1. bookVolume 40 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1337-947X
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The Role of Microbial Biofilm in Removing Ammonia in Floating Treatment Wetlands

Published Online: 17 Jul 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 40 (2021) - Issue 2 (June 2021)
Page range: 101 - 114
Received: 02 Jun 2020
Accepted: 18 Nov 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1337-947X
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Laboratory experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to quantify the potential of microbial transformation associated with floating matrix of floating treatment wetland (FTW) in ammonia removal and nitrification kinetics. The effect of different design parameters on ammonia removal from synthetic medium was investigated to optimize system performance. Effects of surface area of mat material, range of ammonia concentrations, and aeration on ammonia removal kinetics were studied using microcosm systems. A simple dynamics model of mineral nitrogen transformation was used as a framework for interpreting the experimental results. The results revealed that ammonia removal was enhanced in FTWs, and the magnitude of removal was controlled by the design factors examined. Removal by nitrification was directly proportional to mat surface area. The higher ammonia removal efficiency was caused by a larger surface area, which could support the growth of more microbes. Removal rate constants for treatments were 0.011, 0.015, 0.026, 0.035, and 0.033 day–1 for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. There was also a clear inhibitory effect of NH3 on second-stage nitrification manifested as low production of NO3–. Quantitative index of optimized knit/calibrated knit indicated high inhibition effects of NH3 at high concentration of total ammonia (60 mg N L–1). There was no major effect of oxygen saturation on NHx removal using aerated and nonaerated conditions. Better mechanistic understanding of the fundamental processes operating in FTWs should provide the basis for improving FTW design and efficacy.

Keywords

Abadi, L.S.K., Shamsai, A. & Goharnejad H. (2015). An analysis of the sustainability of basin water resources using Vensim model. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 19(6), 1941−1949. DOI: 10.1007/s12205-014-0570-7.10.1007/s12205-014-0570-7 Search in Google Scholar

Allami, M.H.M., Whelan, M.J., Boom, A. & Harper D.M. (2021). Ammonia removal in free-surface constructed wetlands employing synthetic floating islands. Baghdad Science Journal, 18(2), 253‒267. DOI: 10.21123/bsj.2021.18.2.0253.10.21123/bsj.2021.18.2.0253 Search in Google Scholar

Al Obaidy, A.M.J. & Lami M.H.M. (2014). The toxic effects of crude oil in some freshwater cyanobacteria. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5(5), 359‒367. DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.55039.10.4236/jep.2014.55039 Search in Google Scholar

Al Obaidy, A.M.J., Lami, M.H.M. & Al-Janabi Z.Z. (2017). Crude oil removal via isolated cyanobacteria in presence of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. Desalination and Water Treatment, 88, 230‒234. DOI: 10.5004/dwt.2017.21400.10.5004/dwt.2017.21400 Search in Google Scholar

Andersson, J.L., Bastviken, S.K. & Tonderski K.S. (2005). Free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment in Sweden – nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Water Sci. Technol., 51(9), 39‒46. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2005.0283.10.2166/wst.2005.0283 Search in Google Scholar

Anthonisen, A., Loehr, R., Prakasam, T. & Srinath E. (1976). Inhibition of nitrification by ammonia and nitrous acid. Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), 48(5), 835−852. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25038971. Search in Google Scholar

Boltz, J.P., Smets, B.F., Rittmann, B.E., Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Morgen-roth, E. & Daigger G.T. (2017). From biofilm ecology to reactors: A focused review. Water Sci. Technol., 75(8), 1753‒1760. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2017.061.10.2166/wst.2017.06128452767 Search in Google Scholar

Borne, K.E., Fassman, E.A. & Tanner C.C. (2013). Floating treatment wetland retrofit to improve stormwater pond performance for suspended solids, copper and zinc. Ecological Engineering, 54, 173−182. DOI10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.01.031.10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.01.031 Search in Google Scholar

Cervantes, F.J. (2009). Environmental technologies to treat nitrogen pollution: Principles and engineering. London: IWA Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

Chapman, B.D., Schleicher, M., Beuger, A., Gostomski, P. & Thiele J.H. (2006). Improved methods for the cultivation of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. J. Microbiol. Methods, 65(1), 96−106. DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2005.06.013.10.1016/j.mimet.2005.06.01316085327 Search in Google Scholar

Cheeseman, R., Wilson, A.L. & Gardner M.J. (1989). A manual of analytical quality control for the water industry. Marlow, Buckinghamshire: Water Research Centre. Search in Google Scholar

Chen, S., Ling, J. & Blancheton J.P. (2006). Nitrification kinetics of biofilm as affected by water quality factors. Aquac. Eng., 34(3), 179−197. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2005.09.004.10.1016/j.aquaeng.2005.09.004 Search in Google Scholar

Ciudad, G., Rubilar, O., Muñoz, P., Ruiz, G., Chamy, R., Vergara, C. & Jeison D. (2005). Partial nitrification of high ammonia concentration waste-water as a part of a shortcut biological nitrogen removal process. Process Biochem., 40(5), 1715‒1719. DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.058.10.1016/j.procbio.2004.06.058 Search in Google Scholar

Costerton, J.W., Lewandowski, Z., DeBeer, D., Caldwell, D., Korber, D. & James G. (1994). Biofilms, the customized microniche. J. Bacteriol., 176(8), 2137−2142.10.1128/jb.176.8.2137-2142.1994 Search in Google Scholar

Daalkhaijav, U. & Nemati M. (2014). Ammonia loading rate: An effective variable to control partial nitrification and generate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation influent. Environ. Technol., 35(5), 523−531. DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2013.796006.10.1080/09593330.2013.796006 Search in Google Scholar

EPA (1993). Methods for the determination of inorganic substances in environmental samples. Cincinnati: US Environmental Protection Agency. Search in Google Scholar

Faulwetter, J.L., Burr, M.D., Cunningham, A.B., Stewart, F.M., Camper, A.K. & Stein O.R. (2011). Floating treatment wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment. Water Sci. Technol., 64(10), 2089−2095. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.576.10.2166/wst.2011.576 Search in Google Scholar

Field, A., Miles, J. & Field Z. (2012). Discovering Statistics Using R. SAGE Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Finnegan, C.J., van Egmond, R.A., Price, O.R. & Whelan M.J. (2009). Continuous-flow laboratory simulation of stream water quality changes downstream of an untreated wastewater discharge. Water Res., 43(7), 1993−2001. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.01.031.10.1016/j.watres.2009.01.031 Search in Google Scholar

Hargreaves, J.A. (1998). Nitrogen biogeochemistry of aquaculture ponds. Aquaculture, 166(3−4), 181−212. DOI: 10.1016/s0044-8486(98)00298-1.10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00298-1 Search in Google Scholar

Headley, T.R. & Tanner C.C. (2006). Application of floating wetlands for Enhanced Stormwater Treatment: A review. Hamilton: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Ltd. Search in Google Scholar

Ijaz, A., Shabir, G., Khan, Q.M. & Afzal M. (2015). Enhanced remediation of sewage effluent by endophyte-assisted floating treatment wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 84, 58−66. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.07.025.10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.07.025 Search in Google Scholar

Kadlec, R.H. & Wallace S.D. (2009). Treatment wetlands. New York: CRC Press. Search in Google Scholar

Karri, R.R., Sahu, J.N. & Chimmiri V. (2018). Critical review of abatement of ammonia from wastewater. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 261, 21−31. DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2018.03.120.10.1016/j.molliq.2018.03.120 Search in Google Scholar

Lin, Y.-F., Jing, S.-R., Lee, D.-Y. & Wang T.-W. (2002). Nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater using a constructed wetlands system. Aquaculture, 209(1), 169−184. DOI: DOI: 10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00801-8.10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00801-8 Search in Google Scholar

Mackay, D. (2001). Multimedia environmental models: The fugacity approach. CRC Press. Search in Google Scholar

Maksimova, Y.G. (2014). Microbial biofilms in biotechnological processes. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, 50(8), 750−760. DOI: 10.1134/s0003683814080043.10.1134/S0003683814080043 Search in Google Scholar

Park, S., Bae, W. & Rittmann B.E. (2010). Operational boundaries for nitrite accumulation in nitrification based on minimum/maximum substrate concentrations that include effects of oxygen limitation, pH, and free ammonia and free nitrous acid inhibition. Environ. Sci. Technol., 44(1), 335−342. DOI: 10.1021/es9024244.10.1021/es902424420039752 Search in Google Scholar

Park, S., Chung, J., Rittmann, B.E. & Bae W. (2015). Nitrite accumulation from simultaneous free-ammonia and free-nitrous-acid inhibition and oxygen limitation in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 112(1), 43−52. DOI: 10.1002/bit.25326.10.1002/bit.25326 Search in Google Scholar

Peng, Y. & Zhu G. (2006). Biological nitrogen removal with nitrification and denitrification via nitrite pathway. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 73(1), 15‒26. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-006-0534-z.10.1007/s00253-006-0534-z Search in Google Scholar

Philips, S., Laanbroek, H.J. & Verstraete W. (2002). Origin, causes and effects of increased nitrite concentrations in aquatic environments. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 1(2), 115−141. DOI: 10.1023/a:1020892826575.10.1023/A:1020892826575 Search in Google Scholar

Qiao, S., Matsumoto, N., Shinohara, T., Nishiyama, T., Fujii, T., Bhatti, Z. & Furukawa K. (2010). High-rate partial nitrification performance of high ammonium containing wastewater under low temperatures. Biore-sour. Technol., 101(1), 111−117. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.003.10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.003 Search in Google Scholar

Rohatgi, V.K. & Saleh A.K.E. (2015). An introduction to probability and statistics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.10.1002/9781118799635 Search in Google Scholar

Rousseau, D.P., Vanrolleghem, P.A. & De Pauw N. (2004). Model-based design of horizontal subsurface flow constructed treatment wet-lands: a review. Water Res., 38(6), 1484−1493. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.013.10.1016/j.watres.2003.12.013 Search in Google Scholar

Ruiz, G., Jeison, D. & Chamy R. (2003). Nitrification with high nitrite accumulation for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonia concentration. Water Res., 37(6), 1371−1377. DOI: 10.1016/s0043-1354(02)00475-x.10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00475-X Search in Google Scholar

Safwat, S.M. (2018). Performance of moving bed biofilm reactor using effective microorganisms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 185, 723−731. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.041.10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.041 Search in Google Scholar

SEAL Analytical (2011). Nitrate-N+Nitrite-N in drinking and surface waters, domestic and industerial wastes. SEAL Analytical. Search in Google Scholar

SEAL Analytical (2013). Nitrite–N in drinking waters, treated waste waters, ground and surface waters. SEAL Analytical. Search in Google Scholar

SEAL Analytical (2015). Ammonia–N in drinking and surface waters, domestic and industrial wastes. SEAL Analytical. Search in Google Scholar

Shahot, K., Idris, A., Omar, R. & Yusoff H.M. (2014). Review on biofilm processes for wastewater treatment. Life Sci., 11(11), 1−13. Search in Google Scholar

Stepanova, L.P., Pisareva, A.V. & Raskatov V.A. (2021). Assessment of the state of soils microbial community in condition of intensive influence of pollutants. Ekológia (Bratislava), 40(1), 8‒15. DOI: 10.2478/eko-2021-0002.10.2478/eko-2021-0002 Search in Google Scholar

Stewart, F.M., Mulholland, T., Cunningham, A.B., Kania, B.G. & Osterlund M.T. (2008). Floating islands as an alternative to constructed wetlands for treatment of excess nutrients from agricultural and municipal wastes - Results of laboratory-scale tests. Land Contamination and Reclamation, 16(1), 25−33. DOI: 10.2462/09670513.874.10.2462/09670513.874 Search in Google Scholar

Sun, H., Peng, Y., Wang, S. & Ma J. (2015). Achieving nitritation at low temperatures using free ammonia inhibition on Nitrobacter and real-time control in an SBR treating landfill leachate. J. Environ. Sci. (China), 30, 157−163. DOI: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.09.029.10.1016/j.jes.2014.09.02925872722 Search in Google Scholar

Tanner, C.C. & Headley T.R. (2011). Components of floating emergent macrophyte treatment wetlands influencing removal of stormwater pollutants. Ecological Engineering, 37(3), 474−486. DOI: 10.1016/j. ecoleng.2010.12.012. Search in Google Scholar

Vadivelu, V.M., Keller, J. & Yuan Z. (2007). Effect of free ammonia on the respiration and growth processes of an enriched Nitrobacter culture. Water Res., 41(4), 826−834. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2006.11.030.10.1016/j.watres.2006.11.03017224173 Search in Google Scholar

Van Hulle, S.W.H., Vandeweyer, H.J.P., Meesschaert, B.D., Vanrolleghem, P.A., Dejans, P. & Dumoulin A. (2010). Engineering aspects and practical application of autotrophic nitrogen removal from nitrogen rich streams. Chem. Eng. J., 162(1), 1‒20. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2010.05.037.10.1016/j.cej.2010.05.037 Search in Google Scholar

Vázquez-Burney, R., Bays, J., Messer, R. & Harris J. (2015). Floating wet-land islands as a method of nitrogen mass reduction: Results of a 1 year test. Water Sci. Technol., 72(5), 704−710. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2015.235.10.2166/wst.2015.23526287828 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, J.-M., Gao, M.-Y., Xie, H.-J., Zhang, J. & Hu Z. (2015). Application of biological island grids in wastewater treatment and its microbial mechanisms. Desalination and Water Treatment, 54(10), 2731−2738. DOI: 10.1080/19443994.2014.906322.10.1080/19443994.2014.906322 Search in Google Scholar

Whelan, M.J., Everitt, T. & Villa R. (2010). A mass transfer model of ammonia volatilisation from anaerobic digestate. Waste Manag., 30(10), 1808−1812. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.08.012.10.1016/j.wasman.2009.08.01219781929 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, L., Zhao, J., Cui, N., Dai, Y., Kong, L., Wu, J. & Cheng S. (2016). Enhancing the water purification efficiency of a floating treatment wet-land using a biofilm carrier. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 23(8), 7437−7443. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-015-5873-9.10.1007/s11356-015-5873-926697862 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo