, Greene LA, Goldstein DS, Lehnert H, Manger WM, Maris JM, Neumann HP, Pacak K, Shulkin BL, Smith DI, Tischler AS, Young WF Jr. Malignant pheochromocytoma: current status and initiatives for future progress. Endocr Relat Cancer 11, 423–436, 2004b.10.1677/erc.1.0082915369446Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Goldstein DS, Sullivan P, Csako G, Brouwers FM, Lai EW, Adams KT, Pacak K. Biochemical and clinical manifestations of dopamine-producing paragangliomas: utility of plasma methoxytyramine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 2068–2075, 2005.1564439710.1210/jc.2004-202515644397Search in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Timmers H, Mannelli M, Grebe SK, Hofbauer LC, Bornstein SR, Tiebel O, Adams K, Bratslavsky G, Linehan WM, Pacak K. Measurements of plasma methoxytyramine, normetanephrine, and metanephrine as discriminators of different hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma. Clin Chem 57, 411–420, 2011.2126295110.1373/clinchem.2010.153320316499821262951Search in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Lenders JW, Siegert G, Bornstein SR, Friberg P, Milosevic D, Mannelli M, Linehan WM, Adams K, Timmers HJ, Pacak K. Plasma methoxytyramine: a novel biomarker of metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in relation to established risk factors of tumour size, location and SDHB mutation status. Eur J Cancer 48, 1739–1749, 2012.10.1016/j.ejca.2011.07.016337262422036874Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Eisenhofer G, Prejbisz A, Peitzsch M, Pamporaki C, Masjkur J, Rogowski-Lehmann N, Langton K, Tsourdi E, Pęczkowska M, Fliedner S, Deutschbein T, Megerle F, Timmers HJLM, Sinnott R, Beuschlein F, Fassnacht M, Januszewicz A, Lenders JWM. Biochemical diagnosis of chromaffin cell tumors in patients at high and low risk of disease: plasma versus urinary free or deconjugated O-methylated catecholamine metabolites. Clin Chem 64, 1646–1656, 2018.10.1373/clinchem.2018.2913693009749830097498Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Elder EE, Elder G, Larsson C. Pheochromocytoma and functional paraganglioma syndrome: no longer the 10% tumor. J Surg Oncol 89, 193–201, 2005.10.1002/jso.2017715719371Search in Google Scholar

Elsayes KM, Mukundan G, Narra VR, Lewis JS Jr, Shirkhoda A, Farooki A, Brown JJ. Adrenal masses: MR imaging features with pathologic correlation. Radiographics 24, S73–S86, 2004.10.1148/rg.24si04551415486251Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Evenepoel L, Papathomas TG, Krol N, Korpershoek E, de Krijger RR, Persu A, Dinjens WN. Toward an improved definition of the genetic and tumor spectrum associated with SDH germ-line mutations. Genet Med 17, 610–620, 2015.10.1038/gim.2014.1622539417625394176Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Farrugia FA, Georgios M, Panagiotis T, Nikolaos Z, Anestis C, Dimitrios S, Nikolaoes K, Anna P, Erini K, Machairas A. Adrenal incidentaloma or epinephroma and review of the literature. Differential diagnosis of adrenal incidentaloma. Khirurgiia 82, 120–128, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

Farrugia FA. “Ephidrosis,” Is a New Term to Replace the Term “Diaphoresis” J Ren Nutr 27, 445, 2017.10.1053/j.jrn.2017.08.00929056161Search in Google Scholar

Farrugia FA, Martikos G, Tzanetis P, Charalampopoulos A, Misiakos E, Zavras N, Sotiropoulos D. Pheochromocytoma, diagnosis and treatment: Review of the literature. Endocr Regul 51, 168–181, 2017.10.1515/enr-2017-001828858847Search in Google Scholar

Favier J, Amar L, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP. Paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma: from genetics to personalized medicine. Nat Rev Endocrinol 11, 101–111, 2015.10.1038/nrendo.2014.18825385035Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fishbein L, Leshchiner I, Walter V, Danilova L, Robertson AG, Johnson AR, Lichtenberg TM, Murray BA, Ghayee HK, Else T, Ling S, Jefferys SR, de Cubas AA, Wenz B, Korpershoek E, Amelio AL, Makowski L, Rathmell WK, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Giordano TJ, Asa SL, Tischler AS; Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network, Pacak K, Nathanson KL, Wilkerson MD. Comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Cancer Cell 31, 181–193, 2017.10.1016/j.ccell.2017.01.001564315928162975Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Flynn A, Benn D, Clifton-Bligh R, Robinson B, Trainer AH, James P, Hogg A, Waldeck K, George J, Li J, Fox SB, Gill AJ, McArthur G, Hicks RJ, Tothill RW. The genomic landscape of phaeochromocytoma. J Pathol 236, 78–89, 2015.10.1002/path.450325545346Search in Google Scholar

Francis IR, Korobkin M. Pheochromocytoma. Radiol Clin North Am 34, 1101–1112, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Gagner M, Lacroix A, Bolte E. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy in Cushing’s syndrome and pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 327, 1033, 1992.10.1056/NEJM1992100132714171387700Search in Google Scholar

Gagner M, Pomp A, Heniford BT, Pharand D, Lacroix A. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: lessons learned from 100 consecutive procedures. Ann Surg 226, 238–247, 1997.10.1097/00000658-199709000-0000311910159339930Search in Google Scholar

Galati SJ, Said M, Gospin R, Babic N, Brown K, Geer EB, Kostakoglu L, Krakoff LR, Leibowitz AB, Mehta L, Muller S, Owen RP, Pertsemlidis DS, Wilck E, Xiao GQ, Levine AC, Inabnet WB 3rd. The Mount Sinai clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytoma. Endocr Pract 21, 368–382, 2015.10.4158/EP14036.RA25297659Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Giannini AJB, Henry R, Goettsche, Roger L. Psychiatric, Psychogenic and Somatopsychic Disorders Handbook. M. Examination. Garden City, NY, 1978.Search in Google Scholar

Goffredo P, Sosa JA, Roman SA. Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a population level analysis of long-term survival over two decades. J Surg Oncol 107, 659–664, 2013.10.1002/jso.2329723233320Search in Google Scholar

Goldstein M, Fuxe K, Hokfelt T. Characterization and tissue localization of catecholamine synthesizing enzymes. Pharmacol Rev 24, 293–309, 1972.4564603Search in Google Scholar

Goldstein RE, O’Neill JA Jr, Holcomb GW 3rd, Morgan WM 3rd, Neblett WW 3rd, Oates JA, Brown N, Nadeau J, Smith B, Page DL, Abumrad NN, Scott HW Jr. Clinical experience over 48 years with pheochromocytoma. Ann Surg 229, 755–766, 1999.10.1097/00000658-199906000-00001142082110363888Search in Google Scholar

Graham JB. Pheochromocytoma and hypertension; an analysis of 207 cases. Int Abstr Surg 92, 105–121, 1951.Search in Google Scholar

Gregory SH, Yalamuri SM, McCartney SL, Shah SA, Sosa JA, Roman S, Colin BJ, Lentschener C, Munroe R, Patel S, Feinman JW, Augoustides JG. Perioperative management of adrenalectomy and inferior vena cava reconstruction in a patient with a large, malignant pheochromocytoma with vena caval extension. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31, 365–377, 2017.10.1053/j.jvca.2016.07.01927810406Search in Google Scholar

Groeben H, Nottebaum BJ, Alesina PF, Traut A, Neumann HP, Walz MK. Perioperative α-receptor blockade in phaeochromocytoma surgery: an observational case series. Br J Anaesth 118, 182–189, 2017.2810052110.1093/bja/aew39228100521Search in Google Scholar

Grubbs EG, Rich TA, Ng C, Bhosale PR, Jimenez C, Evans DB, Lee JE, Perrier ND. Long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for hereditary pheochromocytoma. J Am Coll Surg 216, 280–289, 2013.10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2012.10.01223317575Search in Google Scholar

Guerrero MA, Schreinemakers JM, Vriens MR, Suh I, Hwang J, Shen WT, Gosnell J, Clark OH, Duh QY. Clinical spectrum of pheochromocytoma. J Am Coll Surg 209, 727–732, 2009.10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2009.09.02219959041Search in Google Scholar

Gunawardane PTK, Grossman A. Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. In: Hypertension: from basic research to clinical practice, Vol. 2, (Ed. Md. Shahidul Islam), Springer, pp. 239–259, 2017.10.1007/5584_2016_7627888488Search in Google Scholar

Gut P, Czarnywojtek A, Fischbach J, Baczyk M, Ziemnicka K, Wrotkowska E, Gryczynska M, Ruchala M. Chromogranin A - unspecific neuroendocrine marker. Clinical utility and potential diagnostic pitfalls. Arch Med Sci 12, 1–9, 2016.10.5114/aoms.2016.57577475436426925113Search in Google Scholar

Hack HA. The perioperative management of children with phaeochromocytoma. Paediatr Anaesth 10, 463–476, 2000.1101294910.1046/j.1460-9592.2000.00504.x11012949Search in Google Scholar

Halkertson IDK. A Wiley Medical Publication: Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

Harari A, Inabnet WB 3rd. Malignant pheochromocytoma: a review. Am J Surg 201, 700–708, 2011.10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.04.01220870212Search in Google Scholar

Harrington JL, Farley DR, van Heerden JA, Ramin KD. Adrenal tumors and pregnancy. World J Surg 23, 182–186, 1999.10.1007/PL000131599880429Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Havekes B, Lai EW, Corssmit EP, Romijn JA, Timmers HJ, Pacak K. Detection and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: current standing of MIBG scintigraphy and future role of PET imaging. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 52, 419–429, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

Havekes B, King K, Lai EW, Romijn JA, Corssmit EP, Pacak K. New imaging approaches to phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 72, 137–145, 2010.10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03648.x296697319508681Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hickman PE, Leong M, Chang J, Wilson SR, McWhinney B. Plasma free metanephrines are superior to urine and plasma catecholamines and urine catecholamine metabolites for the investigation of phaeochromocytoma. Pathology 41, 173–177, 2009.10.1080/003130208025792841915219019152190Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hofer M. Ultrasound Teaching Manual. The Basics of Performing and Interpreting Ultrasound Scans. Thieme Stuttgart, New York, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

Hrascan R, Pecina-Slaus N, Martic TN, Colic JF, Gall-Troselj K, Pavelic K, Karapandza N Analysis of selected genes in neuroendocrine tumours: insulinomas and phaeochromocytomas. J Neuroendocrinol 20, 1015–1022, 2008.10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01755.x18510707Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Huang LE, Bindra RS, Glazer PM, Harris AL. Hypoxia-induced genetic instability-a calculated mechanism underlying tumor progression. J Mol Med (Berl) 85, 139–148, 2007.10.1007/s00109-006-0133-617180667Search in Google Scholar

Huang D, Li C, Zhang H. Hypoxia and cancer cell metabolism. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 46, 214–219, 2014.10.1093/abbs/gmt14824389642Search in Google Scholar

Ilias I, Pacak K. Current approaches and recommended algorithm for the diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 479–491, 2004.10.1210/jc.2003-03109114764749Search in Google Scholar

Jaroszewski DE, Tessier DJ, Schlinkert RT, Grant CS, Thompson GB, van Heerden JA, Farley DR, Smith SL, Hinder RA. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. Mayo Clin Proc 78, 1501–1504, 2003.10.4065/78.12.150114661679Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jimenez C, Waguespack SG. Functional imaging for pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: a step closer to understanding its place in clinical practice. Endocrine 50, 6–8, 2015.10.1007/s12020-015-0672-026113425Search in Google Scholar

Jochmanova I, Yang C, Zhuang Z, Pacak K. Hypoxia-inducible factor signaling in pheochromocytoma: turning the rudder in the right direction. J Natl Cancer Inst 105, 1270–1283, 2013.10.1093/jnci/djt201388827923940289Search in Google Scholar

Jochmanova I, Pacak K. Pheochromocytoma: the first metabolic endocrine cancer. Clin Cancer Res 22, 5001–5011, 2016.10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-0606507408627742786Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Juarez D, Brown RW, Ostrowski M, Reardon MJ, Lechago J, Truong LD. Pheochromocytoma associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma. A new type of composite pheochromocytoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 123, 1274–1279, 1999.10.5858/1999-123-1274-PAWNC10583935Search in Google Scholar

Karvonen H, Perttila R, Niininen W, Barker H, Ungureanu D. Targeting Wnt signaling pseudokinases in hematological cancers. Eur J Haematol 101, 457–465, 2018.10.1111/ejh.1313729989208Search in Google Scholar

Katoh M, Katoh M. Molecular genetics and targeted therapy of WNT-related human diseases. Int J Mol Med 40, 587–606, 2017.2873114810.3892/ijmm.2017.3071554794028731148Search in Google Scholar

Kawashima A, Sandler CM, Ernst RD, Takahashi N, Roubidoux MA, Goldman SM, Fishman EK, Dunnick NR. Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhage of the adrenal gland. Radiographics 19, 949–963, 1999.10.1148/radiographics.19.4.g99jl1394910464802Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Keith B, Johnson RS, Simon MC. HIF1α and HIF2α: sibling rivalry in hypoxic tumour growth and progression. Nat Rev Cancer 12, 9–22, 2012.10.1038/nrc3183340191222169972Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kenchegowda D, Natale B, Lemus MA, Natale DR, Fisher SA. Inactivation of maternal Hif-1α at mid-pregnancy causes placental defects and deficits in oxygen delivery to the fetal organs under hypoxic stress. Dev Biol 422, 171–185, 2017.10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.12.013530363527940158Search in Google Scholar

Kercher KW, Novitsky YW, Park A, Matthews BD, Litwin DE, Heniford BT. Laparoscopic curative resection of pheochromocytomas. Ann Surg 241, 919–928, 2005.10.1097/01.sla.0000164175.26785.06135717115912041Search in Google Scholar

Khatami F, Mohammadamoli M, Tavangar SM. Genetic and epigenetic differences of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs). Endocr Regul 52, 41–54, 2018.2945391910.2478/enr-2018-000629453919Search in Google Scholar

Kiernan CM, Solorzano CC. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: diagnosis, genetics, and treatment. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 25, 119–138, 2016.10.1016/j.soc.2015.08.006Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kimura N, Takayanagi R, Takizawa N, Itagaki E, Katabami T, Kakoi N, Rakugi H, Ikeda Y, Tanabe A, Nigawara T, Ito S, Kimura I, Naruse M; Phaeochromocytoma Study Group in Japan. Pathological grading for predicting metastasis in phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Relat Cancer 21, 405–414, 2014.10.1530/ERC-13-0494Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kinney MAO, Narr BJ, Warner MA. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 16, 359–369, 2005.10.1053/jcan.2002.124150Search in Google Scholar

Krestin GP, Steinbrich W, Friedmann G. Adrenal masses: evaluation with fast gradient-echo MR imaging and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic studies. Radiology 171, 675–680, 1989.10.1148/radiology.171.3.2717737Search in Google Scholar

Kudva YC, Young Jr WF, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Van Heerden JA. Adrenal incidentaloma: an important component of the clinical presentation spectrum of benign sporadic adrenal pheochromocytoma. The Endocrinologist 9, 77–80, 1999.10.1097/00019616-199903000-00002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Landsberg L. Pheochromocytomas, Paragangliomas and Disorders of the Sympathoadrenal System. Chicago, Springer, 2018.10.1007/978-3-319-77048-2Search in Google Scholar

Lang B, Fu B, OuYang JZ, Wang BJ, Zhang GX, Xu K, Zhang J, Wang C, Shi TP, Zhou HX, Ma X, Zhang X. Retrospective comparison of retroperitoneoscopic versus open adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma. J Urol 179, 57–60, 2008.10.1016/j.juro.2007.08.147Search in Google Scholar

Lee JK. Computed Body Tomography with MRI correlation. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

Lenders JW, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G. New advances in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: moving beyond catecholamines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 970, 29–40, 2002a.10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb04410.xSearch in Google Scholar

Lenders JW, Pacak K, Walther MM, Linehan WM, Mannelli M, Friberg P, Keiser HR, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? JAMA 287, 1427–1434, 2002b.10.1001/jama.287.11.1427Search in Google Scholar

Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G, Mannelli M, Pacak K. Phaeochromocytoma. Lancet 366, 665–675, 2005.10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67139-5Search in Google Scholar

Lenders JW, Duh QY, Eisenhofer G, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grebe SK, Murad MH, Naruse M, Pacak K, Young WF Jr; Endocrine Society. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99, 1915–1942, 2014.10.1210/jc.2014-149824893135Search in Google Scholar

Lenders JW, Eisenhofer G. Update on modern management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 32, 152–161, 2017.2868550610.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.152550385928685506Search in Google Scholar

Lendvai N, Pawlosky R, Bullova P, Eisenhofer G, Patocs A, Veech RL, Pacak K. Succinate-to-fumarate ratio as a new metabolic marker to detect the presence of SDHB/D-related paraganglioma: initial experimental and ex vivo findings. Endocrinology 155, 27–32, 2014.10.1210/en.2013-1549539863624189137Search in Google Scholar

Lentschener C, Gaujoux S, Thillois J, Duboc D, Bertherat J, Ozier Y, Dousset B. Increased arterial pressure is not predictive of haemodynamic instability in patients undergoing adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53, 522–527, 2009.10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01894.x19239408Search in Google Scholar

Lentschener C, Gaujoux S, Tesniere A, Dousset B. Point of controversy: perioperative care of patients undergoing pheochromocytoma removal-time for a reappraisal? European Eur J Endocrinol 165, 365–373, 2011.10.1530/EJE-11-016221646289Search in Google Scholar

Leung K, Stamm M, Raja A, Low G. Pheochromocytoma: the range of appearances on ultrasound, CT, MRI, and functional imaging. AJR Am J Roentgeno 200, 370–378, 2013.10.2214/AJR.12.912623345359Search in Google Scholar

Li J, Yang CH. Improvement of preoperative management in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma. Int J Clin Exp Med 7, 5541–5546, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Liao D, Johnson RS. Hypoxia: a key regulator of angiogenesis in cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26, 281–290, 2007.10.1007/s10555-007-9066-y17603752Search in Google Scholar

Lloyd RV, Osamura RY, International Agency for Research on Can. WHO Classification of Tumours of Endocrine Organs. Lyon, WHO, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

Ludwig AD, Feig DI, Brandt ML, Hicks MJ, Fitch ME, Cass DL. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Am J Surg 194, 792–797, 2007.10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.08.02818005773Search in Google Scholar

Lukashev D, Ohta A, Sitkovsky M. Hypoxia-dependent anti-inflammatory pathways in protection of cancerous tissues. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26, 273–279, 2007.10.1007/s10555-007-9054-217404693Search in Google Scholar

Luo W, Hu H, Chang R, Zhong J, Knabel M, O’Meally R, Cole RN, Pandey A, Semenza GL. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Cell 145, 732–744, 2011.10.1016/j.cell.2011.03.054313056421620138Search in Google Scholar

Maitra A. The Endocrine System. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease, Professional Edition (Eds. Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N, Aster J.). Phladelphia, PA, Saunders, Elsevier, 2010.10.1016/B978-1-4377-0792-2.50029-8Search in Google Scholar

Majmundar AJ, Wong WJ, Simon MC. Hypoxia-inducible factors and the response to hypoxic stress. Mol Cell 40, 294–309, 2010.10.1016/j.molcel.2010.09.022314350820965423Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mak P, Leav I, Pursell B, Bae D, Yang X, Taglienti CA, Gouvin LM, Sharma VM, Mercurio AM. ERbeta impedes prostate cancer EMT by destabilizing HIF-1alpha and inhibiting VEGF-mediated snail nuclear localization: implications for Gleason grading. Cancer Cell 17, 319–332, 2010.10.1016/j.ccr.2010.02.030288182220385358Search in Google Scholar

Makino Y, Cao R, Svensson K, Bertilsson G, Asman M, Tanaka H, Cao Y, Berkenstam A, Poellinger L. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Nature 414, 550–554, 2001.10.1038/3510708511734856Search in Google Scholar

Malec K, Miskiewicz P, Witkowska A, Krajewska E, Toutounchi S, Galaka Z, Piotrowski M, Kacka A, Bednarczuk T, Ambroziak U. Comparison of phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in perioperative management of patients with pheochromocytoma. Kardiol Pol 75, 1192–1198, 2017.2871506610.5603/KP.a2017.014728715066Search in Google Scholar

Mallat J, Pironkov A, Destandau MS, Tavernier B. Systolic pressure variation (Deltadown) can guide fluid therapy during pheochromocytoma surgery. Can J Anaesth 50, 998–1003, 2003.10.1007/BF0301836214656776Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Manger WM. The protean manifestations of pheochromocytoma. Horm Metab Res 41, 658–663, 2009.1924289910.1055/s-0028-112813919242899Search in Google Scholar

Mantero F, Terzolo M, Arnaldi G, Osella G, Masini AM, Ali A, Giovagnetti M, Opocher G, Angeli A. A survey on adrenal incidentaloma in Italy. Study Group on Adrenal Tumors of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 637–644, 2000.10.1210/jcem.85.2.637210690869Search in Google Scholar

Maurea S, Cuocolo A, Reynolds JC, Neumann RD, Salvatore M. Diagnostic imaging in patients with paragangliomas. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance and MIBG scintigraphy comparison. Q J Nucl Med 40, 365–371, 1996.9050342Search in Google Scholar

Mayo CH. Paroxysmal hypertension with tumor of retroperitoneal nerve: report of a case. JAMA 89, 1047–1050, 1927.10.1001/jama.1927.02690130035013Search in Google Scholar

Mazza A, Armigliato M, Marzola MC, Schiavon L, Montemurro D, Vescovo G, Zuin M, Chondrogiannis S, Ravenni R, Opocher G, Colletti PM, Rubello D. Anti-hypertensive treatment in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current management and therapeutic features. Endocrine 45, 469–478, 2014.10.1007/s12020-013-0007-y2381783923817839Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

McHenry CR. Pheochromocytoma: A clinical enigma. AACE Clinical Case Reports 3, e180–e181, 2017.10.4158/EP161587.COSearch in Google Scholar

McNeil AR, Blok BH, Koelmeyer TD, Burke MP, Hilton JM. Phaeochromocytomas discovered during coronial autopsies in Sydney, Melbourne and Auckland. Aust N Z J Med 30, 648–652, 2000.10.1111/j.1445-5994.2000.tb04358.xSearch in Google Scholar

Megias MC, Puyol DR, Rodriguez LF, Martinez GLS, Miguel PM. Feocromocitoma-paraganglioma: del diagnostico bioquímico al genetico (Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis). Nefrologia 36, 481–488, 2016.10.1016/j.nefro.2016.03.010Search in Google Scholar

Melicow MM. One hundred cases of pheochromocytoma (107 tumors) at the Columbia and Presbyterian Medical Center, 1926–1976: a clinicopathological analysis. Cancer 40, 1987–2004, 1977.10.1002/1097-0142(197711)40:5<1987::AID-CNCR2820400502>3.0.CO;2-RSearch in Google Scholar

Mercado-Asis LB, Wolf KI, Jochmanova I, Taieb D. Pheochromocytoma: A genetic and diagnostic update. Endocr Pract 24, 78–90, 2018.10.4158/EP-2017-0057Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Minno AM, Bennett WA, Kvale WF. Pheochromocytoma: a study of 15 cases diagnosed at autopsy. N Engl J Med 251, 959–965, 1954.10.1056/NEJM195412092512401Search in Google Scholar

Mirallie E, Jafari M, Pattou F, Ernst O, Huglo D, Carnaille B, Proye C. [Outcome of non-operated adrenal masses in 126 patients observed from 1986 to 1999]. Ann Chir 126, 212–220, 2001.10.1016/S0003-3944(01)00496-5Search in Google Scholar

Mirica A, Badarau IA, Stefanescu AM, Mirica R, Paun S, Stefan DAC, Paun DL. The role of chromogranin a in adrenal tumors. Revista de Chimie 69, 678–681, 2018.10.37358/RC.18.3.6174Search in Google Scholar

Mishra AK, Agarwal G, Kapoor A, Agarwal A, Bhatia E, Mishra SK. Catecholamine cardiomyopathy in bilateral malignant pheochromocytoma: successful reversal after surgery. Int J Cardiol 76, 89–90, 2000.10.1016/S0167-5273(00)00363-6Search in Google Scholar

Miyake H, Maeda H, Tashiro M, Suzuki K, Nagatomo H, Aikawa H, Ashizawa A, Iechika S, Moriuchi A. CT of adrenal tumors: frequency and clinical significance of low-attenuation lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 152, 1005–1007, 1989.10.2214/ajr.152.5.1005Search in Google Scholar

Moon KL Jr, Hricak H, Crooks LE, Gooding CA, Moss AA, Engelstad BL, Kaufman L. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal gland: a preliminary report. Radiology 147, 155–160, 1983.10.1148/radiology.147.1.68287216828721Search in Google Scholar

Morrison PJ, Nevin NC. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (mucosal neuroma syndrome, Wagenmann-Froboese syndrome). J Med Genet 33, 779–782, 1996.10.1136/jmg.33.9.779888058110507358880581Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Morrison DK. MAP kinase pathways. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 4, a011254, 2012.10.1101/cshperspect.a011254353634223125017Search in Google Scholar

Nakajima Y, Masaoka N, Sodeyama M, Tsuduki Y, Sakai M. Pheochromocytoma-related cardiomyopathy during the antepartum period in a preterm pregnant woman. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 37, 908–911, 2011.10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01423.x21736670Search in Google Scholar

Naranjo J, Dodd S, Martin YN. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31, 1427–1439, 2017.10.1053/j.jvca.2017.02.02328392094Search in Google Scholar

Naruse M, Satoh F, Tanabe A, Okamoto T, Ichihara A, Tsuiki M, Katabami T, Nomura M, Tanaka T, Matsuda T, Imai T, Yamada M, Harada T, Kawata N, Takekoshi K. Efficacy and safety of metyrosine in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: a multi-center trial in Japan. Endocr J 65, 359–371, 2018.10.1507/endocrj.EJ17-02762935382129353821Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Neumann HP, Bausch B, McWhinney SR, Bender BU, Gimm O, Franke G, Schipper J, Klisch J, Altehoefer C, Zerres K, Januszewicz A, Eng C, Smith WM, Munk R, Manz T, Glaesker S, Apel TW, Treier M, Reineke M, Walz MK, Hoang-Vu C, Brauckhoff M, Klein-Franke A, Klose P, Schmidt H, Maier-Woelfle M, Peczkowska M, Szmigielski C, Eng C; Freiburg-Warsaw-Columbus Pheochromocytoma Study Group. Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma. N Engl J Med 346, 1459–1466, 2002.10.1056/NEJMoa02015212000816Search in Google Scholar

Newhouse JH. MRI of the adrenal gland. Urol Radiol 12, 1–6, 1990.233366710.1007/BF029239542333667Search in Google Scholar

Nomura K, Kimura H, Shimizu S, Kodama H, Okamoto T, Obara T, Takano K. Survival of patients with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma and efficacy of combined cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94, 2850–2856, 2009.1947063010.1210/jc.2008-269719470630Search in Google Scholar

Nonaka K, Makuuchi H, Naruse Y, Kobayashi T, Goto M. Surgical excision of malignant pheochromocytoma in the left atrium. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 48, 126–128, 2000.10.1007/BF0321810610769996Search in Google Scholar

Oak S, Javid M, Callender GG, Carling T, Gibson CE. Management of pheochromocytoma in the setting of acute stroke. AACE Clinical Case Reports 4, e245–e248, 2018.10.4158/ACCR-2017-0077Search in Google Scholar

Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Carrasquillo JA, Chen CC, Li ST, Goldstein DS. 6-[18F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning for diagnostic localization of pheochromocytoma. Hypertension 38, 6–8, 2001a.10.1161/01.HYP.38.1.611463751Search in Google Scholar

Pacak K, Fojo T, Goldstein DS, Eisenhofer G, Walther MM, Linehan WM, Bachenheimer L, Abraham J, Wood BJ. Radiofrequency ablation: a novel approach for treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 93, 648–649, 2001b.10.1093/jnci/93.8.648238687811309443Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pacak K. Preoperative management of the pheochromocytoma patient. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 4069–4079, 2007.1798912610.1210/jc.2007-172017989126Search in Google Scholar

Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ahlman Hk, Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grossman AB, Kimura N, Mannelli M, McNicol AM, Tischler AS; International Symposium on Pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3, 92–102, 2007.10.1038/ncpendmet039617237836Search in Google Scholar

Pacak K, Wimalawansa SJ. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Endocr Pract 21, 406–412, 2015.10.4158/EP14481.RA25716634Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pamporaki C, Hamplova B, Peitzsch M, Prejbisz A, Beuschlein F, Timmers HJLM, Fassnacht M, Klink B, Lodish M, Stratakis CA, Huebner A, Fliedner S, Robledo M, Sinnott RO, Januszewicz A, Pacak K, Eisenhofer G. Characteristics of pediatric vs adult pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102, 1122–1132, 2017.10.1210/jc.2016-382928324046546072228324046Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Papadakis M, Manios A, Schoretsanitis G, Trompoukis C. Landmarks in the history of adrenal surgery. Hormones (Athens) 15, 136–141, 2016.10.1007/BF03401414Search in Google Scholar

Pappachan JM, Raskauskiene D, Sriraman R, Edavalath M, Hanna FW. Diagnosis and management of pheochromocytoma: a practical guide to clinicians. Curr Hypertens Rep 16, 442, 2014.2479209310.1007/s11906-014-0442-z24792093Search in Google Scholar

Pick L. Das Ganglioma embryonale sympathicum (Sympathoma embryonale). Berl Klin Wschnschr 49, 16–22, 1912.Search in Google Scholar

Pillai S, Gopalan V, Smith RA, Lam AK. Updates on the genetics and the clinical impacts on phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma in the new era. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 100, 190–208, 2016.10.1016/j.critrevonc.2016.01.02226839173Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Plesoianu CE, Andriescu G, Salaru D, Georgescu CA. The relationship between biochemical variables and the quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Rev Chim (Bucharest), 68, 2452–2458, 2017.10.37358/RC.17.10.5904Search in Google Scholar

Plouin PF, Chatellier G, Fofol I, Corvol P. Tumor recurrence and hypertension persistence after successful pheochromocytoma operation. Hypertension 29, 1133–1139, 1997.914967810.1161/01.HYP.29.5.11339149678Search in Google Scholar

Plouin PF, Duclos JM, Soppelsa F, Boublil G, Chatellier G. Factors associated with perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with pheochromocytoma: analysis of 165 operations at a single center. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 1480–1486, 2001.10.1210/jc.86.4.1480Search in Google Scholar

Plouin PF, Amar L, Dekkers OM, Fassnacht M, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Lenders JW, Lussey-Lepoutre C, Steichen O; Guideline Working Group. European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline for long-term follow-up of patients operated on for a phaeochromocytoma or a paraganglioma. Eur J Endocrinol 174, G1–G10, 2016.10.1530/EJE-16-003327048283Search in Google Scholar

Pogorzelski R, Toutounchi S, Krajewska E, Fiszer P, Lykowski M, Zapala L, Szostek M, Jakuczun W, Pachucki J, Skorski M. The effect of surgical treatment of phaeochromocytoma on concomitant arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus in a single-centre retrospective study. Cent European J Uro 67, 361–365, 2014.10.5173/ceju.2014.04.art9431089625667755Search in Google Scholar

Pollard P, Briere J, Alam N, Barwell J, Barclay E, Wortham N, Hunt T, Mitchell M, Olpin S, Moat SJ, Hargreaves IP, Heales SJ, Chung YL, Griffiths JR, Dalgleish A, McGrath JA, Gleeson MJ, Hodgson SV, Poulsom R, Rustin P, Tomlinson IP. Accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and over-expression of HIF1alpha in tumours which result from germline FH and SDH mutations. Hum Mol Genet 14, 2231–2239, 2005.10.1093/hmg/ddi22715987702Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Poopalalingam R, Chin EY. Rapid preparation of a patient with pheochromocytoma with labetolol and magnesium sulfate. Can J Anaesth 48, 876–880, 2001.10.1007/BF030173531160634411606344Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pourian M, Mostafazadeh DB, Soltani A. Does this patient have pheochromocytoma? A systematic review of clinical signs and symptoms. J Diabetes Metab Disord 15, 11, 2016.10.1186/s40200-016-0226-x479717626998444Search in Google Scholar

Press D, Akyuz M, Dural C, Aliyev S, Monteiro R, Mino J, Mitchell J, Hamrahian A, Siperstein A, Berber E. Predictors of recurrence in pheochromocytoma. Surgery 156, 1523–1528, 2014.10.1016/j.surg.2014.08.04425456947Search in Google Scholar

Prinz RA. A comparison of laparoscopic and open adrenalectomies. Arch Surg 130, 489–494, 1995.10.1001/archsurg.1995.014300500390067748086Search in Google Scholar

Proye C, Fossati P, Fontaine P, Lefebvre J, Decoulx M, Wemeau JL, Dewailly D, Rwamasirabo E, Cecat P. Dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma: an unrecognized entity? Classification of pheochromocytomas according to their type of secretion. Surgery 100, 1154–1162, 1986.Search in Google Scholar

Raimundo N, Baysal BE, Shadel GS. Revisiting the TCA cycle: signaling to tumor formation. Trends Mol Med 17, 641–649, 2011.10.1016/j.molmed.2011.06.00121764377320530221764377Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ramachandran R, Rewari V. Current perioperative management of pheochromocytomas. Indian J Urol 33, 19–25, 2017.28197025Search in Google Scholar

Rao N, Ramachandran R, Tandon N, Singh P, Kumar R. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma-does size matter? A single surgeon comparative study. Transl Androl Urol 5, 780–783, 2016.2778543610.21037/tau.2016.08.10507119127785436Search in Google Scholar

Renard J, Clerici T, Licker M, Triponez F. Pheochromocytoma and abdominal paraganglioma. J Visc Surg 148, e409–e416, 2011.10.1016/j.jviscsurg.2011.07.00321862435Search in Google Scholar

Reyes HA, Paquin JJ, Harris DM. Pheochromocytoma, “the Great Masquerader,” Presenting as Severe Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in a Young Patient. Case Rep Cardiol 2018, 8767801, 2018.10.1155/2018/8767801594918829854474Search in Google Scholar

Robbins SL, Kumar V. Basic Pathology, 4th Edition. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1987.10.1097/00006324-198708000-00014Search in Google Scholar

Rossitti HM, Soderkvist P, Gimm O. Extent of surgery for phaeochromocytomas in the genomic era. Br J Surg 105, e84–e98, 2018.10.1002/bjs.1074429341163Search in Google Scholar

Saffarini O. Open versus laparoscopic adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma. Diploma In Minimal Access Surgery, Laparoscopy Hospital, New Delhi, India, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

Sanford EL, Hickey T, Lu J. Acute Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during elective hernia repair in a patient with previously resected pheochromocytoma. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 29, 1596–1598, 2015.10.1053/j.jvca.2014.12.00125813227Search in Google Scholar

Scheffler IE. Mitochondria. New Jersey, Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2008.Search in Google Scholar

Schenker JG, Granat M. Phaeochromocytoma and pregnancy-an updated appraisal. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 22, 1–10, 1982.10.1111/j.1479-828X.1982.tb01388.xSearch in Google Scholar

Scholten A, Cisco RM, Vriens MR, Cohen JK, Mitmaker EJ, Liu C, Tyrrell JB, Shen WT, Duh QY. Pheochromocytoma crisis is not a surgical emergency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 98, 581–591, 2013.10.1210/jc.2012-302023284003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schteingart DE, Doherty GM, Gauger PG, Giordano TJ, Hammer GD, Korobkin M, Worden FP. Management of patients with adrenal cancer: recommendations of an international consensus conference. Endocr Relat Cancer 12, 667–680, 2005.10.1677/erc.1.010291617219916172199Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schultz CL, Haaga JR, Fletcher BD, Alfidi RJ, Schultz MA. Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands: a comparison with computed tomography. AJR Am J Roentgenol 143, 1235–1240, 1984.10.2214/ajr.143.6.12356333793Search in Google Scholar

Schulz C, Eisenhofer G, Lehnert H. Principles of catecholamine biosynthesis, metabolism and release. Front Horm Res. 31, 1–25, 2004.10.1159/00007465614674302Search in Google Scholar

Selak MA, Armour SM, MacKenzie ED, Boulahbel H, Watson DG, Mansfield KD, Pan Y, Simon MC, Thompson CB, Gottlieb E. Succinate links TCA cycle dysfunction to oncogenesis by inhibiting HIF-alpha prolyl hydroxylase. Cancer Cell 7, 77–85, 2005.10.1016/j.ccr.2004.11.0221565275115652751Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Semenza GL. Targeting HIF-1 for cancer therapy. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 721–732, 2003.10.1038/nrc118713130303Search in Google Scholar

Semenza GL. Defining the role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in cancer biology and therapeutics. Oncogene 29, 625–634, 2010.10.1038/onc.2009.441296916819946328Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Semenza GL. Hypoxia-inducible factors in physiology and medicine. Cell 148, 399–408, 2012.10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.021343754322304911Search in Google Scholar

Shawar L, Svec F. Pheochromocytoma with elevated metanephrines as the only biochemical finding. J La State Med Soc 148, 535–538, 1996.Search in Google Scholar

Shulkin BL, Ilias I, Sisson JC, Pacak K. Current trends in functional imaging of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1073, 374–382, 2006.10.1196/annals.1353.04117102106Search in Google Scholar

Siddiqi HK, Yang HY, Laird AM, Fox AC, Doherty GM, Miller BS, Gauger PG. Utility of oral nicardipine and magnesium sulfate infusion during preparation and resection of pheochromocytomas. Surgery 152, 1027–1036, 2012.10.1016/j.surg.2012.08.02323158177Search in Google Scholar

Sinclair D, Shenkin A, Lorimer A. Normal catecholamine production in a patient with a paroxysmally secreting phaeochromocytoma. Ann Clin Biochem 28, 417–419, 1991.10.1177/0004563291028004201892355Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Soltani A, Pourian M, Davani BM. Correction to: Does this patient have Pheochromocytoma? a systematic review of clinical signs and symptoms. J Diabetes Metab Disord 16, 42, 2017.10.1186/s40200-017-0324-4564405929046871Search in Google Scholar

Stein PP, Black HR. A simplified diagnostic approach to pheochromocytoma. A review of the literature and report of one institution‘s experience. Medicine (Baltimore) 70, 46–66, 1991.10.1097/00005792-199101000-000041988766Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Steinsapir J, Carr AA, Prisant LM, Bransome ED Jr. Metyrosine and pheochromocytoma. Arch Intern Med 157, 901–906, 1997.10.1001/archinte.157.8.901Search in Google Scholar

Sternberg SS, Antonioli DA, Carter D, Mills SE, Oberman HA. Diagnostic Surgical Pathology, 3rd ed., Vol. 2. Philadelphia, PA, USA, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

Stewart MF, Reed P, Weinkove C, Moriarty KJ, Ralston AJ. Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma: two instructive case reports. J Clin Pathol 46, 280–282, 1993.10.1136/jcp.46.3.28084634265011898463426Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sutton MG, Sheps SG, Lie JT. Prevalence of clinically unsuspected pheochromocytoma. Review of a 50-year autopsy series. Mayo Clin Proc 56, 354–360, 1981.Search in Google Scholar

Swietach P, Vaughan-Jones RD, Harris AL. Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9. Cancer Metastasis Rev 26, 299–310, 2007.10.1007/s10555-007-9064-017415526Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tanaka M, Tokuda N, Koga H, Kimoto Y, Naito S. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma: comparison with open adrenalectomy and comparison of laparoscopic surgery for pheochromocytoma versus other adrenal tumors. J Endourol 14, 427–431, 2000.10.1089/end.2000.14.4271095856510958565Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Thanapaalasingham K, Pollmann AS, Schelew B. Failure of metyrosine therapy for preoperative management of pheochromocytoma: a case report. Can J Anaesth 62, 1303–1307, 2015.2636280010.1007/s12630-015-0480-226362800Search in Google Scholar

Thompson LD. Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal gland Scaled Score (PASS) to separate benign from malignant neoplasms: a clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of 100 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 26, 551–566, 2002.10.1097/00000478-200205000-0000211979086Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Thomson BN, Moulton CA, Davies M, Banting SW. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for phaeochromocytoma: with caution. ANZ J Surg 74, 429–433, 2004.10.1111/j.1445-1433.2004.03024.x1519147315191473Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Toledo RA, Burnichon N, Cascon A, Benn DE, Bayley JP, Welander J, Tops CM, Firth H, Dwight T Ercolino T1, Mannelli M, Opocher G, Clifton-Bligh R, Gimm O, Maher ER, Robledo M, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Dahia PL, NGS in PPGL (NGSnPPGL) Study Group. Consensus statement on next-generation-sequencing-based diagnostic testing of hereditary phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Nat Rev Endocrinol 13, 233–247, 2017.10.1038/nrendo.2016.18527857127Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Toledo R, Jimenez C. Recent advances in the management of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: focus on tyrosine kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitors. F1000Res 7, pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-1148, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

Toniato A, Piotto A, Pagetta C, Bernante P, Pelizzo M. Technique and results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Langenbecks Arch Surg 386, 200–203, 2001.10.1007/s00423010023111382322Search in Google Scholar

Toniato A, Boschin IM, Opocher G, Guolo A, Pelizzo M, Mantero F. Is the laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma the best treatment? Surgery 141, 723–727, 2007.10.1016/j.surg.2006.10.01217560248Search in Google Scholar

Townsend CM, Beauchanp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery, 19th Ed., Elsevier Publishers, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Tschuor C, Sadri H, Clavien PA. Pheochromocytoma crisis. Clin Case Rep 2, 14, 2014.10.1002/ccr3.6418476625356229Search in Google Scholar

Turchini J, Gill AJ, Tischler AS. Pathology of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma. In: Pheochromocytomas, Paragangliomas and Disorders of the Sympathoadrenal System (ed. Landsberg L). Humana Press, Springer, 2018.10.1007/978-3-319-77048-2_2Search in Google Scholar

Udelsman R. Adrenal. In: Surgery, Basic Science and Clinical Evidence (eds. Norton JA, Bollinger RR). Bollinger, Springer, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

Unger N, Hinrichs J, Deutschbein T, Schmidt H, Walz M, Mann K, Petersenn S. Plasma and urinary metanephrines determined by an enzyme immunoassay, but not serum chromogranin A for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal mass. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 120, 494–500, 2012.10.1055/s-0032-130900722696168Search in Google Scholar

van Berkel A, Lenders JW, Timmers HJ. Diagnosis of endocrine disease: Biochemical diagnosis of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Eur J Endocrinol 170, R109–R119, 2014.10.1530/EJE-13-088224347425Search in Google Scholar

van der Weerd K, van Noord C, Loeve M, Knapen M, Visser W, de Herder W, Franssen G, van der Marel C, Feelders R. Endocrinology in pregnancy: Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: case series and review of literature. Eur J Endocrinol 177, R49–R58, 2017.10.1530/EJE-16-092028381449Search in Google Scholar

von Schlegel GG. Neurofibromatose recklinghausen und phaochromocytom. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 90, 31–39, 1960.Search in Google Scholar

Waguespack SG, Rich T, Grubbs E, Ying AK, Perrier ND, Ayala-Ramirez M, Jimenez C. A current review of the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95, 2023–2037, 2010.10.1210/jc.2009-283020215394Search in Google Scholar

Wang Y, Liu Y, Malek SN, Zheng P, Liu Y. Targeting HIF1α eliminates cancer stem cells in hematological malignancies. Cell Stem Cell 8, 399–411, 2011.10.1016/j.stem.2011.02.006308459521474104Search in Google Scholar

Warburg O, Wind F, Negelein E. The metabolism of tumors in the body. J Gen Physiol 8, 519–530, 1927.10.1085/jgp.8.6.519214082019872213Search in Google Scholar

Weiner MM, Asher DI, Augoustides JG, Evans AS, Patel PA, Gutsche JT, Mookadam F, Ramakrishna H. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: A clinical update for the cardiovascular anesthesiologist. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 31, 334–344, 2017.2754683110.1053/j.jvca.2016.06.00427546831Search in Google Scholar

Weingarten TN, Cata JP, O‘Hara JF, Prybilla DJ, Pike TL, Thompson GB, Grant CS, Warner DO, Bravo E, Sprung J. Comparison of two preoperative medical management strategies for laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma. Urology 76, 508.e6–508.e11, 2010.10.1016/j.urology.2010.03.03220546874Search in Google Scholar

Weinstein JN, Collisson EA, Mills GB, Shaw KRM, Ozenberger BA, Ellrott K, Shmulevich I, Sander C, Stuart JM, Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network. The cancer genome atlas pan-cancer analysis project. Nat Genet 45, 1113–1120, 2013.10.1038/ng.2764391996924071849Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Welander J, Larsson C, Backdahl M, Hareni N, Sivler T, Brauckhoff M, Soderkvist P, Gimm O. Integrative genomics reveals frequent somatic NF1 mutations in sporadic pheochromocytomas. Hum Mol Genet 21, 5406–5416, 2012.10.1093/hmg/dds40223010473Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Welbourn RB. Early surgical history of phaeochromocytoma. Br J Surg 74, 594–596, 1987.10.1002/bjs.18007407173304519Search in Google Scholar

Wiese KE, Nusse R, van Amerongen R. Wnt signalling: conquering complexity. Development 145, dev165902, 2018.10.1242/dev.16590229945986Search in Google Scholar

Wiesener MS, Jurgensen JS, Rosenberger C, Scholdge CK, Horstrup JH, Warnecke C, Mandriota S, Bechmann I, Frei UA, Pugh CW, Ratcliffe PJ, Bachmann S, Maxwell PH, Eckardt KU. Widespread hypoxia-inducible expression of HIF-2alpha in distinct cell populations of different organs. FASEB J 17, 271–273, 2003.10.1096/fj.02-0445fje1249053912490539Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wing LA, Conaglen JV, Meyer-Rochow GY, Elston MS. Paraganglioma in pregnancy: a case series and review of the literature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100, 3202–3209, 2015.10.1210/jc.2015-212226083822Search in Google Scholar

Wyszynska T, Cichocka E, Wieteska-Klimczak A, Jobs K, Januszewicz P. A single pediatric center experience with 1025 children with hypertension. Acta Paediatr 81, 244–246, 1992.10.1111/j.1651-2227.1992.tb12213.x1511199Search in Google Scholar

Yu R, Wei M. False positive test results for pheochromocytoma from 2000 to 2008. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 118, 577–585, 2010.10.1055/s-0029-123769919998239Search in Google Scholar

Yumi H, Guidelines Committee of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and use of laparoscopy for surgical problems during pregnancy: this statement was reviewed and approved by the Board of Governors of the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES), September 2007. It was prepared by the SAGES Guidelines Committee. Surg Endosc 22, 849–861, 2008.10.1007/s00464-008-9758-618288533Search in Google Scholar

Zhikrivetskaya SO, Snezhkina AV, Zaretsky AR, Alekseev BY, Pokrovsky AV, Golovyuk AL, Melnikova NV, Stepanov OA, Kalinin DV, Moskalev AA, Krasnov GS, Dmitriev AA, Kudryavtseva AV. Molecular markers of paragangliomas/pheochromocytomas. Oncotarget 8, 25756–25782, 2017.2818700110.18632/oncotarget.15201Search in Google Scholar

Zhu H, Bunn HF. Oxygen sensing and signaling: impact on the regulation of physiologically important genes. Respir Physiol 115, 239–247, 1999.10.1016/S0034-5687(99)00024-9Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo